|Matter of Britain location|
The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon by Edward Burne-Jones
|First appearance||Historia Regum Britanniae|
|Type||Legendary idyllic island|
|Ruler||Morgan le Fay|
|Notable characters||King Arthur, Lady of the Lake, the nine sisters, Melusine|
Avalon (/ˈævəlɒn/; Latin: Insula Avallonis; Welsh: Ynys Afallon, Ynys Afallach; Cornish: Enys Avalow; literally meaning "the isle of fruit [or apple] trees"; also written Avallon or Avilion among various other spellings) is a mythical island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appeared in Geoffrey of Monmouth's influential 1136 Historia Regum Britanniae as a place of magic where King Arthur's sword Excalibur was made and later where Arthur was taken to recover from being gravely wounded at the Battle of Camlann. Since then, the island has become a symbol of Arthurian mythology, similar to Arthur's castle of Camelot.
Avalon was associated from an early date with mystical practices and magical figures such as King Arthur's sorceress sister Morgan, cast as the island's ruler by Geoffrey and some of the later authors inspired by him. Certain Briton traditions maintain that Arthur is an eternal king who had never truly died but would return as the "once and future" king, and the particular motif of his rest in Morgan's care in Avalon has become especially popular and can be found in various versions in many French and other medieval Arthurian and other works written in the wake of Geoffrey.
Avalon has been often identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor, an early and long-standing belief that notably involved the purported discovery of Arthur's remains and their later grand reburial in accordance with the medieval English tradition in which Arthur did not survive the fatal injuries which he suffered in his final battle. Besides Glastonbury, several other alternative locations of Avalon have been claimed or proposed as well. Some medieval sources also occasionally described the place as a valley.
Geoffrey of Monmouth calls it Insula Avallonis in Latin, in his pseudo-chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae ("The History of the Kings of Britain", c. 1136). In his later Vita Merlini ("The Life of Merlin", c. 1150), Geoffrey calls it Insula Pomorum, the "Isle of Fruit Trees" (from Latin pōmus "fruit tree"). The name is generally considered to be of Welsh origin (a Cornish or Breton origin is also possible), from Old Welsh, Old Cornish, or Old Breton aball or avallen(n), "apple tree, fruit tree" (cf. Welsh afal, from Proto-Celtic *abalnā, literally "fruit-bearing (thing)").
The tradition of an "apple" island among the ancient Britons may also be related to Irish legends of the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir and Lugh, Emain Ablach (also the Old Irish poetic name for Isle of Man), where Ablach means "Having Apple Trees"— from Old Irish aball ("apple") — and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, which was used to replace the name Avalon in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin Arthurian tales. All are related to the Gaulish root *aballo "fruit tree" (found in the place name Aballo/Aballone) and are derived from Proto-Celtic *abal- "apple", which is related at the Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко (jabloko), Latvian ābele, et al.
In the early 12th century, William of Malmesbury claimed the name of Avalon came from a man called Avalloc, who once lived on this isle with his daughters. Gerald of Wales similarly derived the name of Avalon from its purported former ruler, Avallo. The name is also similar to "Avallus", described by Pliny the Elder in his 1st-century Naturalis Historia as a mysterious island where amber could be found.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
According to Geoffrey in the Historia, and much subsequent literature which he inspired, King Arthur was taken to Avalon (Avallon) in hope that he could be saved and recover from his mortal wounds following the tragic Battle of Camlann. Avalon is first mentioned by Geoffrey as the place where Arthur's sword Excalibur (Caliburn) was forged.
Geoffrey dealt with the subject in more detail in the Vita Merlini, in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend the fairy or fae-like enchantress Morgan (Morgen) as the chief of nine sisters (including Moronoe, Mazoe, Gliten, Glitonea, Gliton, Tyronoe and Thiten) who rule Avalon. Geoffrey's telling (in the in-story narration by the bard Taliesin) indicates a sea voyage was needed to get there. His description of Avalon here, which is heavily indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville (being mostly derived from the section on famous islands in Isidore's famous work Etymologiae, XIV.6.8 "Fortunatae Insulae"), shows the magical nature of the island:
Geoffrey's Merlin not only never visits Avalon but is not even aware of its existence. This would change to various degree in the later Arthurian prose romance tradition that expanded on Merlin's association with Arthur as well on Avalon itself.
