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Antennas for High-speed Amateur-radio Multimedia Network (HamNET) in Europe, part of the AMPRNet wireless mesh network

The AMPRNet (AMateur Packet Radio Network) or Network 44 is used in amateur radio for packet radio and digital communications between computer networks managed by amateur radio operators. Like other amateur radio frequency allocations, an IP range of was provided in 1981 for Amateur Radio Digital Communications (a generic term) and self-administered by radio amateurs. In 2001, undocumented and dual-use of as an internet telescope began,[1] recording the spread of the Code Red II worm in July 2001. In mid-2019, part of IPv4 range was sold off for conventional use, due to IPv4 address exhaustion.

Amateur Radio Digital Communications (mode)

Beginning on 1 May 1978, the Canadian authorities allowed radio amateurs on the 1.25-meter band (220 MHz) to use packet radio, and later in 1978 announced the "Amateur Digital Radio Operator's Certificate".[2][3] Discussion on digital communication amateur radio modes, using the internet protocol suite[4] and 44/8 IPv4 addresses followed subsequently.

By 1988, one thousand assignments of address space had been made.[5] (As of December 2009) approximately 1% of inbound traffic volume to the 44/8 network was legitimate radio amateur traffic that could be routed onwards, with the remaining 2‒100 gigabyte per day of Internet background noise being diverted and logged by the University of California San Diego (UCSD) internet telescope for research purposes.[1] By 2016, the European-based High-speed Amateur-radio Multimedia NETwork (HAMNET) offered a multi-megabit Internet protocol network with 4,000 nodes, covering central Europe.[6]

History and design

The use of TCP/IP on amateur radio, using packet radio networks, occurred early on in the history of the Internet and preceded the appearance of the public Internet. The class A 44/8 netblock of 16.7 million IP addresses was set aside for amateur radio users worldwide, having been secured in 1981 by Hank Magnuski;[7][8] when computer networking was in its infancy and prior to Internet flag day when the ARPANET Network Control Protocol (NCP) was replaced by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) on 1 January 1983.[8] The initial name used by Jon Postel in RFC 790 was the "Amateur Radio Experiment Net".[7]

Originally packet radio was used as a low level protocol for many competing higher level protocols, and TCP/IP users were essentially a minority due to the complexity of the configuration. The low baud rates also inflamed packet node site owners, as they saw the IP protocol as having too high of a protocol overhead. Very few systems operated over HF for this reason. The best solution on 1,200/9,600-baud VHF networks emerged as TCP/IP over ROSE (Radio Amateur Telecommunications Society "RATS" Open Systems Environment, based on X.25 CCITT standard). Within just a few years the public Internet made these solutions obsolete. The ROSE system today is maintained by the Open Source FPAC Linux project.[9]

The AMPRNet is connected by wireless links and Internet tunnels. Due to the bandwidth limitations of the radio spectrum, VHF and UHF links are commonly 1,200-baud, and usually restricted to a maximum of 9,600 baud. Although with the advent of mass-produced Wi-Fi equipment on 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz this technology is now being used to provide much faster links on nearby amateur frequencies. 300 baud is normally used on HF. Microwave links generally do not use packet radio, and instead use the commercial Wi-Fi access points (as high-speed multimedia radio (HSMM) or hinternet). The AMPRNet fully supports TCP/IP allowing for support of all network protocols.

The AMPRNet is composed of a series of subnets throughout the world. Portions of the network have point-to-point radio links to adjacent nodes, while others are completely isolated.

Geographically dispersed radio subnets can be connected using an IP tunnel between sites with Internet connectivity. Many of these sites also have a tunnel to a central router, which routes between the 44 network and the rest of the Internet using static routing tables updated by volunteers.

(As of October 2011) experimentation had moved beyond these centrally controlled static solutions, to dynamic configurations provided by Peer to Peer VPN systems such as n2n, and ZeroTier.

Address administration

The allocation plan agreed in late-1986 mandated 44.0/9 (~8 million addresses) for use within the United States, under Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations;[10] and mandated 44.128/9 (~8 million addresses) for the Rest-of-World deployment, outside of FCC regulations.[10]

Remaining Internet protocol (IP) addresses in this block are in the and networks, and theoretically available to any licensed amateur radio operator.[11] The IP address management and assigning of addresses is done by volunteer coordinators with the proviso "we do not provide the same level of response as a commercial organisation." These addresses can possibly be made routable over the Internet if fully coordinated with the volunteer administrators. Radio amateurs wanting to request IP addresses within the AMPRNet should visit the AMPRNet Portal.[12]

mirrorshades router

San Diego Supercomputer Center, host of AMPRNet internet gateway, and CAIDA/UCSD network telescope

Since the 1990s most packets within the 44/8 range were arranged to transit via an IP tunnel using IP in IP encapsulation to/from a router hosted at the University of California, San Diego.[13] This forwarding router was originally named[13] and later[14] or "AmprGW".[11][14][15][16]

By 1996 higher-speed 56k modems briefly had greater throughput than was possible to forward via the "mirrorshades" central reflector router and back again.[17] Only IP addresses with an active Domain Name System (DNS) entry under are passed by the packet filter for forwarding.[11][18]

By 19 August 1999 daily encapsulated IP in IP traffic was ~100 kilobits per second, peaking to 0.14 megabits per second.[19] During mid-2000, the majority of unique IP addresses seen on the University of California, San Diego connection from CERFnet began with the 44 prefix, except for 17% of IP addresses which did not.[20] In mid-2009 the mirrorshades server was upgraded and replaced after about ~1,100 days uptime.[21] A funding proposal in 2010 raised the possibility that "The legitimate traffic is also a potential research resource".[1]

UCSD Network Telescope

Beginning in February 2001,[1][22][23][24] as part of backscatter research and the CAIDA/UCSD network telescope project, the whole of the 44/8 address block[25] was being advertised via the border gateway protocol (BGP) as a passive honeypot for Internet background noise and backscatter collection,[24][26] based in the Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis[note 1] at the San Diego Supercomputer Center.[29] On 15 July 2001 the network monitoring of traffic recorded the spread of the Code Red II worm.[30] Prior to July 2001, the project had been logging unsolicited TCP SYN packets destined for IP addresses within; and after 19 July 2001 full incoming IP header logging took place.[31] The 44/8 IP address block was stated to have "high value to research".[32]

