Organization:Discovery Institute intelligent design campaigns

From HandWiki
Short description: Campaigns which seek to promote intelligent design creationism

The Discovery Institute has conducted a series of related public relations campaigns which seek to promote intelligent design while attempting to discredit evolutionary biology, which the Institute terms "Darwinism".[1] The Discovery Institute promotes the pseudoscientific intelligent design movement and is represented by Creative Response Concepts, a public relations firm.[2]

Prominent Institute campaigns have been to 'Teach the Controversy' and to allow 'Critical Analysis of Evolution'. Other campaigns have claimed that intelligent design advocates (most notably Richard Sternberg) have been discriminated against, and thus that Academic Freedom bills are needed to protect academics' and teachers' ability to criticise evolution, and that the development of evolutionary theory was historically linked to ideologies such as Nazism and eugenics,[3][4][5] claims based on misrepresentation which have been ridiculed by topic experts.[6][7] These three claims are all publicized in the pro-ID movie Expelled; the Anti-Defamation League said the film's attempt to blame science for the Nazi Holocaust was outrageous.[8] Other campaigns have included petitions, most notably A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism.[9]

The theory of evolution is accepted by overwhelming scientific consensus.[10][11] Intelligent design has been rejected, both by the vast majority of scientists and by court findings, such as Kitzmiller v. Dover, as being a religious view and not science.

Goal of the campaigns

The overarching goal of the Institute in conducting the intelligent design campaigns is religious; to replace science with "a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions."[12][non-primary source needed] To accomplish this the Institute has conducted a number of public relations campaigns. The governing strategy of these various campaigns is called the Wedge strategy and was first made public when the Institute's "Wedge Document" was leaked on the World Wide Web in 1999.[13] The Discovery Institute argues that science, due to its reliance on naturalism, is an inherently materialistic and atheistic enterprise and thus the source of many of society's ills, and that "Design theory [intelligent design] promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview."[12]

None of the campaigns are aimed at directly influencing the scientific community, which the Institute considers dogmatic and hidebound, but rather are focused on swaying the opinions of the public and public policy makers, which, if effective, it is hoped will respond by forcing the academic institutions supporting the scientific community to accept the Discovery Institute's redefinition of science. Public high school science curricula has been the most common and visible target of the campaigns, with the Institute publishing its own model lesson plan, the Critical Analysis of Evolution.[citation needed]

In a Seattle Weekly article, Nina Shapiro quoted Institute founder and president Bruce Chapman when she wrote that behind all Discovery Institute programs there is an underlying hidden religious agenda:


[citation needed]

The Institute's approach has been to position itself as opposed to any required teaching intelligent design, while campaigns such as Teach the Controversy and Critical Analysis of Evolution introduce high school students to design arguments through the Discovery Institute-drafted lesson plans. Teach the Controversy and Free Speech on Evolution both require that "competing" or "alternative" "theories" to evolution to be presented while the Critical Analysis of Evolution model lesson plan fills that requirement by listing intelligent design books by Institute Fellows as such alternatives for students.[citation needed]


Campaign to "teach the controversy"

Previously, attempts to introduce creationism into public high school science curricula had been derailed when this was found to have violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. In an attempt to avoid repeating this violation, the Institute today avoids directly advocating for intelligent design in high school curricula.[citation needed] Instead, it advocates teaching methods that introduce intelligent design ideas (and textbooks) indirectly through a campaign to "Teach the Controversy" by portraying evolution as "a theory in crisis" and "presenting all the evidence, both for and against, evolution" and teaching "Critical Analysis of Evolution" (the name of the Institute's model lesson plans on the subject).[citation needed] The Discovery Institute describes their approach as:


Gordy Slack of Salon interpreted this tactic as: "the 'more' they want to teach, of course, is what they see as evolution's shortcomings, leaving an ecological niche that will then be filled by intelligent design."[14]

In 2001 Robert T. Pennock wrote that intelligent design proponents are "manufacturing dissent" in order to explain the absence of scientific debate of their claims: "The 'scientific' claims of such neo-creationists as Johnson, Denton, and Behe rely, in part, on the notion that these issues [surrounding evolution] are the subject of suppressed debate among biologists. ... according to neo-creationists, the apparent absence of this discussion and the nearly universal rejection of neo-creationist claims must be due to the conspiracy among professional biologists instead of a lack of scientific merit."[15]

