Philosophy:Phenomenon (Kant's philosophy)
A phenomenon Greek φαινόμενo(plural: φαινόμενα) is an observable event, particularly something special (literally something that can be seen, derived from the Greek word φαινόμενον phainomenon = observable, plural φαινόμενα).
Kant's use of phenomenon
Kant's account of phenomena has also been understood as influential in the development of psychodynamic models of psychology, and of theories concerning the ways in which the brain, mind and external world interact.
In general, apart from its specialized use as a term in philosophy, phenomenon stands for any observable event. Phenomena make up the raw data of science. It was an attempt to explain phenomena like earthquakes, lightning, rain, fire, sunrise, thunderstorm, rusting that lead to the development of modern science. Phenomena are often exploited by technology.
It is possible to list the phenomena which are relevant to almost any field of endeavor. For example, in the case of optics and light one can list observable phenomena under the topic optical phenomenon.
The possibilities are many, for example:
- Anomalous phenomenon (parapsychology)
- Biological phenomenon
- Chemical phenomenon (chemistry)
- Electrical phenomenon (electricity)
- Electronic Voice Phenomenon
- Geological phenomenon (geology)
- Hydrological phenomenon (hydrology)
- Meteorological phenomenon (weather)
- Optical phenomenon (optics)
- Physical phenomenon (physics)
- Social phenomenon (sociology)
- Statistical phenomena (statistics)
- Thermal phenomenon (thermodynamics)
Some observable events are commonplace, others require delicate manipulation of expensive and sensitive equipment. Some are significant experiments which led to groundbreaking discoveries.
There is a class of phenomena which lie outside generally accepted knowledge which knowledgeable scientists tend to discount. They are collected and discussed under the topic anomalous phenomenon.
Colloquial or casual use
In casual usage, "phenomenon" is often taken to mean a "surprising development" or "unusually successful person".  . It is also known to be shortened to Phenom when referring to the latter, for instance the professional wrestler The Undertaker.
- "No phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon" Niels Bohr.
- "Scientific theory is a contrived foothold in the chaos of living phenomena." - Wilhelm Reich
- "To study the phenomenon of disease without books is to sail an uncharted sea, while to study books without patients is not to go to sea at all." Sir William Osler
- "If we knew all the laws of Nature, we should need only fact, or the description of one actual phenomenon, to infer all the particular results at that point." Henry David Thoreau
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