Astronomy:Chinese star maps

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Rubbing of the Suchow star chart

Chinese star maps (Chinese: s , t , xīngtú) are usually directional or graphical representations of Chinese astronomical alignments. Throughout the history of China, numerous star maps have been recorded. This page is intended to list or show the best available version of each star map. Star catalogs are also listed. For academic purposes, related star maps found in East Asia outside China are also listed.

List of star maps

Map or catalog Creator Time created Contents links
M45 Fuxi Star Map (伏羲星图) c. 4000 BC Found on a mural in a Neolithic tomb in Xishuipo (西水坡), Puyang, Henan. Clam shells arranged in the shape of the Big Dipper in the North and below the foot, Tiger in the West and Azure Dragon in the East. Also showing Five Stars. [citation needed]
Wu Xian Star Map (商巫咸星圖) Wu Xian c. 1000 BC Contained 44 Central and Outer constellations totalling 141 stars [citation needed]
Lacquer box from Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng 5th century BC Indicated location of Big Dipper and 28 Constellations by characters [1]
Astronomic star observation
(天文星占 Tianwen xingzhan)
Gan De 475-221 BC Contained 75 Central Constellation and 42 Outer Constellations, some said 510 stars in 18 Constellations [citation needed]
Shi Shen astronomy
(石申天文 Shi Shen Tianwen)
aka. (石氏星经 Shi Shi Xing Jing)
Shi Shen c. 350 BC 138 Constellations and the name of 810 stars, location of 121 stars, some said it contains The 28 Lunar Ecliptic Constellations, 62 Central Constellations and 30 Outer Constellations [citation needed]
Comet Diagrams from Mawangdui
(彗星圖 Huixing Tu)
193 BC 29 different types of comets, also record and prediction of positions of Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus during 246–177 BC -
Five Star Prediction Device
168 BC Also an Equatorial Device [citation needed]
Equatorial Armillary Sphere
Luo Xiahong (落下閎) 104 BC lost reign of Emperor Wu of Han[citation needed]
Celestial Globe
Geng Shouchang (耿壽昌) 52 BC lost [citation needed]
First Ecliptic Armillary Sphere
(黄道仪 Huang Dao Yi)
Jia Kui (贾逵) 30–101 AD - -
Star chart from Western Han tomb mural in Luoyang
c. 1st century Sun, Moon and ten other star charts -
Han Dynasty Nanyang Stone Engraving
(行雨图 Xing Yu Tu)
c. 1st century Depicted five stars forming a cross -
Huntianyi seismometer
Zhang Heng 117 AD - -
Sky Map
Hun Tian Yi Shuo
Lu Ji 187–219 AD - -
Reproduced Hun Tian Yi
and wrote
Hun Tian Xiang Shuo
Wang Fan 227–266 AD - -
Whole Sky Star Maps
(全天星圖 Quan Tian Xing Tu)
Chen Zhuo (陳卓) c. 270 AD A Unified Constellation System. Star maps containing 1464 stars in 284 Constellations, written astrology text -
Equatorial Armillary Sphere
(渾儀 Hun Xi)
Kong Ting (孔挺) 323 AD - -
Northern Wei Period Iron Armillary Sphere
Hu Lan (斛蘭) 436–440 AD -
Southern Dynasties Period Whole Sky Planetarium
(渾天象Hun Tian Xiang)
Qian Lezhi (錢樂之) 443 AD Used red, black and white to differentiate stars from different star maps from Shi Shen, Gan De and Wu Xian -
Northern Wei Grave Dome Star Map
526 AD About 300 stars, including the Big Dipper, some stars are linked by straight lines to form constellation. The Milky Way is also shown. -
Water-powered Planetarium
Geng Xun (耿詢) c. 7th century - -
Lingtai Miyuan
Yu Jicai (庾季才) and Zhou Fen (周墳) 604 AD incorporated star maps from different sources -
Tang Dynasty Whole Sky Ecliptic Armillary Sphere
Li Chunfeng (李淳風) 667 AD including Elliptic and Moon orbit, in addition to old equatorial design -
Turfan Tomb Star Mural
250–799 AD 28 Constellations, Milkyway and Five Stars [2][3]
Picture of Fuxi and Nüwa from the Astana Cemetery Tang Dynasty Picture of Fuxi and Nuwa together with some constellations [citation needed]
Tang Dynasty Armillary Sphere
(唐代渾儀Tang Dai Hun Xi)
(黃道遊儀Huang dao you xi)