Capture data for August 2001, using data compression and retaining only IP headers was 0.5 gigabyte per hour.[33] In 2002 the block was 0.4% of all internet IPv4 address space.[34] By September 2003, traffic was 0.75 terabytes per month and costing $2,500 per month for bandwidth.[35] In October 2004 Limelight Networks began to sponsor the internet transit costs of the CAIDA network telescope.[35] In April 2009 the upstream rate limiting was removed, increasing the number of packets reaching the network telescope.[36] At the end of 2012, was the network telescope data capture server with used for near real-time data access.[25][37][38] (As of 2016), the 44/8 network was receiving backscatter from Denial-of-Service attacks (DoS) each measuring ~226 packets per second (mean peak average).[39] Totalling 37 terabytes per month.[38]

Support was supplied by Cisco Systems under a University Research Board (UBR) grant.[31][40] The project was funded by an Advanced Networking Infrastructure and Research (ANIR) award,[41] and Computer and Network Systems (CNS) award[42] from the National Science Foundation (NSF); the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS);[41] and Network Modeling & Simulation (NMS) / Next Generation Internet Program (NGI) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).[26][31]

  1. Both "Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis" (CAIDA) and "Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis" (CAIDA) appear in academic texts.[27][28]

In May 2017, the Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis provided a new server for the AMPRNet gateway, in a different building.[16] As of mid-2017 a passive monitoring configuration was in use, involving a network switch with port mirroring set to duplicate the incoming packets being seen by the AMPRNet gateway to the UCSD network telescope capture server.[24] The project funding proposal for "Sustainable Tools for Analysis and Research on Darknet Unsolicited Traffic" (STARDUST) specified a planned upgrading to 10 Gigabit Ethernet with a passive optical tap, in order to provide finer timestamping and avoid packet loss.[24]

By July 2018, the replacement 10 Gigabit Ethernet infrastructure, using an optical splitter and Endace capture card, was operational.[43]


The archived intermittent captures for 2001‒2008 were 657 gigabytes.[44] The archived pcap captures from 2008‒2012 were 192 terabytes of data uncompressed.[45] In January 2012, five weeks of recent data were 5.5 terabytes uncompressed.[45] Beginning on 22 March 2012, the raw hourly compressed pcap traces from 2003‒2012 were transferred to the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) for long-term storage and research data archiving.[36] This data migration of 104.66 Tebibyte took one week at a sustained rate of 1.5 gigabits per second via the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet).[36]

For the 2012‒2017 period, 2.85 petabytes of data was collected (1.3 petabyte compressed).[25] (As of December 2017), the overall total collected by the UCSD Network Telescope stood at 3.25 petabytes (uncompressed), stored across 129,552 hourly files.[25]

Users of the collected data up to 2012 are requested to acknowledge that "Support for Backscatter Datasets and the UCSD Network Telescope is provided by Cisco Systems, Limelight Networks, the US Department of Homeland Security, the National Science Foundation, DARPA, Digital Envoy, and CAIDA Members."[46]

Block size

The original Class A network allocation for amateur radio was made in the 1970s,[47] and recorded in September 1981,[7] which consisted of ~16 million IP addresses. As of 18 July 2019, the lower 75% of the 44/8 block (~12 million addresses) remained for amateur radio usage, with the upper 25% (44.192/10, ~4 million IP address) having been sold.[48][49]

Owing to IPv4 address exhaustion, by 2016 the 44/8 block was worth over United States dollar 100 million.[8] The 44/8 routing prefix aggregation stopped being advertised on 4 June 2019.[50] John Curran, CEO of the American Registry for Internet Numbers registry stated that a request for the transfer of IP addresses had been received and reviewed in accordance with ARIN policy.[51]

On 18 July 2019, the designation recorded by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority was altered from "044/8 Amateur Radio Digital Communications"[52] to "044/8 Administered by ARIN".[53] On 18 July 2019, there was a sale of address space to Amazon Technologies Inc, which was the highest bidder,[49] for use by Amazon Web Services.[54] AMPRNet subsequently consisted of 44.0/9, and 44.128/10,[55] with no plans to sell any more address space.[56]

The aspiration expressed by those involved in the sale was that money be held by a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization for the advancement of amateur radio.[57] The sale raised over $50 million.[56] Prior to sale, addresses in the 44.192/10 block had been allocated to amateur radio areas for the outer space-amateur radio satellite service,[58][59][60] to roaming,[60] Oceania,[58][59][60] Antarctica,[58][59][60] the Arctic,[58][59][60] Italy for Centro Italiano Sperimentazione ed Attività Radiantistiche (CisarNet)[61][62] Germany for Stuttgart/Tübingen,[63] Eppstein,[63] plus the Germany/pan-European Highspeed Amateur-radio Multimedia NETwork [de] (HAMNET).[62][64][65]


Paul Vixie stated after the sale of IP address space that " can make better use of money than IP space in fulfilling its nonprofit mission, at this stage of the game."[66]

Doug Barton, a former manager of Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, said the "reaction that we're seeing now is 100% predictable ... that doesn't change anything about my opinion that the sale itself was totally reasonable, done by reasonable people, and in keeping with the concept of being good stewards of the space.[67]

Amateur Radio Digital Communications (committee)

An Amateur Radio Digital Communications committee was formed to offer advice on digital standards to the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) board of directors, following a meeting in 1981. The original working name was the "ARRL Ad Hoc Committee on Digital Communication", abbreviated to "digital committee".[68] During the mid-1980s, the committee had been meeting twice per year: during the middle of the year, and again at the annual Computer Networking conference.[69]

In September 1987, the committee recommended the list of frequencies that would be used in North America for packet radio and digital communications.[70] In January 1988, the committee held a meeting to standardise AX.25 version 3.[71] In March 1988, the "Packet Radio Frequency Recommendations" were published by the committee.[72]

During early 1993 the committee and ARRL board of directors were working on guidelines for semi-automatic digital stations, with the proposals passed to the Federal Communications Commission.[73]

Amateur Radio Digital Communications (non-profit)

Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.
Year US$, assets at end of year
2012[lower-alpha 1]
456($-842 equity)
2013[lower-alpha 2]
830($-1,584 equity)
2014[lower-alpha 3]
6,399($3,700 equity)
2015[lower-alpha 4]
6,567($3,558 equity)
2016[lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 6]
6,717($3,708 equity)
2017[lower-alpha 6]
2,621($1,731 equity)
2018[lower-alpha 7]
13,829($-7,855 equity)
2019[lower-alpha 8]
2020[lower-alpha 9]

On 6 October 2011 a Californian non-profit company was founded with the name of "Amateur Radio Digital Communications", and recorded by the State of California on 11 October 2011 with an address of "5663 Balboa Avenue, Suite 432, San Diego, California[74]—a UPS store address. On 22 June 2012,[75] 29 September 2015,[76] and 18 September 2017,[77] filings were made listing the company officers as:

