Finance:Joint decision trap
The joint decision trap was identified by the political scientist, Fritz W. Scharpf in a 1988 scholarly article, Scharpf, Fritz W. (1988). The Joint-Decision Trap. Lessons From German Federalism and European Integration. Public Administration, Vol. 66, No. 2. pp. 239–78.  It is understood to be a situation in which there is a tendency for government decisions to be taken at the lowest common denominator in situations where the decision-makers have the ability to veto the proposals. It is a common challenge for federal governments such as Germany and the European Union.
- Anticipatory thinking
- Scharpf, Fritz W. (1988). "The Joint-Decision Trap: Lessons from German Federalism and European integration". Public Administration 66 (3): 239–278. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.1988.tb00694.x.
- "The Joint-Decision Trap Revisited". London School of Economics. http://www2.lse.ac.uk/europeanInstitute/events/EventsArchive/Seminal%20Contributions/FritzScharpf.doc. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Introduction: The EU's Decision Traps and their Exits, A Concept for Comparative Analysis". http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/13/9780199596225.pdf. Retrieved 14 August 2012. by Gerda Falkner
- "Who governs the environmental policy in the EU? A study of the process towards a common climate target". Cicero. http://www.cicero.uio.no/publications/detail.aspx?publication_id=50&lang=NO. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- Peter F. Drucker; Harvard Business Review on Decision Making (2001); ISBN:1-57851-557-2
- John S. Hammond; Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Decisions (2002); ISBN:0-7679-0886-4
- Edward Russo, Paul J.H. Schoemaker; Decision Traps (1990) ISBN:0-385-24835-0
- Paul J.H. Schoemaker; Winning Decisions: Getting It Right the First Time (2001); ISBN:0-7499-2285-0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint decision trap was the original source. Read more.