Yi Xing and Liang Lingzan 683–727 AD based on Han Dynasty Celestial Globe, recalibrated locations of 150 stars, determined that stars are moving -
Tang Dynasty Indian Horoscope Chart
Yi Xing 683–727 AD simple diagrams of the 28 Constellation [4]
Kitora Kofun 法隆寺 キトラ古墳 in Japan c. late 7th century – early 8th century Detailed whole sky map [5][6]
Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era Gautama Siddha 713 AD – Collection of the three old star charts from Shi Shen, Gan De and Wu Xian. One of the most renowned collection recognized academically. -
Big Dipper
showing stars in Big Dipper [7]
Prajvalonisa Vjrabhairava Padvinasa-sri-dharani Scroll found in Japan 熾盛光佛頂大威德銷災吉祥陀羅尼經卷首扉畫 972 AD Chinese 28 Constellations and Western Zodiac -
Tangut Khara-Khoto Star Map (西夏黑水城星圖) 940 AD A typical Qian Lezhi Style Star Map -
Star Chart 五代吳越文穆王前元瓘墓石刻星象圖 941–960 AD - [8]
Ancient Star Map 先天图 Chen Tuan c. 11th century Perhaps based on studying of Puyong Ancient Star Map Lost
Song Dynasty Bronze Armillary Sphere 北宋至道銅渾儀 Han Xianfu (韓顯符) 1006 Similar to the Simplified Armillary by Kong Ting 孔挺, 晁崇 Chao Chong, 斛蘭 Hu Lan -
Song Dynasty Bronze Armillary Sphere (北宋天文院黄道渾儀) Shu Yijian (舒易簡), Yu Yuan (于渊), and Zhou Cong (周琮) 宋皇祐年中 Similar to the Armillary by Tang Dynasty Liang Lingzan and Yi Xing -
Song Dynasty Armillary Sphere (北宋簡化渾儀) Shen Kuo and Huangfu Yu (皇甫愈) 1089 Simplied version of Tang Dynasty Device, removed the rarely used moon orbit. -
Five Star Charts (新儀象法要) Su Song 1094 1464 stars grouped into 283 asterisms [9]
Song Dynasty Water-powered Planetarium (宋代 水运仪象台) Su Song and Han Gonglian (韩公廉) c. 11th century - [10]
Liao Dynasty Tomb Dome Star Map (遼宣化张世卿墓頂星圖) 1116 shown both the Chinese 28 Constellation encircled by Babylonian Zodiac [12]
Star Map in a woman's grave (江西德安 南宋周氏墓星相图) 1127–1279 Milky Way and 57 other stars. -
Suzhou Star Chart (蘇州石刻天文圖, 淳祐天文図) Huang Shang (黃裳) created in 1193, etched to stone in 1247 by Wang Zhiyuan (王致遠) The chart shows 1434 Stars grouped into 280 asterisms; the accompanying text, supposedly a key to the chart, lists 1,565 stars in 283 asterisms. [14][15][16][17]
Yuan Dynasty Simplified Armillary Sphere 元代簡儀 Guo Shoujing 1276–1279 Further simplied version of Song Dynasty Device [18]
Japanese Star Chart (格子月進図) 1324 Similar to Su Song Star Chart, original burned in air raids during World War II, only pictures left. Reprinted in 1984 by Eiji Sasaki -
天象列次分野之図(Cheonsang Yeolcha Bunyajido) 1395 Korean versions of Star Map in Stone. It was made in Chosun Dynasty and the constellation names were written in Chinese letter. -
Japanese Star Chart 瀧谷寺 天之図 c. 14th or 15th centuries - -
Korean King Sejong's Armillary sphere 1433 - [19]
Star Chart Mao Kun (茅坤) c. 1422 Polaris compared with Southern Cross and Alpha Centauri :zh:郑和航海图
Ming Ancient Star Chart 北京隆福寺(古星圖) c. 1453 1420 Stars, possibly based on old star maps from Tang Dynasty -
Chanshu Star Chart (明常熟石刻天文圖) 1506 Based on Suzhou Star Chart, Northern Sky observed at 36.8 degrees North Latitude, 1466 stars grouped into 284 asterism -
Ming Dynasty Star Map (渾蓋通憲圖說) Matteo Ricci, recorded by Li Zhizao c. 1550 - [20]
Tian Wun Tu (天问图) Xiao Yuncong 萧云从 c. 1600 Contained mapping of 12 constellations and 12 animals [21]
Zhou Tian Xuan Ji Tu (周天璇玑图) and He He Si Xiang Tu (和合四象圖) in Xingming guizhi | by 尹真人高第弟子 published by 余永宁 1615 Drawings of Armillary Sphere and four Chinese Celestial Animals with some notes. Related to Taoism. -
Korean Astronomy Book "Selected and Systematized Astronomy Notes" 天文類抄 1623~1649 Contained some star maps -
Ming Dynasty General Star Map (赤道南北兩總星圖) Xu Guangqi and Adam Schall von Bell 1634 - -
Ming Dynasty diagrams of Armillary spheres and Celestial Globes Xu Guangqi c. 1699 - -
Ming Dynasty Planetarium Machine (渾象 Hui Xiang) c. 17th century Ecliptic, Equator, and dividers of 28 constellation [22]
Copper Plate Star Map stored in Korea 1652 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天象列次之図 Harumi Shibukawa 渋川春海 1670 - -