Later medieval literature
In many later versions of Arthurian legend, including the popular Le Morte d'Arthur by Thomas Malory, Morgan and a number of other magical queens (either three, four or "many") arrive after the battle to take the mortally wounded Arthur from the battlefield of Camlann (or Salisbury Plain in the romances) to Avalon in a black boat. Besides Morgan, who by this time has already become Arthur's sibling in the popular narrative, they sometimes come with the Lady of the Lake among them; the others may include the Queen of Northgales (North Wales) and the Queen of the Wasteland. In the Vulgate Queste, Morgan first tells Arthur of her intention to relocate to Avalon, "where the ladies who know all the magic in the world are" (où les dames sont qui seiuent tous les enchantemens del monde) prior to his final battle. This is the only direct reference to Avalon in the entire Vulgate Cycle in its original French version. Its Welsh version was also claimed, within its text, to be a translation of old Latin books from Avalon, as was the French Perlesvaus.
In Erec and Enide, an early Arthurian romance by Chrétien de Troyes, the consort of Morgan early during King Arthur's rule is the Lord of the Isle of Avalon, Arthur's nephew Guinguemar (also appearing in the same or similar role under alike names in other works). In his final romance, Perceval, the Story of the Grail, Chrétien also featured the sea fortress of Escavalon, ruled by the King of Escavalon. The word Escavalon can be literally translated as "Water-Avalon", albeit some scholars proposed various other developments from Avalon (with Roger Sherman Loomis noting the similarity of the evolution of Geoffrey's Caliburn into the Chrétien's Escalibur in the case of Excalibur) or perhaps from the Old French words for either 'Slav' or 'Saracen'. It was renamed as Askalon in Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach who might have been either confused or inspired by the real-life coastal city of Ascalon (today's Ashkelon in Israel). It is also possible that Escavalon turned into Escalot (Malory's Astolat) in later Arthurian romances. Escalot and Escavalon appear concurrently in the Vulgate Cycle, in which the latter is ruled by King Alain, whose daughter Floree gives birth to Gawain's son Guinglain.
In Layamon's Brut, Arthur is taken to Avalon to be healed there through means of magic water by a distinctively Anglo-Saxon version of Morgan: an elf queen of Avalon named Argante. The German Diu Crône says the Queen of Avalon is the goddess (göttin) Enfeidas, Arthur's aunt (sister of Uther Pendragon) and one of guardians of the Grail. The Venician Les Prophéties de Merlin features the character of an enchantress known only as the Lady of Avalon (Dame d'Avalon), a Merlin's apprentice who is a fierce rival of Morgan as well as of Sebile, another of Merlin's female students. In the late Italian Tavola Ritonda, the lady of the island of Avalon (dama dell'isola di Vallone, likely the same as the Lady of Avalon from the Propheties) is a fairy mother of the evil sorceress Elergia. The tales of the half-fairy Melusine have her grow up in the isle of Avalon.
In Lope Garcia de Salazar's Spanish version of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal, Avalon is conflated with (and explicitly named as) the mythological Island of Brasil, said to be located west of Ireland and afterwards hidden in mist by Morgan's enchantment. Avalon has been occasionally described as a valley. In Le Morte d'Arthur, for instance, Avalon is called an isle twice and a vale once (the latter in the scene of Arthur's final voyage, oddly in spite of Malory's adoption of the boat travel motif). Notably, the vale of Avalon (vaus d'Avaron) is mentioned twice in Robert de Boron's Arthurian prequel Joseph d'Arimathie as a place located in the western Britannia, to where a fellowship of early Christians started by Joseph of Arimathea brought the Grail after its long journey from the Holy Land, finally delivered there by Bron the first Fisher King.