Brian Kantor
President[75]:5 or Chief Executive Officer[76][77]
Erin Kenneally
Kimberly Claffy
Treasurer[75]:5 or Chief Financial Officer[76][77]

In 2011, the American Registry for Internet Numbers approved a request to change the registration of the whole 44/8 network block from an individual contact, to the "Amateur Radio Digital Communications" non-profit company.[78]

Activities were to "conserve scarce AMPRNet Internet protocol resources, and to educate networks users on how to efficiently utilize these resources as a service to the entire Internet community" initiated "in the second half of 2012 by the President via communications with American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)".[75]:3 Plans included "the issuance of grants and other financial support to educational institutions, foundations and other organizations. [...] expected to commence in 2013 via a joint effort of the three founding Directors [...]".[75]:3

During December 2017 Kantor announced their retirement from University of California San Diego.[14][79] Re-stated (changed) articles of incorporation for the "Amateur Radio Digital Communications" non-profit were signed on 13 December 2017,[80] and filed on 17 December 2017.[80] In May 2019, Kantor signed an agreement extending UCSD/CAIDA's use of Amprnet addresses for data collection until 31 July 2023.[81]

Brian Kantor died in November 2019. In February/March 2020, the Center for Networked Systems (CNS) of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) received $225,000, given by ARDC to allow financial endowment of a student scholarship in the name of Alan Turing and honouring Brian Kantor.[82]


Radome on Green Building at MIT saved by ARDC support in 2021

In May 2021, ARDC provided a one-off grant of $1.6 million to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology amateur radio club (W1MX) to save and rebuild the radome on top of the MIT Green Building (building 54).[83]

In November 2021, ARDC awarded a five-year grant, for a total of $1.3 million, to support US-based activities around Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS-USA).[84]

In January 2022, the Internet Archive received a grant of $0.9 million for assembling a planned Digital Library of Amateur Radio and Communications (DLARC).[85]

