Biology:Revelation 22

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Revelation 22 is the twenty-second and final chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John, and the final chapter of the New Testament and of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle.[1][2][3] This chapter contains the accounts of the throne of God in the New Jerusalem, the conversation between John and the Angel and the epilogue of the book.[4]


The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 21 verses.

Textual witnesses

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are among others:[5][lower-alpha 1]

  • Codex Sinaiticus (330-360)
  • Codex Alexandrinus (400-440)

Old Testament references

New Testament references

References to Jesus

Greek letters alpha and omega

Verse 13

I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last.[8]
  • Cross reference: Revelation 21:6
  • "The Beginning and the End, the First and the Last" (KJV; NKJV): NU and M[lower-alpha 2] read "First and the Last, the Beginning and the End".[9]

Verse 14

Blessed are those who wash their robes. They will be permitted to enter through the gates of the city and eat the fruit from the tree of life.[10]

Verse 15

Outside the city are the dogs—the sorcerers, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idol worshipers, and all who love to live a lie. [11]

Verse 16

"I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things in the churches.
I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright and Morning Star."[12]

See also


  1. The Book of Revelation is missing from Codex Vaticanus,[6] and this chapter is missing from Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus.
  2. NU: 'the 27th edition of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament' and 'the 4th edition United Bible Societies'; M: 'the Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text'.


  1. Davids, Peter H (1982). I Howard Marshall and W Ward Gasque. ed. New International Greek Testament Commentary: The Epistle of James (Repr. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0802823882. 
  2. Evans, Craig A (2005). Craig A Evans. ed. Bible Knowledge Bac kground Commentary: John, Hebrews-Revelation. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Victor. ISBN 0781442281. 
  3. F. L. Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 45
  4. Bauckham 2007, p. 1289.
  5. Elliott, J. K., "Revelations from the apparatus criticus of the Book of Revelation: How Textual Criticism Can Help Historians." Union Seminary Quarterly Review 63, no. 3-4 (2012): 1-23.
  6. Claremont Coptic Encyclopaedia, Codex Vaticanus, accessed 29 September 2018
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 "Biblical concordances of Revelation 22 in the 1611 King James Bible". 
  8. Revelation 22:13 NKJV
  9. Note [f] on Revelation 22:13 in NKJV
  10. Revelation 22:14 NLT
  11. Revelation 22:15 NLT
  12. Revelation 22:16 NKJV


External links