Arthur's fate in Avalon is sometimes left untold, or uncertain. Other times, his eventual death is actually confirmed, as it happens in the Stanzaic Morte Arthur, where the Archbishop of Canterbury later receives Arthur's dead body and buries it at Glastonbury. In the telling from Alliterative Morte Arthure, relatively devoid of supernatural elements, it is not Morgan but the renowned physicians from Salerno who try, and fail, to save Arthur's life in Avalon. Conversely, the Gesta Regum Britanniae, an early rewrite of Geoffrey's Historia, states (in the present tense) that Morgan "keeps his healed body for her very own and they now live together." In a similar narrative, the chronicle Draco Normannicus contains a fictional letter from King Arthur to Henry II of England, claiming Arthur having been healed of his wounds and made immortal by his "deathless (eternal) nymph" sister Morgan in the holy island of Avalon (Avallonis eas insula sacra) through the island's miraculous herbs.
Morgan also features as an immortal ruler of a fantastic Avalon, sometimes alongside the still-alive Arthur, in some subsequent and otherwise non-Arthurian chivalric romances such as Tirant lo Blanch, as well as the tales of Huon of Bordeaux, where the faery king Oberon is a son of either Morgan by name or "the Lady of the Secret Isle", and the legend of Ogier the Dane, where Avalon can be described as an enchanted fairy castle (chasteu d'Auallon), as it is also in Floriant et Florete. In his La Faula, Guillem de Torroella claims to have visited the Enchanted Island (Illa Encantada) and met Arthur who has been brought back to life by Morgan and they both of them are now forever young, sustained by the Grail. In the chanson de geste La Bataille Loquifer, Morgan and her sister Marsion (Marrion) bring the hero Renoart to Avalon, where Arthur now prepares his return alongside Morgan, Gawain, Ywain, Perceval and Guinevere. Such stories typically take place centuries after the times of King Arthur.
Connection to Glastonbury
Though no longer an island in the 12th century, the high conical bulk of Glastonbury Tor in today's South-West England had been surrounded by marsh prior to the draining of fenland in the Somerset Levels. In ancient times, Ponter's Ball Dyke would have guarded the only entrance to the island. The Romans eventually built another road to the island. Glastonbury's earliest name in Welsh was the Isle of Glass, which suggests that the location was at one point seen as an island. At the end of the 12th century, Gerald of Wales wrote in De instructione principis:
Around 1190, monks at Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones of Arthur and his wife Guinevere. The discovery of the burial is described by chroniclers, notably Gerald, as being just after King Henry II's reign when the new abbot of Glastonbury, Henry de Sully, commissioned a search of the abbey grounds. At a depth of 5 m (16 feet), the monks were said to have discovered an unmarked tomb with a massive treetrunk coffin and, also buried, a lead cross bearing the inscription:
Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arturius in insula Avalonia.
("Here lies entombed the renowned king Arthur in the island of Avalon.")
Accounts of the exact inscription vary, with five different versions existing. One popular today, made famous by Malory, claims "Here lies Arthur, the king that was and the king that shall be" (Hic iacet Arthurus, rex quondam rexque futurus), also known in the now-popular variant "the once and future king" (rex quondam et futurus). The earliest is by Gerald in Liber de Principis instructione c. 1193, who wrote that he viewed the cross in person and traced the lettering. His transcript reads: "Here lies buried the famous Arthurus with Wenneveria his second wife in the isle of Avalon" (Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arthurus cum Wenneveria uxore sua secunda in insula Avallonia). He wrote that inside the coffin were two bodies, whom Giraldus refers to as Arthur and "his queen"; the bones of the male body were described as being gigantic. The account of the burial by the chronicle of Margam Abbey says three bodies were found, the other being that of Mordred; Richard Barber argues that Mordred's name was airbrushed out of the story once his reputation as a traitor was appreciated. The story is today seen as an example of pseudoarchaeology. Historians generally dismiss the authenticity of the find, attributing it to a publicity stunt performed to raise funds to repair the Abbey, which had been mostly burned in 1184.[note 2]
In 1278, the remains were reburied with great ceremony, attended by King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile, before the High Altar at Glastonbury Abbey. They were moved again in 1368 when the choir was extended. The site became the focus of pilgrimages until the dissolution of the abbey in 1539. The fact that the search for the body is connected to Henry II and Edward I, both kings who fought major Anglo-Welsh wars, has had scholars suggest that propaganda may have played a part as well. Gerald was a constant supporter of royal authority; in his account of the discovery clearly aims to quash the idea of the possibility of King Arthur's messianic return:
The burial discovery ensured that in later romances, histories based on them and in the popular imagination Glastonbury became increasingly identified with Avalon, an identification that continues strongly today. The later development of the legends of the Holy Grail and Joseph of Arimathea interconnected these legends with Glastonbury and with Avalon, an identification which also seems to be made in Perlesvaus. The popularity of Arthurian romances has meant this area of the Somerset Levels has today become popularly described as the Vale of Avalon.