See also

  • AX.25
  • High-speed multimedia radio
  • Winlink


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (2010-04-09) (Project Summary). A Real-time Lens into Dark Address Space of the Internet (Report). pp. 1, 2, 6. "operating the UCSD telescope since 2001 ... ensure active life of the UCSD Network telescope until at least the end of 2013. ... expand our telescope instrumentation to enable researchers to exploit this unique global data source ... uses a /8 mostly "dark" (unassigned) network prefix ... and has only a few assigned addresses. We separate the legitimate traffic destined to those few reachable IP addresses, and monitor only the traffic destined to the empty address space. ... the network's border router separates the legitimate traffic arriving at the telescope network (typically less than 1% of the total traffic volume) and forwards only non-legitimate traffic for monitoring and storage ... As of December 2009, the network telescope captures in the range of 2GB up to and exceeding 100GB of compressed trace data per day. ... The legitimate traffic is also a potential research resource, ... participates in DHS's Protected REpository for the Defense of Infrastructure against Cyber Threats (PREDICT) project, ... for annotating and indexing telescope data" 
  2. Rouleau, Robert T. (December 1978). Green, Wayne. ed. "The Packet Radio Revolution". 73 Amateur Radio Today: 183, 184. "the Canadian authorities announced the creation of a new "Amateur Digital Radio Operator's Certificate" ... On [1978-05-01], the Montreal Amateur Radio Club sent the first amateur packets. ... Canada is the only country which is permitting amateurs to experiment with packet.". 
  3. Canadian Amateur Radio Federation (December 1978). Green, Wayne. ed. "Doc publishes details of new "no-code" "digital" certificate.". 73 Amateur Radio Today: 278. "known up to now as the "experimenter's" certificate and "packet radio," were made public on [1978-09-14]. These changes came into effect [1978-09-30]. Holders of the new ticket, now called the "Amateur Digital Radio Operator's Certificate," will be permitted operation on two meters and above using various modes of operation. ... Packet radio will be permitted to all three classes in certain parts of the 220-MHz band.". 
  4. Rinaldo, Paul L. (1981-10-16). "Internet Standards". First international amateur radio computer networking conference. p. 1.2. "If the internet is to work it must have agreed standards. ... For example, do we want to look for government seed money and configure the network so that it can handle government traffic in emergencies; e.g. use ARPA's Internet protocol?" 
  5. Garbee, Bdale (1988-10-01). "More and Faster Bits: A Look At Packet Radio's Future". 7th Computer Networking Conference. American Radio Relay League. "One rough estimate is the number of Internet addresses that have been assigned from the "network 44" block for amateur packet radio: about 1,000 amateurs in several dozen countries." 
  6. Goodwins, Rupert (2016-06-19). "When everything else fails, amateur radio will still be there—and thriving". Ars Technica. "Ham is now a full-fat fabric that can provide Internet access. Why aren't you using it? ... Take the European HAMNET, ... four-thousand-node high speed data network covering a large part of continental Europe and providing full IP connectivity at megabit speeds. It connects to the Internet—ham radio owns 16 million IPV4 addresses ..." 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Postel, Jon; Network Working Group (September 1981). Assigned Numbers (Report). Request for Comments 790. pp. 1, 14. "044.rrr.rrr.rrr ... AMPRNET ... Amature Radio Experiment Net [HM] ... [HM] Hank Magnuski" 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Fields, Bryan (2017-10-13). "IPv4 History". IPv6 In Amateur Radio HamWAN Tampa Bay. pp. 6. "On [1983-01-01] Flag Day took place, NCP was shut off, IP turned on. ... Hams get 44/8 thanks to Hank Magnuski, KA6M – Circa 1981 ... Legacy assigned IP space commands a premium. 44/8 is one of these blocks ... 44/8 is worth >100M USD now! ... 2016" 
  9. Bernard Pidoux. "Linux FPAC mini-HOWTO". 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Linstruth, Wally (1986-11-12). [x "IP addressing"]. x. "current IP address assignments which I have offered to coordinate. The proposed scheme has been reviewed by Phil Karn, Bdale Garbee and (verbally with) Mike Chepponis, all of whom have encouraged that it be used. ... Bit 8 to be 0 for USA stations and 1 for non-USA stations. ... meant to provide a very quick means for segregating FCC controlled participants from non-FCC stations. ... 8 million plus addresses ought to last the US amateur population for some time to come." 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "AMPRNet FAQ". "Those hams who wish to join an existing radio subnet may receive one or more addresses from within the block allocated to the subnet they wish to join. ... AmprGW is a server run by Brian Kantor at UCSD as part of a long-running Internet research project. ... selective gateway between non-AMPRNet internet devices and the IPIP (mesh) AMPRNet. ... filters at the per-host(/32) level. ... If there is no DNS A record for a tunneled amprnet destination host, the traffic is not forwarded ... In mid-2019, we sold one quarter (abount 4 million) of those addresses (a /10) to obtain funds to support our philanthropic arm." 
  12. AMPRNet Portal
  13. 13.0 13.1 Sloman, Jeffrey (February 1994). Green, Wayne. ed. "Packet & Computers". 73 Amateur Radio Today (401): 72. "Amateur addresses always start with 44. This is the address for the domain; the name '' amps to the addresses that lie in the 44.x.x.x address space ... All amateur addresses assigned by IP coordinators are sent to a host at the University of California at San Diego called '' ... acts as a router. This means that any time there is traffic anywhere on the Internet that starts with 44, it is sent to 'mirrorshades', which looks at the address and sends it on its way to the correct gateway.". 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Kantor, Brian (2017-12-16). [x "retirement"] (email). x. "retiring from UCSD, after 47 years on campus. ... will continue to use the address for some AMPRNet and ARDC business. Amprgw ( will continue to operate ... as part of the CAIDA research group continuing measurement and analysis of dark networks project." 
  15. Kantor, Brian (2017-05-27). "Amprgw". AMPRNet Wiki. "AMPRGW is, at IP address It is the Internet-to-AMPRNet router." 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Kantor, Brian (2017-05-24). [x "Good News! and some changes coming"]. in Nugent, Jay. x. "Good News! Our friends in the CAIDA research group at UCSD have come up with a new machine for amprgw, [...] with faster CPU, more cores, and more memory. It also has RAIDed disk and dual power supplies, although unlike the current amprgw, it won't be on a UPS. ... new building ... the gateway will have a new address ... Instead of ... '' as the current one on address ... will be '' (no 'sysnet' in the name), [...] address" 
  17. Stroh, Steve (1996). "One person's view of DCC '96". Packet Status Register (Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corporation) (64): 24,26,27. "the Vancouver group has found it necessary to obtain IP address assignments outside of the 44.x.x.x address space because the 44.x.x.x router (mirrorshades) simply doesn't have the throughput necessary to keep up with a 56K system. ... being around Phil Karn, KA9Q, who invented Amateur Radio TCP/IP (with a lot of help)". 
  18. "Quickstart". AMPRNet Wiki. "Note that the main tunnel router at UCSD will NOT pass traffic to an IP address unless that address is associated with a hostname in the DNS domain." 
