# Place:Shabakhtan

Shabakhtān was the medieval Arabic name of a region east of ar-Ruha and Harran, consisting of the Tektek Dağ hills as well as the area around Viranşehir.[1][2] It is mentioned roughly from the time of the Crusades until the end of the 13th century, when much of the region's population probably left.[1] It had several fortified strongholds with dependent fiefs (‘amal, plural a‘māl).[1] Of these, the most frequently mentioned was Jumlayn, which is the present-day site known as Çimdine Kalesi in the eastern Tektek Dağ.[1] Other sites included Tall Mawzan, al-Qurādī, and al-Muwazzar.[1] T.A. Sinclair identified Tall Mawzan with present-day Viranşehir.[2] Al-Quradi may have been the fort at Sumatar; less likely possibilities are Şuayp Şehir and Qal'ah Choban.[2] Al-Muwazzar (or al-Muwaddar) may also have been at Sumatar.[2] Further north, Siverek was not part of Shabakhtan.[2] The Tektek Dağ region was likely a stronghold of the "pseudo-Sabians" (i.e. the moon- and planet-worshipping pagan religion that had its center in Harran) and may have had a sizeable population of them as late as the 13th century.[2] Tall Mawzan, on the other hand, seems to have been mostly Christian; it was the seat of a Syrian Orthodox bishop and was probably outside the area inhabited by the pseudo-Sabians.[2]

Shabakhtan changed hands often during the 12th and 13th centuries when sources mention it.[1] Some or all of it had been part of the short-lived County of Edessa, but by 1144 at the latest it had come under Imad ad-Din Zangi.[1] After he died, Shabakhtan was taken over by the Artuqids of Amid and then their relatives the Artuqids of Mardin.[1] It was then ruled by several different Ayyubid princes, then by the Khwarazmshahs and the Mongols, and finally by the Artuqids again at the end of the 13th century.[1]

## References

1. Morray, D.W. (1997). "SHABAKTĀN". in Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. et al.. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. IX (SAN-SZE). Leiden: Brill. pp. 153-4. ISBN 90-04-10422-4. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
2. Sinclair, T. A. (1990). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archaeological Survey, Volume IV. London: The Pindar Press. pp. 201, 207-8, 213, 219. ISBN 0 907132 52 9. Retrieved 20 March 2022.