These teaching methods were promoted by the Institute at the Kansas evolution hearings in 2005, but were the subject of judicial criticism later in that year in the decision in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District: "ID's backers have sought to avoid the scientific scrutiny which we have now determined that it cannot withstand by advocating that the controversy, but not ID itself, should be taught in science class. This tactic is at best disingenuous, and at worst a canard. The goal of the IDM is not to encourage critical thought, but to foment a revolution which would supplant evolutionary theory with ID."[16] The slogan "teach the controversy" has been increasingly superseded by the more oblique "Critical Analysis of Evolution".[citation needed]

Campaigns claiming discrimination

The claim that "scientists, teachers, and students are under attack for questioning evolution" and have been discriminated against,[17] is the centerpiece of a number of campaigns conducted by the Institute.[citation needed] Notable among these campaigns is the Sternberg peer review controversy and in the more recent case of Guillermo Gonzalez's denial of tenure.[further explanation needed] As part of a long term strategy the Institute actively promotes an image of intelligent design proponents suffering professional setbacks or failing to advance as victims of "Darwinist inquisitions" conducted by "Thought Police".[18][failed verification] Critics of intelligent design and the Institute such as PZ Myers, Eugenie Scott and Barbara Forrest frequently find themselves the subjects of unflattering articles on the Institute's blog which ignores or downplays the responses of large scientific and academic organizations rejecting intelligent design while portraying opponents as members of an academic and scientific fringe and minority.[17][19] Other methods employed by the Institute include what they term "Public Education"; described as exposing 'bigotry and intolerance' to 'public disapproval' often through the Institute's blog, "Personal Assistance"; described as "providing assistance in locating free legal representation from a network of concerned lawyers across the nation" and "investigations" and lobbying of officials by the Institute, "Legal Defense" and "Grassroots Action".[20]

Other purported instances of discrimination publicised by the Discovery Institute include:

  • philosopher Francis J. Beckwith's initial failure to gain tenure from Baylor University[citation needed];
  • biology teacher Roger DeHart's reassignment at, and later resignation from, Burlington-Edison High School for teaching intelligent design;[21]
  • Mississippi University for Women chemist Nancy Bryson, who was removed as head of the science and mathematics division, purportedly for giving a presentation entitled "Critical Thinking on Evolution", which claimed evidence for intelligent design in nature. After protests, the university decided Bryson could keep the job and insisted her removal had nothing to do with the lecture.[22][23]
  • biologist Caroline Crocker, who was barred by George Mason University from teaching a Cell Biology class over her introduction of intelligent design into it, and whose contract at that university was not renewed;[24][25][26]
  • The closure of the short-lived Evolutionary Informatics Lab formed by Baylor University engineering professor Robert J. Marks II, which included Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary research professor in philosophy William Dembski as a postdoctoral researcher. The lab was shut down and its website was deleted because Baylor's administration considered that it violated university policy forbidding professors from creating the impression that their personal views represent Baylor as an institution. Baylor however permitted Marks to resume work in the informatics lab on his own time and maintain his website, provided a disclaimer accompany any intelligent design-advancing research makes clear that the work does not represent the university's position.[27][28][29][30]

Court cases (such as Webster v. New Lenox School District and Bishop v. Aronov) have upheld school districts' and universities' right to restrict teaching to a specified curriculum. None of these purported cases of discrimination have been subjected to formal legal or congressional scrutiny.[citation needed]

In August 2007, an upcoming movie publicising a number of these incidents was announced, entitled Expelled and starring Ben Stein.[31]

Free Speech on Evolution campaign

The primary message of the campaign was:

The term[which?] gained exposure when the Institute was widely quoted in the press in 2005 after president Bush publicly spoke in favor of teaching intelligent design alongside evolution as a competing theory and Institute fellow John G. West responded with a statement framing the issue as a matter of free speech: "President Bush is to be commended for defending free speech on evolution, and supporting the right of students to hear about different scientific views about evolution."[32][33]

A notable characteristic of this campaign is the Institute's framing of the issues as a confluence of free speech, academic freedom and discrimination.[17][20][34]