  19. Claffy, Kimberly; CAIDA; San Diego Supercomputer Center; University of California San Diego (October 1999). "Workload char.: protocol". ACM Internet Measurement Conference. "[1999-08-19], ucsd-cerfnet. ... Protocol Breakdown ‒ 1 day IPENCAP Min: 0.00 M; Avg: 0.01 M; 0.014 M. generated " 
  20. Claffy, Kimberly; Gehrke, Lynnelle; University of California, San Diego (2000-10-31). "For the period 01 July 2000 to 30 September 2000" (Recipient's progress status and management report). Predictability and Security of High Performance Networks (9). "For the period 01 July 2000 to 30 September 2000 ... Report #9 ... Contract N66001-98-2-8922 ... October 31, 2000 ... CERFnet link data is also of limited use in gathering raw IP addresses, mostly due to UCSD's hosting a packet radio service for which an entire class A address segment ( is allocated, a total of 16M addresses. Many of those are assigned on a temporary (per session) basis. For example, the data from CERF link for the three weekend days between 23–25 June 2000 contained 1.47 million IPs. Of those, 1.17 million were not found in sources processed before [2000-06-23]. Nonetheless, only 162,669 (17%) of them begin with a number other than 44. ... Contract #: N66001-98-2-8922 ... Contract Period of Performance: [1998-07-16] to [2001-07-15]; Ceiling Value: $6,655,449" 
  21. Koster, Ken (2009-07-13). "More openvpn discussion - was Re: FYI - 44 Net ...". Seattle Amateur Packet Radio mailing list (SeaTCP). Washington Experimenter's Tcp/ip NETwork (WetNET). "Brian has the new gateway box up and running and the old one has been retired (after being up for something like 1100 days). ... new mirrorshades now supports additional protocols (ipudp) and Brian has shown an interest in perhaps using something like openvpn if there is enough interest." 
  22. Moore, David (2001-05-21). "UCSD Researchers Analyze Prevalence and Patterns of Worldwide Denial-of-Service Attacks on the Internet" (Press release). San Diego Supercomputer Center. new technique called "backscatter analysis" ... Brian Kantor and Jim Madden of UCSD provided access to key network resources and clarified the local network topology.
  23. Voelker, Geoffrey M.; Moore, David; Savage, Stefan (2001-10-17). "Inferring Internet Denial-of-Service Activity". ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (University of Virginia) 24 (2): 11,12,27,28. doi:10.1145/1132026.1132027. "How can you monitor enough of the Internet to obtain a representative sample? ... Experimental Setup: Internet; Monitor (w/big disk) ... Quiescent /8 Network (224 addresses) ... three weeks of traces (February 2001) ... >12,000 attacks against >5,000 targets in a week ... Most <1,000 pps, but some over 600,000 pps ... In July [2001], David Moore used the same technique to track the Code Red Worm ... our /8 (our looking glass)". 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 "Project Summary" (telescope.dvi). 2017-06-10. "In operation since 2001, the UCSD-NT ... In 2011 we enhanced the Telescope instrumentation to enable access to raw and live telescope traffic data ... over 100 publications – without UCSD co-authors ... At least six PhD theses have used UCSD-NT traffic data ... Figure 2 illustrates our current packet capture infrastructure. The UCSD-NT observes traffic reaching the unused portion of a /8 IPv4 address block (i.e., ≈16M IPv4 addresses) operated by a non-profit organization for experimental use. The telescope /8 address block is announced to the Internet through BGP by a UC San Diego router, which forwards all the traffic for the /8 to the non-profit organization's router (NP-router) through a 1 Gbit/s link. The upstream switch mirrors all traffic on this link to the UCSD-NT capture server, which filters away traffic to utilized addresses and then captures and compresses the remainder (i.e., traffic to all unassigned addresses in the /8 subnet) to files on disk. Every hour these files are transferred to a storage server that holds a sliding window of the last two months of raw pcap data, after which the files are transferred to an off-site tape archive. ... we will upgrade all connected device interfaces (NP-router, storage server) to 10 Gbit/s and we will install an optical splitter ... historical telescope data archive (currently approaching 1 Petabyte of compressed pcap, and increasing at ≈36TB per month) ... As of end of 2016" 
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Claffy, K.; Fomenkov, Marina; University of California San Diego; Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA) (2018-06-22). Rose, Fraces A.; Matyjas, John D.. eds. "Final technical report". Supporting Research and Development of Security Technologies Through Network and Security Data Collection (Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate): iii,2, 3, 7. 
    Sep 2012 – Dec 2017 ... Grant number: FA8750-12-2-0326 ... engaged in collecting packet-level data from the UCSD Network Telescope (which monitors a /8 IPv4 darknet) ... To help further advance cybersecurity research, we provided access to this sensitive data – real-time traffic destined for blackhole address space ... The UCSD Network Telescope consists of a large piece of globally announced IPv4 address space (/8 segment). This address space contains almost no legitimate hosts, so inbound traffic to non-existent machines is unsolicited, and anomalous in some way. ... We collected pcap files (header and content) from the UCSD Network Telescope, instrumentation that monitors, strips the payload, and retains a sliding most recent two-month window of data on our machines, while archiving older data to an outside facility (NERSC). ... For UCSD Telescope data processing and visualization, we had access to 15 dedicated compute nodes and one I/O node on the SDSC Gordon supercomputer platform that stored and processed the indexed time-series data. ... after stripping the payload, stored them in one-hour long files in PCAP format. We made these files available in near-real-time (with 1-hour delay). ... dedicated system administrator with experience in managing data processing pipelines administered these facilities ... number of files and the total volume of data collected ... (from [2012-10-01] until [2017-12-31]) as well as cumulative size ... Telescope: number of files: 129552; Size: 2.85 PB; On-disk size (compressed), [at 2017-12-31]: 1.30 PB; Uncompressed size, [at 2017-12-31]: 3.25 PB
  26. 26.0 26.1 Moore, David; CAIDA; Voelker, Geoffrey M.; Savage, Stefan (2001-05-17). "Inferring Internet Denial-of-Service Activity". San Diego Supercomputer Center. p. 5,13. "experimental backscatter collection platform. We monitor all traffic to our /8 network by passively monitoring data as it is forwarded through a shared hub. ... monitored the sole ingress link into a lightly utilized /8 network (comprising 224 distinct IP addresses, or 1/256 of the total Internet address space). ... configured to capture all Ethernet traffic ... grateful to Brian Kantor and Jim Madden of UCSD who provided access to key network resources ... kc claffy and Colleen Shannon at CAIDA provided support ... DARPA NGI Contract N66001-98-2-8922, NSF grant NCR-9711092" 
  27. "Researchers focus on Net attacks with network telescope". Computer Weekly. 2002-08-12. Retrieved 2019-07-22. "A "network telescope" operated by the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA), in San Diego, has gathered statistics about DoS attacks and the 2001 Code Red and Code Red 2 worm attacks ... a large block of IP (Internet protocol) addresses at the University of California at San Diego, a block so big that it makes up some 0.4% of the world's addresses.". 
  28. Brownlee, Nevil (2005-03-31). Dovrolis, Constantinos. ed. Some Observations of Internet Stream Lifetimes. Boston University: Springer. p. 277. ISBN 9783540319665. "Support for this work is provided by DARPA NMS Contract darpa N66001-01-1-8909, NSF Award NCR-9711092 'CAIDA: Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis,' and the University of Auckland." 
