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Short description: Genus of virus

Transmission electron micrographs of negatively-stained extra small virus species Macrobrachium satellite virus 1; bar = 50 nm
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Family: Sarthroviridae
Genus: Macronovirus
  • Macrobrachium satellite virus 1

Macronovirus is the only genus of the family Sarthroviridae and only contains the species Macrobrachium satellite virus 1[1]

It is found in The French West Indies, Thailand, Taiwan, China , and India .[2]


The genus name, Macronovirus, is a combination of Macro, from type species host Macrobrachium rosenbergii and no, from helper virus nodavirus.[2]

The family name, Sarthroviridae, is a combination of S, from Small and arthro, from host arthropoda.[3]


Macronovirus's cell tropism is muscle and connective cells of diseased animals, and its natural hosts are arthropods[3]


The virion Macrobrachium satellite virus 1 has a genome consisting of linear single-stranded RNA of positive polarity, 0.8kb in size, with two genes. This encodes two capsid proteins, CP-17 and CP-16. The virion is non-enveloped, spherical, with a capsid of about 15 nm with icosahedral symmetry. The virion is constructed from two capsid proteins CP-17 and CP-16. It has a Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome.[2]

Gene expression

The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and viral messenger RNA.[2]


Its replication is cytoplasmic, and has 8 steps.[2]

  1. Attachement to host receptors mediates entry into the host cell.
  2. Uncoating, and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cytoplasm.
  3. Viral RNA is translated in a polyprotein to produce replication proteins.
  4. Replication by helper virus occurs in viral factories made of membrane vesicles derived from the ER. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Expression of the capsid proteins.
  7. Assembly of new virus particles.
  8. Virus release.


Whitish muscle disease, which develops in post-larvae of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and is caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associate Macrobrachium satellite virus 1. Main symptom is a whitish appearance of the muscles, particularly noticeable in the abdomen. Mortalities can reach 100%.[2]


  1. "Virus Taxonomy: 2022 Release" (in en). 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Macronovirus ~ ViralZone report" (in en).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Sarthroviridae ~ ViralZone report" (in en).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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