The campaign has found traction with the Discovery Institute's constituency, conservative Christians, but has failed to produce gains with a wider audience.[35][36] Critics of the Institute and intelligent design have alleged that the campaign is founded on intellectual dishonesty. PZ Myers describes the "free speech on evolution campaign" as promoting intolerance, lies and distortions,[37] while Wesley R. Elsberry says 'Free Speech on Evolution' is a "catchphrase" describing false compromises offered by Institute Fellows that introduce intelligent design into science classes indirectly by having teachers "teach the controversy."[38]

Campaigns portraying books and sites as banned

Banned Books Week is an awareness campaign, led annually by the American Library Association, in an attempt to protect freedom of speech by celebrating books that the ALA claims others have banned or attempted to ban from various venues. In 2006, Discovery Institute Fellow John West nominated the book Of Pandas and People, on the basis of it being "at the heart of" Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.[39] However the decision in Kitzmiller made no order regarding Pandas, rendering the basis for considering it to be "banned" highly tenuous,[40][41][42] and the assertion was dismissed by Deborah Caldwell-Stone, Deputy Director of the American Library Association's Office for Intellectual Freedom who does not consider the book banned.[43] The Discovery Institute continued to misrepresent the book as banned in 2007, with the statement that:


In 2007, the Discovery Institute nominated Robert J. Marks' 'Evolutionary Informatics Lab' web-site as "Banned Item of the Year", after it was deleted from the Baylor University server.[44] However, the site is still accessible, now being hosted on a third party server.[45]

Academic freedom campaign

Between 2004 and 2008 a number of anti-evolution 'Academic Freedom' bills were introduced in State legislatures in Alabama, Oklahoma, Maryland, Florida, Louisiana, Missouri and Michigan, based largely upon language drafted by the Discovery Institute. As of May 2008, none of them were successfully passed into law.

They purport that teachers, students, and college professors face intimidation and retaliation when discussing scientific criticisms of evolution, and therefore require protection.[46] Critics of the bills point out that there are no credible scientific critiques of evolution.[47] Investigation of the allegations of intimidation and retaliation have found no evidence that it occurs.[48]

In February 2008, the Discovery Institute announced the Academic Freedom Petition campaign,[49] which it is conducting with assistance from Brian Gage Design[50] who provides the Discovery Institute graphic design professional services.[51] The petition states:


Casey Luskin, program officer for public policy and legal affairs at Discovery Institute, is the contact person for the campaign's Model Academic Freedom Statute on Evolution.[46]

Campaigns to link evolution to Nazism and eugenics

In his 2004 book From Darwin to Hitler, Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics and Racism in Germany, Discovery Institute fellow Richard Weikart links Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution to Nazism, concluding:

This conclusion is however controversial, with professor of history at the University of Louisville Ann Taylor Allen giving the opinion that Weikart's talk about "Darwinism" is not based on any careful reading of Darwin himself but on vague ideas by a variety of people who presented themselves as "Darwinian." Moreover, fundamental elements of Nazism like anti-Semitism cannot be attributed to Darwinism since it predates evolutionary theory. Allen concluded:[7]


Discovery Institute Center for Science and Culture Associate Director John G. West, in both his book Darwin Day in America and in lectures,[52] has attempted to link Darwin to the eugenics movement.[citation needed] However, critics point out that:

  • this movement came to prominence during the 'eclipse' of Darwinian evolution in the early 20th century;[53]
  • the popular support for eugenics was matched with popular opposition to teaching evolution;[53]
  • "while many biologists did support eugenic policies, many important biologists did not";[53]
  • it was evolutionary biology that provided information debunking eugenics;[54]
  • West quoted Darwin out of context in order to misrepresent him as supporting eugenics;[53][54] and
  • prominent evolutionary biologists, such as Stephen Jay Gould have spoken out against eugenics.[55][56]
  • "on the whole the evangelical mainstream [...] appeared apathetic, acquiescent, or at times downright supportive of the eugenics movement" between 1900 and 1940.[57]

Campaign to discredit the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District decision

For deciding whether intelligent design is science

David K. DeWolf, John G. West and Casey Luskin, senior fellows or officers of the Discovery Institute, argued that intelligent design is a valid scientific theory, that the Jones court should not have addressed the question of whether it was a scientific theory, and that the decision will have no effect on the development and adoption of intelligent design as an alternative to standard evolutionary theory.[58] Peter Irons responded to the DeWolf et al. article, arguing that the decision was extremely well reasoned, and that it marks the end to legal efforts by the intelligent design movement to introduce creationism in public schools.[59] DeWolf et al. responded to the Irons article in the same issue.[60]