  29. Fields, Bryan; Former ARDC Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) member (2019-07-19). "44/8". "was a TAC committee member (I resigned in disgust just 15 min ago), and the board has failed to inform anyone ... private little thing ... with Brian and KC ... huge conflict of interest in KC being a board member of ARDC and Network Telescope getting a feed of 44/8 direct at no cost. ... 44/8 announcement and UCSD routing broke connectivity to directly connected BGP subnets for years. ... Brian retiring from UCSD ... being a board member ... can be a lucrative job. ... broken reverse DNS for all of 44/8. ... theft from the community it was meant to serve." 
  30. Moore, David; Shannon, Colleen (2001-07-25). "The Spread of the Code-Red Worm (CRv2)". Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis. "10:00 UTC in the morning of [2001-07-19] ... Between midnight and 16:30 UTC, a passive network monitor recorded headers of all packets destined for the /8 research network. ... filter was put into place upstream ... unable to capture IP packet headers after 16:30 UTC. ... would like to thank Pat Wilson and Brian Kantor of UCSD for data ... Support ... provided by DARPA ITO NGI and NMS programs, NSF ANIR, and Caida members." 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Moore, David; Shannon, Colleen; Brown, Jeffery (November 2002). "Code-Red: a case study on the spread and victims of an Internet worm". Internet Measurement Workshop. "Support for this work is provided by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency NMS Grant N66001-01-1-8909, NSF grant NCR-9711092, Cisco Systems URB Grant ... analysis of the Code-Red I worm covers the spread of the worm between [2001-07-04] and [2001-08-25]. Before Code-Red I began to spread, we were collecting data in the form of a packet header trace of hosts sending unsolicited TCP SYN packets into our /8 network. ... on the morning of [2001-07-19], ... midnight and 16:30 UTC on [2001-07-19], a passive network monitor recorded headers of all packets destined for the /8 research network ... we collected data through [2001-10] ... background level of unsolicited TCP SYN packets ... In our /8, this rate fluctuates between 100 and 600 hosts per two hour period, with diurnal and weekly variations. ... We would like to thank Pat Wilson and Brian Kantor of UCSD for data ... Vern Paxson ... Stefan Savage (UCSD) ... Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ITO NGI and NMS programs, NSF ANIR, and CAIDA members. ... generous support of Cisco Systems." 
  32. Hohlfeld, Oliver [@ohohlfeld] (2019-07-20). "One additional aspect that is of relevance to the Internet measurement community: 44/8 is used by the @caidaorg internet telescope for long. The unused space in 44/8 is thus of high value to research.". 
  33. Moore, David; Voelker, Geoffrey M.; Savage, Stefan (2002-12-04). "Quantitative Network Security Analysis". p. 6,16,17. "we were able to monitor the sole ingress link into a lightly utilized /8 network ... the local monitoring we employ can be used to accurately infer global large-scale activity. However, our infrastructure is unique and fixed ... Raw, unencoded trace data will be kept on CAIDA machines ... Due to their experience and trust by the community, CAIDA staff will manage the collection, storage and anonymization of data. ...during August 2001, collecting only packet header data for Code-Red probes to our network telescope resulted in 0.5GB of compressed raw data per hour." 
  34. "Researchers focus on Net attacks with network telescope". Computer Weekly. 2002-08-12. Retrieved 2019-12-10. "CAIDA monitors traffic directed toward any one of a large block of IP (Internet protocol) addresses at the University of California at San Diego, a block so big that it makes up some 0.4% of the world's addresses.". 
  35. 35.0 35.1 Shannon, Colleen; Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (2004-11-22). "The UCSD Network Telescope". NSF CIED Site Visit: 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 23. "Continuously collected/archived data: 15 months of trace data (Since [2004-08-12]); 16 months of flow data (Since [2003-07-11]); 0.75 TB/month (8 TB total) ... September 2004: Network Telescope is 1/3 of all inbound traffic to UCSD; Inbound traffic drives 95th percentile charges; Net cost to UCSD for bandwidth: ~$2500/month. October 2004: Limelight networks donates all inbound connectivity to the UCSD Network Telescope: ~$30,000/year ... Current Assets: /8 network (Fall 2001); /16 network (Winter 2004) ... Separate GigE interfaces ... (restricted access) Raw telescope traces ... Technical support of Network Telescope at UCSD: Brian Kantor, Jim Madden, and Pat Wilson; Support for this work was provided by: NSF, Cisco Systems, DHS, DARPA, and CAIDA members". 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Polterock, Josh (2012-04-04). "Targeted Serendipity: the Search for Storage". According to the Best Available Data. Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis. "104.66 TiB would cost us approximately $40,000 per year to store. ... thank the San Diego Supercomputer Center for archiving the UCSD Network Telescope data since 2003. ... The IBM HPSS and more recently Sun SamQFS archival storage systems dutifully preserved and delivered the 100+ Terabytes of raw pcap traces we have archived over the last eight years. ... On [2012-03-22], we started the transfer via ESnet ... to the NERSC HPSS facilities. ... one week's time and sustained an average of 1.52 Gbps ... April 2009 ... removal of an upstream rate limit filter on incoming packets" 
  37. Polterock, Josh (2012-12-21). "CAIDA Data Hosting and Provisioning Infrastructure for PREDICT". Hosting Infrastructure Description. Supporting Research and Development of Security Technologies through Network and Security Data Collection: 2,3. " ... acts both as the primary data server and the primary analysis machine for the UCSD Network Telescope data. ... 150 TB allocation of HPSS tape resources at the NERSC facility where we archive our historical UCSD Network Telescope (darknet) data. As of the end of 2012, we have used approximately 105TB of this allocation. ... Data Capture Server: Telescope Data:" 
  38. 38.0 38.1 Claffy, K. (2017-12-07). "Data Collection Infrastructures". DHS IMPACT Project: CAIDA update (SRI, Menlo Park, CA): 7. "UCSD Network Telescope As of January 2017, captures more than 1-1.5 TB of compressed traffic trace data per day. ... 37 TB: last full month (Nov 2017) ... 1162 TB: total archived at NERSC ... New compute platform (Thor 2.0) 2x E5-2630 v4 CPUs (10 core each @ 2.2 GHz). 512GB of RAM. 12x 4TB HDDs (+2 OS drives)" 
  39. Jonker, Mattijs; King, Alistair; Krupp, Johannes; Rossow, Christian; Sperotto, Anna; Dainotti, Alberto (2017-11-01). "A Third of the Internet is Under Attack: a Macroscopic Characterization of the DoS Ecosystem". Internet Measurement Conference. p. 1,7. "Denial-of-Service attacks ... backscatter packets reaching the UCSD Network Telescope, a largely-unused /8 network operated by the University of California San Diego. ... also called darknets, passively collect unsolicited traffic ... the mean (maximum per attack) rate observed at the telescope is 226 packets per second – corresponding to an estimate of almost 60k packets per second." 