The Celestial Globe 天體儀 Ferdinand Verbiest 1673 1876 stars grouped into 282 asterisms [23]
Picture depicted Song Dynasty fictional astronomer (呉用 Wu Yong) with a Celestial Globe (天體儀) Japanese painter 1675 showing top portion of a Celestial Globe File:Chinese astronomer 1675.jpg
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天文分野之図 Harumi Shibukawa 1677 - [25][26]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天文図解 井口常範 1689 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 古暦便覧備考 苗村丈伯 1692 - -
Japanese star chart Harumi Yasui 1699 A Japanese star chart of 1699 showing lunar stations [27]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天文成象Tian Wen Cheng xiang 渋川昔尹 1699 including Stars from Wu Shien (44 Constellation, 144 stars) in yellow; Gan De (118 Constellations, 511 stars) in black; Shi Shen (138 Constellations, 810 stars) in red and Harumi Shibukawa (61 Constellations, 308 stars) in blue; [30]
Japanese Star Chart 改正天文図説 unknown Included stars from Harumi Shibukawa [32]
Korean Star Map Stone c. 17th century - -
Korean Star Map c. 17th century - -
Ceramic Ink Sink Cover c. 17th century Showing Big Dipper [33]
Korean Star Map Cube 方星圖 Philippus Maria Grimardi c. early 18th century - -
Star Chart preserved in Japan based on a book from China 天経或問 You Ziliu 游子六 1730 A Northern Sky Chart in Chinese -
Star Chart 清蒙文石刻(欽天監繪製天文圖) in Mongolia 1727–1732 1550 stars grouped into 270 starisms. -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天経或問註解図巻 下 入江脩敬 1750 - -
Reproduction of an ancient device 璇璣玉衡 Dai Zhen 1723–1777 AD based on ancient record and his own interpretation -
Rock Star Chart 清代天文石 c. 18th century A Star Chart and general Astronomy Text -
Korean Complete Star Map (渾天全圖) c. 18th century - -
Qing Dynasty Star Catalog (儀象考成,仪象考成)恒星表 and Star Map 黄道南北両星総図 Yun Lu 允禄 and Ignaz Kögler Device made in 1744, book completed in 1757 300 Constellations and 3083 Stars. Referenced Star Catalogue published by John Flamsteed -
Jingban Tianwen Quantu Ma Junliang 马俊良 1780–90 mapping nations to the sky [34]
Japanese Edo period Illustration of a Star Measuring Device 平天儀図解 岩橋善兵衛 1802 - -
North Sky Map Huang Dao Zhong Xi He Tu (黄道中西合图) Xu Choujun 徐朝俊 1807 More than 1000 stars and the 28 constellation [35]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天象総星之図 朝野北水 1814 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 新制天球星象記 田中政均 1815 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天球図 坂部廣胖 1816 - -
Chinese Star map John Reeves esq 1819 Printed map showing Chinese names of stars and constellations [36]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 昊天図説詳解 佐藤祐之 1824 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 星図歩天歌 小島好謙 and 鈴木世孝 1824 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 鈴木世孝 1824 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天象管鈔 天体図 (天文星象図解) 長久保赤水 1824 - [32]
Japanese Edo period Star Measuring Device 中星儀 足立信順 1824 - -
Japanese Star Map 天象一覧図 in Kanji 桜田虎門 1824 Printed map showing Chinese names of stars and constellations -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 方円星図, 方圓星図 and 増補分度星図方図 石坂常堅 1826 - -  
Japanese Star Chart 伊能忠誨 c. 19th century - -  
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天球図説 古筆源了材 1835 - -
Qing Dynasty Star Catalog (儀象考成續編)星表 1844 Appendix to Yi Xian Kao Cheng, listed 3240 stars (added 163, removed 6) [37]
Stars map (恒星赤道経緯度図) stored in Japan 1844 or 1848 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 経緯簡儀用法 藤岡有貞 1845 - -
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 分野星図 高塚福昌, 阿部比輔, 上条景弘 1849 - -
Japanese Late Edo period Star Chart 天文図屏風 遠藤盛俊 late Edo Period - -
Japanese Star Chart 天体図 三浦梅園 - - -
Stars South of Equator, Stars North of Equator (赤道南恆星圖,赤道北恆星圖) 1875–1908 Similar to Ming Dynasty General Star Map -
Fuxi 64 gua 28 xu wood carving 天水市卦台山伏羲六十四卦二十八宿全图 modern - -