"Study" criticizing Judge Jones

The Discovery Institute and its fellows published several articles describing a "study" performed by the Discovery Institute criticizing the judge in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial. It claims that "90.9% of Judge Jones' [opinion] on intelligent design as science was taken virtually verbatim from the ACLU's proposed 'Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law' submitted to Judge Jones nearly a month before his ruling."[61] The study, though making no specific allegations of wrongdoing, implies that Judge Jones relied upon the plaintiff's submissions in writing his own conclusions of law.

Within a day, the president of the York County Bar Association wrote that parties are required by the courts to submit findings of fact and "a judge can adopt some, all or none of the proposed findings." She added that in the final ruling, a judge's decision "is the judge's findings and it doesn't matter who submitted them". A partner in a York law firm said that "Any attempt to make a stink out of it is absurd."[62]

Several commentators described a number of critical flaws in the study from both a numerical and legal standpoint. Witold Walczak, legal director for the ACLU of Pennsylvania and the ACLU's lead attorney on the case called the Institute's report a stunt: "They're getting no traction in the scientific world so they're trying to do something ... as a PR stunt to get attention, ... That's not how scientists work, ... Discovery Institute is trying to litigate a year-old case in the media." He also said the Discovery Institute staff is not, as it claims, interested in finding scientific truths; it is more interested in a "cultural war," pushing for intelligent design and publicly criticizing a judge.[63]

A subsequent review of the study performed by Wesley Elsberry, author of the text comparison program that was partly responsible for the decision in the case, indicated that only 38% of the complete ruling by Judge Jones actually incorporated the findings of fact and conclusions of law that the plaintiffs proposed that he incorporate, and only 66% of the section (on whether intelligent design was science) incorporated the proposals, not the 90.9% the Discovery Institute claimed was copied in that section. Significantly, Judge Jones adopted only 48% of the plaintiffs's proposed findings of fact for that section, and rejected 52%, clearly showing that he did not accept the section verbatim.[64][65]

"Intelligent design is not creationism"

One of the principal rationales behind intelligent design's neo-creationist strategy is to separate intelligent design from previous, more explicitly religious, forms of creationism, and the legal defeats that prohibit them from public school science classrooms. For this reason, the Discovery Institute (and its supporters) make frequent and vehement denials of any connection between intelligent design and creationism. These denials are at times bitter and abrasive, for example:


However this assertion has been refuted both in court and academia. In Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District Judge John E. Jones III found that "the overwhelming evidence at trial established that intelligent design is a religious view, a mere re-labeling of creationism, and not a scientific theory."[66] Numerous books have been written by prominent academics documenting intelligent design as a form of creationism, e.g.:

Petition campaigns

The Discovery Institute has created a number of petitions to give the impression that there are widespread doubts about the Theory of Evolution among scientists and scientifically-literate professionals. These petitions include A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism, Physicians and Surgeons for Scientific Integrity, Physicians and Surgeons who Dissent from Darwinism, and the now-defunct Stand Up For Science.

Physicians and Surgeons who Dissent from Darwinism

Physicians and Surgeons who Dissent from Darwinism is a petition promoting intelligent design. It consists of a list of people agreeing with a statement casting doubt on evolution. The petition was produced by the Physicians and Surgeons for Scientific Integrity (PSSI), a nonprofit organization formed by the Discovery Institute, and is intended to support the Discovery Institute's campaign to portray intelligent design as a scientifically valid theory by creating the impression that evolution lacks broad scientific support.[67] It is similar to the Discovery Institute intelligent design campaigns to discredit evolution.

The document itself has been the subject of controversy and extensive criticism from a variety of sources. The statement in the document has been branded as poorly worded, misleading and vague.[68] This campaign, like the rest of the Discovery Institute anti-evolution campaigns, has come under criticism for being misleading and anti-science. The list of signatories represents an insignificant fraction of medical professionals (about 0.02%). The evidence of evolution is not determined by petitions or polls, but by scientific consensus. This is the reason that the theory of evolution is overwhelmingly accepted.