In more recent times, writers such as Dion Fortune, John Michell, Nicholas Mann and Geoffrey Ashe have formed theories based on perceived links between Glastonbury and Celtic legends of the Otherworld in attempts to link the location firmly with Avalon, drawing on the various legends based on Glastonbury Tor as well as drawing on ideas like Earth mysteries, ley lines and even the myth of Atlantis. Arthurian literature also continues to use Glastonbury as an important location as in The Mists of Avalon, A Glastonbury Romance, and The Bones of Avalon. Even the fact that Somerset has many apple orchards has been drawn in to support the connection. Glastonbury's reputation as the real Avalon has made it a popular site of tourism. Having become one of the major New Age communities in Europe, the area has great religious significance for neo-Pagans and modern Druids, as well as some Christians. Identification of Glastonbury with Avalon within hippie subculture, as seen in the work of Michell and in the Gandalf's Garden community, also helped inspire the annual Glastonbury Festival that eventually became the largest musical and cultural event in the world.
Other proposed locations
Medieval suggestions for the location of Avalon ranged far beyond Glastonbury. They included paradisal underworld realms equated with the other side of the Earth at the antipodes, as well as Mongibel (Mount Etna) in Sicily and other, unnamed locations in the Mediterranean. Pomponius Mela's ancient Roman description of the island of Île de Sein, off the coast of Finistère in Brittany, was notably one of Geoffrey of Monmouth's original inspirations for his Avalon.
More recently, just as in the quest for Arthur's mythical capital Camelot, a large number of locations have been put forward as being the "real Avalon". They include Greenland or other places in or across the Atlantic, the former Roman fort of Aballava in Cumbria, Bardsey Island off the coast of Wales, the isle of Île Aval near present-day Lannion on the coast of Pleumeur-Bodou in Brittany, and Lady's Island in Leinster. In the works of William F. Warren, Avalon was compared to Hyperborea along with the Garden of Eden and theorized to be located in the Arctic. Geoffrey Ashe championed an association of Avalon with the town of Avallon in Burgundy, as part of a theory connecting King Arthur to the Romano-British leader Riothamus who was last seen in that area.[note 3] Robert Graves identified Avalon with the Spanish island of Majorca (Mallorca), while Laurence Gardner suggested the Isle of Arran off the coast of Scotland. Graham Phillips claimed to have located the grave of the historical Arthur (Owain Ddantgwyn) in the "true site of Avalon" on a former island at Baschurch in Shropshire.
- Annwn – the Welsh otherworld
- Tír na nÓg
- ↑ By comparison, Isidore's description of the Fortunate Isles reads: "The Fortunate Isles (Fortunatarum insulae) signify by their name that they produce all kinds of good things, as if they were happy and blessed with an abundance of fruit. Indeed, well-suited by their nature, they produce fruit from very precious trees [Sua enim aptae natura pretiosarum poma silvarum parturiunt]; the ridges of their hills are spontaneously covered with grapevines; instead of weeds, harvest crops and garden herbs are common there. Hence the mistake of pagans and the poems by worldly poets, who believed that these isles were Paradise because of the fertility of their soil. They are situated in the Ocean, against the left side of Mauretania, closest to where the sun sets, and they are separated from each other by the intervening sea." In ancient and medieval geographies and maps, the Fortunate Isles were typically identified with the Canary Islands.