  40. "The CAIDA Dataset on the Code-Red Worms". 2013-10-31. "The CAIDA Dataset on the Code-Red Worms was sponsored by: Cisco Systems, Inc; The United States ; The National Science Foundation; The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; CAIDA Members. Special thanks to Brian Kantor, Jim Madden, and Pat Wilson at UCSD and Barry Greene at Cisco for support of the UCSD Network Telescope Project. Rapid coordination of all of these folks in the face of a network crisis, along with an equally rapid and incredibly generous equipment donation from Cisco, allowed the collection of this unique dataset." 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Kantor, Brian; Department of Computer Science; University of California San Diego (July 2011). "A Brief Look at Internet Networking Over Amateur Radio". Amateur Radio Digital Communications. p. 3. "... provision to allow packets addressed to AMPRNet gateways to be forwarded one-way from the Internet, ... supports an academic cybersecurity research project (funded by the National Science Foundation and the Deparment [sic] of Homeland Security) which relies on routing to the AMPRNet address space through the forwarder." 
  42. "Award#1059439 - II-EN: A Real-Time Lens into Dark Space of the Internet". Award Search. National Science Foundation. 2011-06-30. "Award Number: 1059439; Start Date: [2011-07-01]; End Date: [2014-06-30] (Estimated); Awarded Amount to Date: $532,000.00; Investigator(s): Kimberly Claffy ... (Principal Investigator); Sponsor: University of California-San Diego ... CAIDA researchers are expanding their telescope instrumentation" 
  43. King, Alistair; Dainotti, Alberto (2019-04-16). "STARDUST: Sustainable Tools for Analysis and Research on Darknet UnSolicited Traffic". Workshop on Active Internet Measurements. Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis. "Globally routed, lightly used /8 network (1/256 of the entire IPv4 address space); 24/7 full packet traces; Archive of pcap data back to 2003; ... ~2 PB currently, growing by ~30 TB per month ... Data from additional telescopes coming soon: Merit Networks; Politecnico di Torino, Italy; UFMG, Brazil ... Internet ... 10G ... X.0.0.0/8 Darknet ... Optical Splitter ... NP-Router ... DAG Capture Card ... Multicast VLAN" 
  44. "CAIDA UCSD Network Telescope Traffic Samples". North Carolina: IMPACT Cyber Trust. "Collection Starting [2001-02-01]; Collection Ending [2008-11-19]. Samples of Internet Background Radiation traffic ... unidirectional, unsolicited traffic ... Size 656.6GB" 
  45. 45.0 45.1 Claffy, Kimberly C. (2012-01-17). "Data collection - passive". DHS PREDICT project: CAIDA update: 5. "UCSD telescope: ... 30-days (really five weeks) "live" on disk ... typically 2.9 TiB compressed, 5.5 TiB uncompressed ... current: [2008-04-12] - [2012-01-12]: 102 TB (compressed), 192 TB (uncompressed)" 
  46. Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (2012-07-12). "CAIDA Backscatter Data Request Form". "Users are encouraged, but not required, to include the following attribution in their acknowledgments section: ..." 
  47. Lunduke, Bryan (2017-09-29). "Weird IP networks: Internet via birds and ham radios". Network World. Retrieved 2019-07-20. "AMateur Packet Radio Network. ... in the 1970s, the entire "44" class A block ... was assigned specifically for use via amateur radio.". 
  48. ARDC Board of Directors (2019-07-18). [x "AMPRNet Address Sale"] (email). x. "The sale amounts to some millions of dollars, which will be used in the furtherance of ARDC's continuing public benefit purpose. ... The uppermost 1/4 of the former AMPRNet address space ( has been ... sold to another owner ... over 12 million IPv4 addresses remain" 
  49. 49.0 49.1 Kantor, Brian; Karn, Phil; Claffy, K. C.; Gilmore, John; Magnuski, Hank; Garbee, Bdale; Hansen, Skip; Horne, Bill et al. (2019-07-20). "AMPRNet". Amateur Radio Digital Communications. "in mid-2019, a block of approximately four million consecutive AMPRNet addresses denoted as was ... sold to the highest qualified bidder at the then current fair market value ... leaves some twelve million addresses" 
  50. "RIS First-Last-Seen (". Routing Information Service. Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre. """ ... last: ... time: 2019-06-04T16:00:00" 
  51. Curran, John (2019-07-19). "44/8". NANOG mailing list. North American Network Operators' Group. "ARIN did receive and process a request from the 44/8 registrant to transfer a portion of the block to another party. ... we review and confirm: ... source of the transfer is the legal entity which holds the rights ... recipient org has approval per policy to receive an address block of the appropriate size" 
  52. "IANA IPv4 Address Space Registry". Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. 2019-07-02. "Last Updated 2019-07-02 ... 044/8 Amateur Radio Digital Communications" 
  53. "IANA IPv4 Address Space Registry". Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. 2019-07-18. "Last Updated 2019-07-18 ... 044/8 Administered by ARIN" 
  54. "Network: NET-44-192-0-0-1". ARIN Whois/Registration Data Access Protocol. American Registry for Internet Numbers. "Address: Amazon Web Services, Inc." 
  55. Abbas, Majdi S. (19 July 2019). "44/8". NANOG mailing list. North American Network Operators' Group. "CIDR:; NetName: AT-88-Z; Organization: Amazon Technologies Inc. (AT-88-Z); RegDate: 2019-07-18" 
  56. 56.0 56.1 Kantor, Brian (2019-07-31). "A civil discussion about the future of AMSAT-NA". in Economos, Ron. "The at least $50M number has been confirmed by one of the BOD of ARDC. ... Here's the e-mail. ... "NO plan to sell any more of the AMPRNet address space now or at any time in the future." ... we and the negotiators we employed were able to obtain the best sale price available. After months of negotiation, this all went surprisingly quickly from proposals to accomplished fact, in a matter of just a few days. With more than 50 million dollars that now must be spent on promoting amateur radio" 
  57. Kantor, Brian; Karn, Phil (2019-07-19). " sale". NANOG mailing list. North American Network Operators' Group. "worthy grant recipients ... to benefit amateur digital radio and related development. ... worldwide activity. ... grants to students who are hams; ... Development of *freely available* technology: hardware, software, protocols, ... good ideas from anyone who has them. ... didn't like the secrecy either, but it was necessary ... Everyone with any arguable legal property interest in 44/8 was fully informed and consented to give up that interest ... I didn't even think twice about it." 
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 Kantor, Brian (1994-09-08). "AMPRNet IP address coordinators as of 8 September 1994". David Calder. "44.193 Outer Space-AMSAT ... 44.194 Oceana ... 44.195 Antarctica ... 44.196 Arctic" 
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 Kantor, Brian (2002-05-20). AMPRNet IP address coordinators as of 20 May 2002 (Report). Mats Peterson. "44.193 Outer Space-AMSAT ... 44.194 Oceana ... 44.195 Antarctica ... 44.196 Arctic" 
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 60.4 Kantor, Brian (2007-11-20). "AMPRNet IP address coordinators as of 20 Nov 2007". Antonio Dimasi. "44.192/24 Roaming ... 44.193 Outer Space-AMSAT ... 44.194 Oceana ... 44.195 Antarctica ... 44.196 Arctic" 
  61. " delega CISAR per la gestione diretta su Internet della rete 44.208/16". Centro Italiano Sperimentazione ed Attività Radiantistiche (CISAR). 2012-12-12. ""License for Directly Routed (CIDR delegated) Subnet: ... address block for a period of five years beginning [2012-12-12]" 
  62. 62.0 62.1 Kantor, Brian (2012-04-09). "AMPRNet IP address coordinators as of 9 Apr 2012". "44.192/24 Roaming ... 44.193 Outer Space-AMSAT ... 44.194 Oceana ... 44.195 Antarctica ... 44.196 Arctic ... 44.208/16 Italy CisarNet ... 44.224/15 Germany HAMNET (Highspeed AMateur-radio NETwork)" 
  63. 63.0 63.1 Kantor, Brian (1987-12-11). "HOSTS.TXT". for all known AMPRNET addresses.. "Revised as of 11 December 1987 ... Stuttgart-Tuebingen-subnet ... Eppstein-subnet" 
  64. "Country Networks". AMPRNet. Germany