The medical doctors and comparable professionals are signatories to a statement which disputes evolution, which they refer to as "Darwinian macroevolution" or "Darwinism", which are both misleading terms. The statement that the organization subscribes to is titled "Physicians and Surgeons who Dissent from Darwinism" and contains the following text:


Evolutionary synthesis and the theory of evolution state that random mutation leads to inherited traits that become more or less common due to non-random natural selection and random genetic drift, as well as other mechanisms. Therefore, the PSSI statement is overly vague and worded in a misleading fashion, since few real evolutionary biologists would subscribe to the version of evolution presented by the statement.[68] Evolution does not include the study of the origin of life, as the statement implies.

The wording of this statement is very similar to the wording of the Discovery Institute's petition, "A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism", which has been widely criticized for being inaccurate and misleading.[69][70][71][72]


The Physicians and Surgeons for Scientific Integrity was formed in 2006. By May 8, 2006, the PSSI Dissent petition had 34 signatories.[68] There were 100 signatories on July 30, 2006. By December 2006, 167 had signed the statement. By May 22, 2007, 252 appeared on the list. As of July 30, 2007, the list included 264 names.[73]

The PSSI invites holders of the M.D., D.O., D.D.S., D.M.D., D.V.M., or similar degrees to sign the Dissent petition.


The statement is similar to the one of the A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism of the Discovery Institute which has come under extensive criticism from a variety of sources as misleading, poorly phrased and containing only a tiny fraction of professionals in relevant fields.

Statement of "A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism":


The value of the opinions of physicians, surgeons, veterinarians, optometrists and other signatories of this petition is not clear. Referring to the number of people on the Scientific Dissent from Darwinism list and their claimed relevance, University of Minnesota biology professor PZ Myers writes, "Not only is the number that they cite pathetically small, but they rely on getting scientists whose expertise isn't relevant." In analogy, it can be argued that the 'Physicians' list represents an insignificant fraction of the total medical profession. Addressing a specific example, Myers says of neurosurgeon Michael Egnor, who signed both lists, that "The Discovery Institute may like to trumpet his expertise in neurosurgery as an indicator of the significance of his dissent from evolutionary biology, but I think I'd rather trumpet his ignorance of evolutionary biology as an indicator of the uselessness of the Discovery Institute's list."[74] Myers continued to state that the signer "is not only wrong, but he's pretty damn arrogant about it – how else to explain someone who is proud of the fact that he knows nothing about a subject, and is proud of his inability to find sources that would correct his ignorance, even when they're pointed out to him directly? He's like Michael Behe, in that we can plop mountains of information in front of him, and he'll just blithely claim it doesn't exist."[75]

The compiled list of medical professionals is available on the Internet, where each signatory is listed three times: by last name, by country and by specialty. Most of the doctors who signed the statement are from the United States. As of May 22, 2007 there were 224 signatories from the United States, two signatories from Australia, four signatories from Canada, eight signatories from the United Kingdom and another 14 from nine other countries. However, this figure should be expected to rise, based on a poll of 1472 US physicians conducted by the "Louis Finkelstein Institute for Social and Religious Research" at the Jewish Theological Seminary and HCD Research in Flemington, New Jersey, from May 13–15, 2005. This study showed that 34% of physician respondents felt more comfortable with intelligent design than evolution.[76][77] include doctors trained or working in a wide range of disciplines, including, addiction medicine, bariatrics (i.e., weight loss medicine), dentistry, dermatology, hospice care, ophthalmology, optometry, plastic surgery, psychiatry, radiology, urology and veterinary medicine.

The American Medical Association estimates that in 2006, there were more than 884,000 physicians in the United States.[78] In addition, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated that in May 2003 the US had 97,090 dentists, 63,780 opticians, 22,740 optometrists and 43,890 veterinarians.[79]

Therefore, the total number of US professionals in the fields represented by the "Physicians and Surgeons for Scientific Integrity" Dissent petition is at least 1,111,500. That is, the 224 US signatories of the statement represent approximately 0.02% of the total number of US professionals in these fields.