- ↑ Long before this William of Malmesbury, a 12th-century historian interested in Arthur, wrote in his history of England: "But Arthur's grave is nowhere seen, whence antiquity of fables still claims that he will return." It is known for certain the monks later added forged passages discussing Arthurian connections to William's comprehensive history of Glastonbury De antiquitae Glatoniensis ecclesie (On Antiquity of Glastonbury Church), written around 1130.
- ↑ According to Ashe, "In Welsh it is Ynys Avallach. Geoffrey's Latin equivalent is Insula Avallonis. It has been influenced by the spelling of a real place called Avallon. Avallon is a Gaulish name with the same meaning, and the real Avalon is in Burgundy—where Arthur's Gallic career ends. Again, we glimpse an earlier and different passing of Arthur, on the Continent and not in Britain. Riothamus too led an army of Britons into Gaul, and was the only British King who did. He too advanced to the neighbourhood of Burgundy. He too was betrayed by a deputy ruler who treated with barbarian enemies. He, too, is last located in Gaul among the pro-Roman Burgundians. He, too, disappears after a fatal battle, without any recorded death. The line of his retreat, prolonged on a map, shows that he was going in the direction of the real Avalon."
- ↑ Matasović, Ranko, Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic, Brill, 2008, p. 23.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Koch, John. Celtic Culture: A historical encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO 2006, p. 146.
- ↑ Savage, John J. H. "Insula Avallonia", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 73, (1942), pp. 405–415.
- ↑ Nitze, William Albert, Jenkins, Thomas Atkinson. Le Haut Livre du Graal, Phaeton Press, 1972, p. 55.
- ↑ Zimmer, Heinrich. "Bretonische Elemente in der Artursage des Gottfried von Monmouth", Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, Volume 12, 1890, pp. 246–248.
- ↑ Marstrander, Carl Johan Sverdrup (ed.), Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1976, letter A, column 11, line 026.
- ↑ Hamp, Eric P. The north European word for ‘apple’, Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie, 37, 1979, pp. 158–166.
- ↑ Adams, Douglas Q. The Indo-European Word for 'Apple'. Indogermanische Forschungen, 90, 1985, pp. 79–82.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Ardrey, Adam (2014) (in en). Finding Arthur: The True Origins of the Once and Future King. Abrams. ISBN 9781468308433. https://books.google.com/books?id=rvSGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT58.
- ↑ Carley, James P.; Carley, James Patrick (2001). Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian Tradition. ISBN 9780859915724. https://books.google.com/books?id=UI93dKBwWdMC&pg=PA16.
- ↑ Histoire de l'art: Bulletin d'information de l'Institut national d'histoire de l'art publié en collaboration avec l'Association des professeurs d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'art des universités. 2008. ISBN 9782757202104. https://books.google.com/books?id=5BxMAQAAIAAJ.
- ↑ Monmouth, Geoffrey of (11 December 2007). The History of the Kings of Britain. Broadview Press. ISBN 9781770481428. https://books.google.com/books?id=biQ6iC_ua9AC&pg=PA263.
- ↑ Walter, Philippe; Berthet, Jean-Charles; Stalmans, Nathalie, eds (1999). Le devin maudit: Merlin, Lailoken, Suibhne: textes et étude. Grenoble: ELLUG. p. 125.
- ↑ Lot, Ferdinand (1918). "Nouvelles études sur le cycle arthurien". Romania 45 (177): 1–22 (14). doi:10.3406/roma.1918.5142.
- ↑ Faral, Edmond (1993). La Légende arthurienne, études et documents: Premiere partie: Les plus anciens textes. 2 (reprint ed.). H. Champion. pp. 382–383.
- ↑ Cons, Louis (1931). "Avallo". Modern Philology 28 (4): 385–394. doi:10.1086/387918.
- ↑ "Vita Merlini Index". sacred-texts.com. http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/eng/vm/index.htm.
- ↑ Barney, S.; Lewis, W. J.; Beach, J. A. et al., eds (2006). The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 294. ISBN 9780521837491. https://archive.org/details/etymologiesisido00barn.