See also


  1. "Image: c-stars.jpg, (640 × 418 px)". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  2. "Image: 2005123193619142.gif, (371 × 460 px)". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  3. "伏羲墓殉人考_龙坛凤声_龙坛凤声_中华龙凤文化". Retrieved April 23, 2015. 
  4. CBETA T21 No. 1311 梵天火羅九曜 第1卷 | CBETA 漢文大藏經 . Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  6. "キトラ古墳の星宿図". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  7. Big dipper Taiwan. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  8. AEEA ¤Ñ¤å±Ð¨|¸ê°Tºô. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  9. AEEA ¤Ñ¤å±Ð¨|¸ê°Tºô. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  10. Öйú¹Å´úÌìÎÄÒÇÆ÷. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  11. [1]
  12. [2] [|permanent dead link|dead link}}]
  13. "Image: 2005123193751192.gif, (400 × 715 px)". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  14. Ancient Chinese Celestial Charts . Retrieved on December 2, 2011
  15. "Episode II-Chinese Astrology". Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2015. 
  16. [3]
  17. "Image: 2005123193231686.gif, (527 × 400 px)". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  18. 科學館展覽計畫 . Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  19. Korean History – Early Choson Period. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  20. 渾蓋通憲圖說簡平儀說合編-星命經典大系13 . Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  21. "Image: W020080814306866813878.jpg, (260 × 414 px)". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  22. ¤¤°ê¥j¤Ñ¤å¦¨´N®i . Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  23. 科學館展覽計畫 . Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  24. Celestial Globe – 天体仪 – Chinese Astronomy – 中国天文学 – History -历史 . Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  25. 科学史展示室. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  26. (in Japanese) 天文分野之圖. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  27. "WebCite query result". Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  28. Star Charts and Moon Stations .. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  29. Moon Station Figures for The Sky Level IV Version 5 .. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  30. "b62s0001.html". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  31. 天文成象 / 保井春海Bao Jing chun Mei [著] ; 保井昔尹Bao Jing xi Yin [編]. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 貴重資料-NAOJ Library. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  33. CCTV-国家地理-百件精品2004. (2005-01-21). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  34. "+ theTitle +". Retrieved October 10, 2015. 
  35. 罕见的古代星象图现身[图文]. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  36. "Chinese planisphere with pamphlet, 1819". Science Museum London. Retrieved May 11, 2020. 
  37. 《欽定儀象考成續編》 (圖書館) – 中國哲學書電子化計劃. (2011-07-06). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.

External links

List of Japanese star charts from 17th–19th century and their storage locations. Also listed are some copies of Chinese star maps

ko:동아시아의 별자리