Medicine:Tongue training

From HandWiki
Short description: Technique used to encourage proper tongue motion
Tongue training is a technique used to encourage proper tongue motion. Tongue training is used to treat individuals suffering from Ankyloglossia (the "tongue tied" medical condition) and other tongue dysfunctions.[1] It is important for individuals suffering from orofacial myological disorders. Tongue training is a method used to teach the correct accent of any language.[2][3]

Brazil is the only country to have legislated a state law requiring a tongue evaluation to be performed for each newborn as a screening test (“teste da linguine” under Law 13.002 / 2014).

Tongue malfunction

Appropriate motion and strength of the tongue are vital for eating, swallowing, and breathing. Tongue motion plays a fundamental role in the development of oral and facial structures, as insufficient tongue motion may cause many body malfunctions.[4][5][6]

Many tongue malfunctions are not diagnosed at the newborn stage, which can have significant consequences in later life, such as:[7][8][9][10]

  • Breastfeeding difficulties
  • Palate abnormalities
  • Colic
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Altered breathing patterns
  • Altered sleep patterns resulting in poor sleep quality
  • Sleep apnea
  • Swallowing difficulties
  • Otitis / Ear Infection
  • Impaired speech
  • Postural issues
  • Neck pain
  • Dental issues
  • TMJ problems


Historically, in many cultures, physicians have performed tongue releases for babies with significant benefits.[11][12][13][14] Various protocols exist for diagnosing and treating tongue malfunctions.

The protocol depends on the caregiver's profession and the patient's age.[1][14]

Studies show that passive and active tongue exercises are required to improve tongue motion. Tongue training is an encouragement or neuromuscular re-education, which helps strengthen tongue muscle. This is critical for a positive prognosis post-frenectomy.[9][8][1]

It is now standard that when a sub-functional tongue is diagnosed, even in infants, the caregiver recommends tongue exercises, before a referral for a frenectomy, as well as after the procedure. This conditions the baby and the parent/caretaker, and begins to "fire and wire the muscles to help overall tone and strength” of the tongue.[9]

In addition to the standard tongue training protocol for a diagnosed sub-functional tongue using methods and tools enable comfortable, pleasant and practical tongue training, lead caregivers recommend that each newborn receive a tongue training of two weeks accompanied by professional guidance.[citation needed]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Multidisciplinary management of ankyloglossia in childhood.". 
  2. "Tongue Training: How to Perfect an Accent | Language Trainers UK Blog" (in en-US). 
  3. Mizuhashi, F.; Takahashi, M.; Koide, K.; Arakawa, I. (2015-06-01). "Effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions in normal adults – Part 1 investigation of tongue pressure and labial closure strength" (in en). Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 42 (6): 407–413. doi:10.1111/joor.12271. ISSN 1365-2842. PMID 25640889. 
  4. Martinelli, Roberta; Marachesan, Irene; Berretin-Felix, Giedre (2012). "Lingual frenulum protocol with scores for infants". International Journal of Orofacial Myology 38 (1): 104–112. doi:10.52010/IJOM.2012.38.1.8. PMID 23362754. 
  5. Queiroz Marchesan, I. (2004). "Lingual frenulum: Classification and speech interference". The International Journal of Orofacial Myology 30: 31–8. PMID 15832860. 
  6. Sánchez-Molins, M.; Grau Carbó, J.; Lischeid Gaig, C.; Ustrell Torrent, J. M. (2010). "Sánchez-Molins M., Grau Carbó C., Lischeid Gaig C., Ustrell Torrent JM. Comparative study of the craniofacial growth depending on the type of lactation received. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2010; 11:87-92". European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 11 (2): 87–92. PMID 20635843. 
  7. Merdad, Hisham; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina (September 2010). "Ankyloglossia may Cause Breastfeeding, Tongue Mobility, and Speech Difficulties, with Inconclusive Results on Treatment Choices". Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice 10 (3): 152–153. doi:10.1016/j.jebdp.2010.05.009. PMID 20797658. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ferrés-Amat, E.; Pastor-Vera, T.; Rodriguez-Alessi, P.; Ferrés-Amat, E.; Mareque-Bueno, J.; Ferrés-Padró, E. (2017). "E. Ferrés-Amat, T. Pastor-Vera, P. Rodriguez-Alessi, E. Ferrés-Amat, J. Mareque-Bueno, E. Ferrés-Padró (2017) The prevalence of ankyloglossia in 302 newborns with breastfeeding problems and sucking difficulties in Barcelona: a descriptive study. European Journal of paediatric dentistry vol. 18/4-2017". European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 18 (4): 319–325. doi:10.23804/ejpd.2017.18.04.10. PMID 29380619. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Baxter R. et Al (2018) Tongue-tied: How a tiny string under the tongue impacts nursing, speech, feeding and more. Alabama Tongue-Tie Center. 
  10. Yoon, A. J.; Zaghi, S.; Ha, S.; Law, C. S.; Guilleminault, C.; Liu, S. Y. (2017). "Yoon A, Zaghi S, Ha S, Law C, Guilleminault C, Liu S. Ankyloglossia as a risk factor for maxillary hypoplasia and soft palate elongation: A functional–morphological study.". Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research 20 (4): 237–244. doi:10.1111/ocr.12206. PMID 28994495. 
  11. Dollberg, S.; Botzer, E.; Grunis, E.; Mimouni, F. B. (2006). "S. Dollberg, E. Botzer et al., Immediate nipple pain relief after frenotomy in breast-fed infants with ankyloglossia: a randomized, prospective study". Journal of Pediatric Surgery 41 (9): 1598–600. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.05.024. PMID 16952598. 
  12. Billington, J.; Yardley, I.; Upadhyaya, M. (February 2018). "J. Billington et al. Long-term efficacy of a tongue tie service in improving breast feeding rates: A prospective study". Journal of Pediatric Surgery 53 (2): 286–288. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.11.014. PMID 29248165. 
  13. Shope, Timothy; Bloom, David; Buryk, Melissa (August 2011). "Buryk M et al. Efficacy of neonatal release of Ankyloglossia: a randomized trial". Pediatrics 128 (2): 280–288. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0077. PMID 21768318. Retrieved 2018-11-28. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Villa, M. P.; Evangelisti, M.; Martella, S.; Barreto, M.; Del Pozzo, M. (2017). "Villa, M.P., Evangelisti, M., Martella, S. et al. Can Myofunctional therapy increase tongue tone and reduce symptoms in children with sleep-disordered breathing? Sleep Breathing (2017) 21: 1025". Sleep & Breathing = Schlaf & Atmung 21 (4): 1025–1032. doi:10.1007/s11325-017-1489-2. PMID 28315149.