- ↑ Tilley, Arthur Augustus (2010). Medieval France: A Companion to French Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 176.
- ↑ Sobecki, Sebastian I. (2008). The Sea and Medieval English Literature. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-84615-591-8. https://archive.org/details/seamedievalengli00sobe.
- ↑ Kagay, Donald J.; Vann, Theresa M., eds (1998). On the Social Origins of Medieval Institutions: Essays in Honor of Joseph F. O'Callaghan. Leiden: Brill. p. 61. ISBN 9004110968.
- ↑ McClure, Julia (2016). The Franciscan Invention of the New World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 66. ISBN 9783319430225.
- ↑ Aseguinolaza, Fernando Cabo; González, Anxo Abuín; Domínguez, César, eds (2010). A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula. 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. p. 294. ISBN 9789027234575.
- ↑ Beaulieu, Marie-Claire (2016). The Sea in the Greek Imagination. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780812247657.
- ↑ Honti, John T. (1939). "Vinland and Ultima Thule". Modern Language Notes 54 (3): 159–172 (168). doi:10.2307/2911893.
- ↑ Bane, Theresa (4 September 2013). Encyclopedia of Fairies in World Folklore and Mythology. McFarland. ISBN 9780786471119. https://books.google.com/books?id=rUqpAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA237.
- ↑ Sommer, Heinrich Oskar (1969). "The Vulgate Version of the Arthurian Romances: Les aventures ou la queste del Saint Graal. La mort de roi Artus". https://books.google.com/books?id=ri0yAQAAMAAJ.
- ↑ https://books.google.com/books?id=RkuSCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA540
- ↑ Carley, James P.; Carley, James Patrick (2001). Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian Tradition. ISBN 9780859915724. https://books.google.com/books?id=UI93dKBwWdMC&pg=PA165.
- ↑ Busby, Keith; Dalrymple, Roger (2005) (in en). Arthurian Literature XXII. DS Brewer. ISBN 9781843840626. https://books.google.com/books?id=NenKwH-6zg8C&pg=PA13.
- ↑ Matthews, John (25 March 2003). "Sir Gawain: Knight of the Goddess". Simon and Schuster. https://books.google.com/books?id=x14oDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT105.
- ↑ Duggan, Joseph J. (1 October 2008). "The Romances of Chretien de Troyes". Yale University Press. https://books.google.com/books?id=HSmto0TQZBgC&pg=PA258.
- ↑ Barber, Richard (17 February 1991). "Arthurian Literature X". Boydell & Brewer Ltd. https://books.google.com/books?id=Z1RB5z6u_KsC&pg=PA40.
- ↑ Eschenback, Wolfram von. "Parzival A Knightly Epic Volume 1 (of 2) (English Edition)". New York G. E. Stechert & Co. https://books.google.com/books?id=uXhYBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT232.
- ↑ Darrah, John (17 February 1997). "Paganism in Arthurian Romance". Boydell & Brewer. https://books.google.com/books?id=mjsWsH6tKwUC&pg=PA196.
- ↑ "Argante of Areley Kings: Regional Definitions of National Identity in Layamon's Brut". Ohio State University. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/ohiou1307121254/inline.
- ↑ Larrington, Carolyne (2006) (in en). King Arthur's Enchantresses: Morgan and Her Sisters in Arthurian Tradition. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9780857714060. https://books.google.com/books?id=K0ABAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA217.
- ↑ Gardner, Edmund G. (3 January 1930). "The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature". J.M. Dent & Sons Limited. https://books.google.com/books?id=WaoqAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA164.
- ↑ Sharrer, Harvey (May 25, 1971). "The Passing of King Arthur to the Island of Brasil in a Fifteenth-Century Spanish Version of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Grall". Romania 92 (365): 65–74. doi:10.3406/roma.1971.2265. https://www.persee.fr/doc/roma_0035-8029_1971_num_92_365_2265.
- ↑ Barber, Richard W. (2004). The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief. ISBN 9780674013902. https://books.google.com/books?id=_lLbiZCNhlAC&pg=PA132.