Stand Up For Science

The Stand Up For Science campaign originated in July 2006 leading up to the showdown in the Kansas Board of Education that began with Kansas evolution hearings, which was also driven by the Discovery Institute.[80] The Institute's online petition and Stand Up For Science website where one could sign the petition were prominent features of the campaign. During the period leading up to the Kansas evolution hearings the Institute ran a number radio and print ads across Kansas incorporating many of its slogans, such as "Teach the Controversy", "Free Speech on Evolution", and "Critical Analysis of Evolution", and directing readers and listeners to the Discovery Institute website. As the Kansas debate over the teaching of evolution wound down in Fall 2006 after the conservative Republicans who approved the Critical Analysis of Evolution classroom standards lost their majority in a primary election and the moderate Republicans and Democrats vowed to overturn Discovery Institute-influenced 2005 school science standards and adopt those recommended by a State Board Science Hearing Committee that were rejected by the previous board, the Institute shifted the focus of The Stand Up For Science campaign from Kansas to Texas.

The scientific and science education communities reacted to campaign by saying that it was a misinformation campaign. Nick Matzke described the campaign's support for science as "irony-meter-busting".[81] In response to the campaign Kansas biology teacher Jeremy Mohn founded the competing website, Stand Up for REAL Science.[82]

Theistic evolution

On May 26, 2009, the Discovery Institute announced a new website, FaithandEvolution.Org.[83] The site attacks theistic evolution, and New Scientist suggests that it is in response to Francis Collins' recent launch of the BioLogos Institute to promote theistic evolution.[84]


Every leading scientific professional organization has through position statements unequivocally endorsed evolution as a widely accepted and well-proven theory.[85][86][87][88] McGill University Professor of Education Brian Alters states in an article published by the NIH that "99.9 percent of scientists accept evolution".[89]

Critics say that the Institute is conducting a deliberate disinformation campaign. One common criticism is that the rhetoric employed by the Institute in its campaigns is intentionally vague and misleading[90][91] and that the campaigns mask a near total absence of scientific support and productive research programs. The Templeton Foundation, who once provided grants for conferences and courses to debate intelligent design has since rejected the Discovery Institute's entreaties for more funding, Foundation senior vice president Charles L. Harper Jr. said "They're political – that for us is problematic," and that while Discovery has "always claimed to be focused on the science," "what I see is much more focused on public policy, on public persuasion, on educational advocacy and so forth."[92][93]

In one of a series of articles in Skeptic on the movie Expelled, ID critic Ed Brayton noted:

See also


  1. Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy Barbara Forrest. May, 2007.
  2. Dean, Cornelia; Goodstein, Laurie (9 July 2005). "Leading Cardinal Redefines Church's View on Evolution". 
  3. "The Role of Darwinism in Nazi Racial Thought". 
  4. "From Darwin to Hitler". 
  5. "Senior Fellow Richard Weikart responds to Sander Gliboff". 10 October 2004. 
  6. Rennie, John; Mirsky, Steve (April 16, 2008). "Six Things in Expelled That Ben Stein Doesn't Want You to Know...". Scientific American (Stuttgart: Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group). ISSN 0036-8733. Retrieved 2016-01-05. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Journal of Modern History (March 2006)
  8. "Anti-Evolution Film Misappropriates the Holocaust" (Press release). New York: Anti-Defamation League. April 29, 2008. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-01-08.
  9. "Dissent From Darwinism "Goes Global" as Over 600 Scientists Around the World Express Their Doubts About Darwinian Evolution". 21 June 2006. 
  10. Hofmann, James R.; Weber, Bruce H. (November 2003). "The Fact of Evolution: Implications for Science Education". Science & Education 12 (8): 729–760. doi:10.1023/B:SCED.0000004556.80802.3a. Bibcode2003Sc&Ed..12..729H. [yes|permanent dead link|dead link}}]
  11. Kroll, Andy (September 15, 2017). "New Mexico Doesn't Want Your Kids to Know How Old the Earth Is". Mother Jones. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Wedge Document Discovery Institute, 1999.
  13. Barbara Forrest; Paul R. Gross (2004). "The Wedge Document: A Design for Design" (in en). Creationism's Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195157420.003.0003. ISBN 978-0-19-515742-0. 
  14. The evolution of creationism, Gordy Slack, Salon
  15. Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives Robert T. Pennock. MIT Press, 2001. p. 322.
  16. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, p89
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Free Speech on Evolution Campaign Main Page Discovery Institute, Center for Science and Culture.
  18. Thought Police Try To Stifle Academic Freedom at Iowa State University Discovery Institute. September 1, 2005.
  19. While we're at it, let's also fire the math teachers who can't do algebra PZ Myers. Pharyngula (blog), August 1, 2005.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Free Speech on Evolution Campaign Page 2 Discovery Institute, Center for Science and Culture.
  21. "Science in the classroom, or creationism?". 
  22. Science chief back, The Oakland Tribune, Mar 28, 2003
  23. Professor Dumped Over Evolution Beliefs , Jim Brown and Ed Vitagliano, AgapePress, March 11, 2003
  24. Brumfiel, Geoff (27 April 2005). "Intelligent design: Who has designs on your students' minds?". Nature 434 (7037): 1062–1065. doi:10.1038/4341062a. PMID 15858545. Bibcode2005Natur.434.1062B. 
  25. Darwin Goes to Church , Henry G. Brinton, Washington Post, September 18, 2005
  26. One Long Article: Washington Post Highlights Persecution of Caroline Crocker , Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute
  27. Baylor episode is getting wider circulation , Pharyngula (blog)
  28. Baylor U. Removes a Web Page Associated With Intelligent Design From Its Site, The Chronicle of Higher Education
  29. William Dembski Addresses Forthcoming Intelligent Design Research that Advances ID and Answers Critics, Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute
  30. Crisis averted, Mark Bergin, World Magazine
  31. "Expelled Press Release". 
  32. Bush Remarks On 'Intelligent Design' Theory Fuel Debate Peter Baker, Peter Slevin. Washington Post, August 3, 2005.
  33. A Country Ruled by Faith Garry Wills. The New York Review of Books, November 16, 2006.
  34. Holocaust Denier Led the Charge Against Academic Freedom on Evolution in Alabama Casey Luskin. Discovery Institute,
  35. Bush Praised for Defending Free Speech on Theory of Life's Origin Jim Brown. AgapePress, American Family Association, August 5, 2005.
  36. President Bush calls for teaching Intelligent Design in schools Good News Magazine.
  37. While we're at it, let's also fire the math teachers who can't do algebra PZ Myers. Pharyngula (blog). August 01, 2005.
  38. Letter to the St. Petersburg Times on ID Poll Wesley R. Elsberry. The Panda's Thumb. January 1, 2006.
  39. Banned Book of the Year: Of Pandas and People, John West, Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute
  40. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District/6:Curriculum, Conclusion
  41. The silliest thing I've heard all week: ACLU book banning , Nick Matzke, The Panda's Thumb
  42. FTE and Jon Buell's Day in Court, Wesley R. Elsberry, The Austringer, November 21, 2007.
  43. "The "banning" of Pandas – A final (I hope) update". Archived from the original on February 10, 2012. 
  44. Banned Item of the Year: Dr. Robert Marks' Evolutionary Informatics Website, Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute
  45. "The Evolutionary Informatics Lab". 
  46. 46.0 46.1 "Academic Freedom Petition". 
  47. Evolution's Critics Shift Tactics With Schools, Stephanie Simon, The Wall Street Journal , May 2, 2008
  48. Bill Analysis and Fiscal Impact Statement , The Professional Staff of the Education Pre-K–12 Committee, Florida Senate, March 26, 2008
  49. [1], Robert Crowther, Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute, February 7, 2008
