Philosophy:Interictal dysphoric disorder

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Interictal dysphoric disorder (IDD) is a mood disorder sometimes found in patients with epilepsy, at a prevalence rate of approximately 17%.[1] The most common symptom of IDD is intermittent dysphoric mood in between seizures. Interictal dysphoric disorder can often be treated with a combination of antidepressant and anticonvulsant medication. [2] Its existence as a diagnostic entity is not totally established, and IDD is not included in the DSM-5.


Emil Kraepelin in 1923 first outlined a set of symptoms common in people with chronic epilepsy, the most prominent of which is intermittent depressive episodes.[3] These mood changes occur without any external triggers, during the interictal phase (between seizures). In 1949, Bleuler note a similar syndrome and in 1955, Gastaut confirmed both these observations.[4]

Later, Blumer coined the term interictal dysphoric disorder to describe a similar pleomorphic presentation of symptoms exhibited by his patients.[5] Blumer and Altshuler outlined eight affective-somatoform symptoms that characterize IDD: depressive moods, irritability, anergia, insomnia, pains, phobic fears, and euphoric moods.[6] The diagnosis of IDD should be made when at least three of the seven symptoms are present.[7]


  1. Kōhō Miyoshi (9 August 2010). Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Springer. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-4-431-53871-4. 
  2. Steven C. Schachter; Gregory L. Holmes, MD; Dorothée Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité (2008). Behavioral Aspects of Epilepsy: Principles and Practice. Demos Medical Publishing. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-1-933864-04-4. 
  3. Jerome Engel; Timothy A. Pedley; Jean Aicardi (2008). Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 2199–. ISBN 978-0-7817-5777-5. 
  4. Andres Kanner; Steven C. Schachter (28 July 2010). Psychiatric Controversies in Epilepsy. Elsevier. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-08-055959-9. 
  5. Michael R. Trimble; Bettina Schmitz (9 June 2011). The Neuropsychiatry of Epilepsy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-1-139-49789-3. 
  6. Frank Gilliam; Andres M. Kanner; Yvette Sheline (8 December 2005). Depression and Brain Dysfunction. Taylor & Francis. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-1-84214-214-1. 
  7. Gregory P. Lee Professor of Adult Neuropsychology Medical College of Georgia (30 January 2010). Neuropsychology of Epilepsy and Epilepsy Surgery. Oxford University Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-19-970699-0.