- ↑ Marino, John Barry (17 February 2004). "The Grail Legend in Modern Literature". DS Brewer. https://books.google.com/books?id=Bpvg6LuXCycC&pg=PA18.
- ↑ "Stanzaic Morte Arthur, Part 3". Robbins Library Digital Projects. http://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/text/benson-and-foster-king-arthurs-death-stanzaic-morte-arthur-part-iii.
- ↑ "Alliterative Morte Arthure, Part IV | Robbins Library Digital Projects". https://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/text/alliterative-morte-arthur-part-iv.
- ↑ Matthews, John; Matthews, Caitlín (2017). The Complete King Arthur: Many Faces, One Hero. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781620556009. https://books.google.com/books?id=RGEoDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT219.
- ↑ Michael Twomey (January 2008). "'Morgan le Fay, Empress of the Wilderness': A Newly Recovered Arthurian Text in London, BL Royal 12.C.ix | Michael Twomey". Arthurian Literature (Academia.edu) 25. https://www.academia.edu/11688947. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- ↑ Hebert, Jill M. (2013). Morgan le Fay, Shapeshifter. Springer. ISBN 9781137022653. https://books.google.com/books?id=-IY-zIn5VHUC&pg=PT40.
- ↑ "La desaparición de Morgana: de Tirant lo Blanch (1490) y Amadís de Gaula (1508) a Tyrant le Blanch (1737)". 1998. https://repositori.udl.cat/handle/10459.1/59590.
- ↑ Hamilton, A. C. (2003). The Spenser Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9781134934812. https://books.google.com/books?id=8T0hy0wg0KEC&pg=PT836.
- ↑ "HUON OF BORDEAUX.* » 25 Jan 1896 » The Spectator Archive". http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/25th-january-1896/6/huon-of-bordeaux.
- ↑ "Digitised Manuscripts: BL Royal MS 15 E vi". http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Royal_MS_15_e_vi.
- ↑ Green, Richard Firth (26 September 2016). Elf Queens and Holy Friars: Fairy Beliefs and the Medieval Church. ISBN 9780812293166. https://books.google.com/books?id=oOIjDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA186.
- ↑ Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Ogier the Dane". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 23.
- ↑ "Floriant et Florete: An Arthurian Romance of the Mediterranean". https://www.nypl.org/blog/2012/06/07/floriant-and-florete-arthurian-romance-mediterranean.
- ↑ "De l'illa de Mallorca a l'Illa Encantada: arrels artúriques de La Faula de Guillem de Torroella". https://www.europeana.eu/portal/pl/record/2022701/oai_es_red_aracne_oai_sendebar_clarisel_es_7288.html.
- ↑ "'But Arthur's Grave is Nowhere Seen'". http://www.arthuriana.co.uk/n&q/return.htm.
- ↑ "MEDIEVALISTA". http://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/iem/medievalista/MEDIEVALISTA10/carreto1005.html.
- ↑ Allcroft, Arthur Hadrian (1908), Earthwork of England: Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, Danish, Norman and Mediæval, Nabu Press, pp. 69–70, ISBN 978-1-178-13643-2, https://books.google.com/books?id=X14TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA69, retrieved 12 April 2011
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 "Two Accounts of the Exhumation of Arthur's Body: Gerald of Wales". britannia.com. http://www.britannia.com/history/docs/debarri.html.
- ↑ Malory, Thomas (15 September 2008). Le Morte Darthur: The Seventh and Eighth Tales. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 9781603840484. https://books.google.com/books?id=U6t5EAAAQBAJ&pg=PA136.
- ↑ Williams, Mary (1962). "King Arthur in History and Legend". Folklore 73 (2): 73–88. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1962.9717319. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1258608.
- ↑ Richard Barber, "Was Mordred buried at Glastonbury?: Arthurian tradition at Glastonbury in the middle ages", in Carley 2001, pp. 145–59, 316
- ↑ Modern scholarship views the Glastonbury cross as the result of a late 12th-century fraud. See Rahtz 1993; Carey 1999; Harris 2018.