  50. WHOIS information for:
  51. "Brian Gage Design | Portfolio". 
  52. West Wins In Minn. , Bruce Chapman, Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 Dancing with the Disco Institute , Mark Borrello, assistant professor of the history of science, University of Minnesota. Minnesota Citizens for Science
  54. 54.0 54.1 Should Dr. West Be Sterilized? , Jim Curtsinger, Minnesota Citizens for Science
  55. How the West was 'Won': with spin and rewriting history , PZ Myers, Pharyngula
  56. Carrie Buck's Daughter, Stephen Jay Gould
  57. Evangelical Engagements With Eugenics, 1900-1940 , Dennis L. Durst, Volume 18:2, Ethics & Medicine
  58. Intelligent Design Will Survive Kitzmiller v. Dover , David K. DeWolf, John G. West, and Casey Luskin, University of Montana Law Review, Volume 68, Number 1, May 4, 2007.
  59. Disaster in Dover: The Trials (and Tribulations) of Intelligent Design, Peter Irons, University of Montana Law Review, Volume 68, Number 1, April 27, 2007.
  60. Rebuttal to Irons , David K. DeWolf, John G. West, and Casey Luskin, University of Montana Law Review, Volume 68, Number 1, April 27, 2007.
  61. A Comparison of Judge Jones' Opinion in Kitzmiller v. Dover with Plaintiffs' "Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law" (pdf) John G. West and David K. DeWolf. Discovery Institute, December 12, 2006.
  62. Judges' wording often borrowed, Rick Lee, The York Daily Record, December 12, 2006. Access requires registration
  63. New criticism for Dover intelligent design ruling Christina Kauffman. The York Dispatch, December 12, 2006.
  64. Text Comparison source documents, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District Wesley Elsberry.
  65. Jones, Luskin, and Text, Wesley R. Elsberry, The Austringer, 31 Jan 2007
  66. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District p43
  67. Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals: A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy Barbara Forrest, Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy, May, 2007.
  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 Poor Orac , Tara C. Smith, Aetiology, Scienceblogs, May 8, 2006.
  69. Doubting Darwinism through Creative License , Skip Evans, National Center for Science Education, 29 November 2001
  70. Few Biologists But Many Evangelicals Sign Anti-Evolution Petition , Kenneth Chang, The New York Times , February 21, 2006 (paid subscription required, text available at Skeptical News)
  71. The Evolution Wars Visit Eye on Science, Michael Lemonick, Eye on Science, Time-Blog, February 21, 2007.
  72. Wedging Creationism into the Academy Barbara Forrest, Glenn Branch, Academe Online, American Association of University Professors, May, 2005.
  73. Medical Doctors a Fast Growing Segment of Darwin Doubting Science Professionals, Robert Crowther, Evolution News and Views, Discovery Institute, July 30, 2007.
  74. Dr Michael Egnor challenges evolution! , PZ Myers, Pharyngula, Scienceblogs, February 18, 2007 9:44 am
  75. Egnor responds, falls flat on his face , PZ Myers, Pharyngula, Scienceblogs, February 24, 2007 10:38 am.
  76. Majority of Physicians Give the Nod to Evolution Over Intelligent Design , HCD Research press release, May 23, 2005
  77. "Data from HCD and Finkelstein Institute study of physician attitudes to evolution". 
  78. Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US, 2006 , American Medical Association, ISBN:1-57947-682-1
  79. May 2003 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates Healthcare Practitioner and Technical Occupations, US Bureau of Labor Statistics
  80. New Public Education Effort on Evolution Encourages Citizens to Stand Up For Science, Stand Up For Kansas, Discovery Institute. July 7, 2006
  81. Kansas Primary Election, August 1 – Online Resources Nick Matzke. The Panda's Thumb, July 16, 2006.
  82. "Stand Up for REAL Science". 
  83. Faith and Evolution: Friends or Foes? Find out at FaithandEvolution.Org, Robert Crowther, Evolution News and Views, Discovery Institute
  84. Christians battle each other over evolution , Amanda Gefter, 28 May 2009, New Scientist
  85. Statement on the Teaching of Evolution American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2006.
  86. Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, Second Edition National Academy of Sciences, 1999.
  87. Ruling, Kitzmiller v. Dover page 83
  88. "Not a single expert witness over the course of the six-week trial identified one major scientific association, society or organization that endorsed ID as science." Ruling, page 70 Kitzmiller v. Dover.
  89. Finding the Evolution in Medicine , Cynthia Delgado, NIH Record, National Institutes of Health, Vol. LVIII, No. 15, July 28, 2006
  90. "ID supporters present fallacious arguments, use dishonest rhetoric, and often present non-contemptuous responses as evidence that their theories are gaining acceptance." Leaders and Followers in the Intelligent Design Movement Jason Rosenhouse. BioScience, Vol. 53 No. 1, January 2003.
  91. Political Animal, Intelligent Design Kevin Drum. Washington Monthly, March 24, 2004.
  92. Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive Jodi Wilgoren. The New York Times, August 21, 2005.
  93. Anti-Evolutionism John Templeton Foundation.
  94. The Richard Sternberg Affair, Ed Brayton, Skeptic magazine, April 17 2008

External links