- ↑ O. J. Padel. (1994). "The Nature of Arthur" in Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, 27, pp. 1–31, at p. 10
- ↑ "Glastonbury", in Norris J. Lacy (ed.) (1986). The Arthurian Encyclopedia. New York: Peter Bedrick Books.
- ↑ J. C. Parsons, "The second exhumation of King Arthur's remains at Glastonbury, 19 April 1278", in Carley 2001, pp. 179–83
- ↑ Luxford, Julian (2012). "King Arthur's tomb at Glastonbury: the relocation of 1368 in context". Arthurian Literature 29: 41–51. doi:10.1017/9781782040637.003. ISBN 9781782040637.
- ↑ Rahtz 1993
- ↑ Barber, Richard W. (3 January 2004). The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674013902. https://books.google.com/books?id=_lLbiZCNhlAC&pg=PA132.
- ↑ John Ezard (25 June 1990). "Treadmill in the Vale of Avalon". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/music/1990/jun/25/glastonbury2003.glastonbury.
- ↑ "Glastonbury: Alternative Histories", in Ronald Hutton, Witches, Druids and King Arthur.
- ↑ Loomis, Roger Sherman Wales and the Arthurian Legend, pub. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 1956 and reprinted by Folcroft Press 1973, Chapter 5 King Arthur and the Antipodes, pp. 70–71.
- ↑ Avalon in Norris J. Lacy, Editor, The Arthurian Encyclopedia (1986 Peter Bedrick Books, New York).
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 Walmsley, Eric (2013) (in en). King Arthur's Battle for Britain. Troubador Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781780887173. https://books.google.com/books?id=E0bdCQAAQBAJ&pg=PT189.
- ↑ Steiger, Brad; Steiger, Sherry Hansen (2003) (in en). The Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained. Thomson/Gale. ISBN 9780787653842. https://archive.org/details/galeencyclopedia0000stei.
- ↑ Whalen, Logan (2011) (in en). A Companion to Marie de France. BRILL. ISBN 9789004202177. https://books.google.com/books?id=RjTemgeEUs0C&pg=PA33.
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 "Avalon, a place between mythology and the utopia of a lost kingdom" (in en-US). http://www.faena.com/aleph/articles/avalon-a-place-between-mythology-and-the-utopia-of-a-lost-kingdom/.
- ↑ Warren, William (1885). "VI, part 5". Paradise Found: The Cradle of the Human Race at the North Pole, a Study of the Prehistoric World.
- ↑ Geoffrey Ashe (1985). The Discovery of King Arthur. London: Guild Publishing. pp. 95–96.
- ↑ "The Lost Tomb of King Arthur 6". http://www.grahamphillips.net/arthur_tomb/arthur_tomb6.html.
- Barber, Richard (1986). King Arthur: Hero and Legend (3rd ed.). Woodbridge: Boydell.
- Carey, John (1999). "The finding of Arthur's grave: a story from Clonmacnoise?". in Carey, John; Koch, John T.; Lambert, Pierre-Yves. Ildánach Ildírech: A Festschrift for Proinsias Mac Cana. Andover: Celtic Studies Publications. pp. 1–14. ISBN 978-1-891271-01-4.
- Carley, James P. (2001). Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian Tradition. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. ISBN 978-0-85991-572-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=-YZYTTST1YkC&pg=PA316.
- Harris, Oliver D. (2018). "'Which I have beholden with most curiouse eyes': the lead cross from Glastonbury Abbey". Arthurian Literature 34: 88–129. doi:10.1017/9781787442535.006. ISBN 978-1-84384-483-9.
- Rahtz, Philip (1993). English Heritage Book of Glastonbury. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-6865-6.
- Robinson, J. Armitage (1926). Two Glastonbury Legends: King Arthur and St Joseph of Arimathea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Tatlock, J. S. P. (1950). The Legendary History of Britain: Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae and its early vernacular versions. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Stout, Adam (2016). "Savaric, Glastonbury and the making of myths: a reappraisal". Antiquaries Journal 96: 101–15. doi:10.1017/S0003581516000196.
- Avalon at The Camelot Project
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalon. Read more