  65. Herzig, Gerrit [@DH8GHH] (2019-07-20). "Die ARDC hat einen "mostly unused" Block 44er IP-Adressen an Amazon verkauft, die bisher den Funkamateuren gehörten. Ich darf demnächst 262 Geräten im #HamNet eine neue IP geben, 75 Subnetze ändern und an 24 Standorten das Routing neu aufsetzen ohne mich dabei auszusperren..." (in de). 
  66. Vixie, Paul [@paulvixie] (2019-07-20). "i am ok with this. can make better use of money than ip space in fulfilling its nonprofit mission, at this stage of the game.". 
  67. Barton, Doug (2019-07-27). "44/8" (email). NANOG mailing list. North American Network Operators' Group. "I was GM of the IANA in the early 2000s, I held a tech license from 1994 through 2004 ... if any of my friends had asked me how I thought news of this sale should have been handled, I would have told them that this reaction that we're seeing now is 100% predictable, and while it could never be eliminated entirely it could be limited in scope and ferocity by getting ahead of the message. At minimum when the transfer occurred. But that doesn't change anything about my opinion that the sale itself was totally reasonable, done by reasonable people, and in keeping with the concept of being good stewards of the space."" 
  68. Ward, Jeffrey W., ed (1984-09-11). "ARRL Digital Communications Committee". Gateway: The ARRL Packet-Radio Newsletter 1 (3): 1–2. "At a meeting in 1981 the ARRL Board of Directors asked the then-ARRL President Harry Dannals to form "an ad hoc committee to recommend standards for digital communications in the Amateur Radio Service." President Dannals and the next ARRL President, Vic Clark, soon completed the formation of the ARRL Ad Hoc Committee on Digital Communication. The "Digital Committee" advises the ARRL Board of Directors on matters concerning digtial communications ... Committee members: Paul Rinaldo, W4RI (Chairman); Dennis Connors KD2S; Terry Fox, WB4JFI; Doug Lockhart, VE7APU; Wally Linstruth, WA6JPR; Dr. Henry S. Magnuski, KA6M; Paul Newland, AD7I; Eric Scace, K3NA.". 
  69. Price, Harold E. (October 1986). Green, Wayne. ed. "ARRL Digital Committee". 73 Amateur Radio Today (313): 62. ISSN 0745-080X. "I said the ARRL was doing good things for packet. One is sponsoring and publishing the proceedings of the yearly amateur Networking Conferences, and a second is sponsoring the Digital Committee. This group meets at least twice a year (and has just had its June [1986] meeting) to discuss technical issues and to handle various sociopolitical problems ... Officially, the committee is an advisory group to the ARRL board to help the ARRL make decisions on what it wants to do in packet matters. It also has become the semiofficial AX.25 standards committee. Anyone may attend these meetings: one of them each year is held at the Networking Conference.". 
  70. [x "Packet Radio Frequency Recommendations of the Ad Hoc Committee on Amateur Radio Digital Communication"]. QST (American Radio Relay League): p. 54. September 1987. ISSN 0033-4812. x. 
  71. Williamson, Paul (December 1987). "Tidbits from the current events file". Scope 12 (12): p. 14. "A subcommittee of the ARRL Digital Committee will be meeting in January [1988] in Washington, D.C. to consider proposals for Version 3 of the AX.25 Level 2 protocol standard." 
  72. [x "Packet Radio Frequency Recommendations of the Committee on Amateur Radio Digital Communication"]. QST (American Radio Relay League): p. 51. March 1988. ISSN 0033-4812. x. 
  73. ARRL Committee on Amateur Radio Digital Communications (1993-03-28). Preliminary Report to the ARRL Board of Directors (Report). Federal Communications Commission. pp. 2, 7, 8. "supplemental comments by The American Digital Radio Society ... a preliminary report to the ARRL's Board of Directors was issued by the ARRL committee on amateur radio digital communications. ... At the January 1993 meeting the ARRL Board of Directors directed this Committee ... ARRL develop, through the Digital Committee and the digital community, guidelines and standards for semi-automatic digital stations" 
  74. Anonymous. "Articles of Incorporation". Business Entities. Retrieved 2019-07-21. "The name of this corporation is: Amateur Radio Digital Communications ... Article 2 ... specific purposes ... to support, maintain, preserve and enhance the mission of the Amateur Packet Radio Network. ... shared vision of expanding the Amateur Radio Digital Communications network. ... initial agent for service of process is: 001 Northwest Registered Agent, Inc. #C3184722" 
  75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 75.4 75.5 Kantor, Brian (2012-06-22) (2011 Form 3500). 321515 ... Amateur Radio Digital Communications (Report). Exemption Application. pp. 3, 5. "Brian Kantor: President; Kimberly Claffy: Treasurer; Erin Kenneally: Secretary" 
  76. 76.0 76.1 76.2 76.3 Kantor, Brian (2015-09-25). Amateur Radio Digital Communications (Report). Statement of Information. California Secretary of State. Retrieved 2019-07-21. "California Corporate Number: C3421515 ... Chief Executive Officer: Brian Kantor ... Secretary: Erin Kenneally ... Chief Financial Officer: Kimberly Claffy" 
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 77.3 Kantor, Brian (2017-09-18). Padilla, Alex. ed. Amateur Radio Digital Communications (Report). Statement of Information. California Secretary of State. Retrieved 2019-07-21. "Filed [2017-09-22] ... California Corporate Number: C3421515 ... Chief Executive Officer: Brian Kantor ... Secretary: Erin Kenneally ... Chief Financial Officer: Kimberly Claffy" 
  78. Curran, John (2019-07-22). "44/8". NANOG mailing list. North American Network Operators' Group. "In the case of AMRPNET, in 2011 ARIN did approve update of the registration to a public benefit not-for-profit at the request of the registered contact." 
  79. Kantor, Brian (2017-09-07). "Goodbye" (email). alt.sysadmin.recovery.!topic/alt.sysadmin.recovery/hUO1NDCv49E. "retiring from UCSD, after 46 years on campus ... I'm CEO of a small non-profit, Amateur Radio Digital Communications" 
  80. 80.0 80.1 Kantor, Brian; Kenneally, Erin (2017-12-18). "Restated Articles of Incorporation of Amateur Radio Digital Communications". in Padilla, Alex. "Filed [2017-12-18] ... corporation is a nonprofit public benefit corporation ... Article II ... purposes for which this corporation is formed are exclusively charitable, scientific, and educational ... declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of the State of California"  Alt URL
  81. Kantor, Brian; Meyer, Marianna (2019-05-17). Non-binding Memorandum of Understanding between the Regents of the University of California, San Diego and Amateur Radio Digital Communications (contract). pp. 1‒4. "...for mutually beneficial programs, projects, data products and activities. ... It is now the address space through ... ARDC is the owner of the AMPRNet. UCSD has no ownership or right of control over this address space. ... a "Dark Net" to observe specific types of Internet traffic. Since the mid-1980's, UCSD has provided colocation services for the AMPRNet for ARDC, so that in a continuing manner, UCSD's CAIDA Research group may observe, collect, and analyze the AMPRNet traffic. ... cause AMPRNet traffic from the global Internet to be routed to UCSD for study. ... UCSD shall: Operate network hardware and software to provide colocation services for the AMPRNet TCP/IP networks for Amateur Radio on UCSD infrastructure. ... Collaborator shall: Agree to allow UCSD to collect, filter and curate data destined for the AMPRNet network for the purposes of network research and responsible data sharing with the network and security research communities. ... effective through [July 31, 2023] at which time it will expire unless extended." 
  82. "Amateur Radio Digital Communications Completes Turing Scholarship Endowment". Center for Networked Systems. University of California, San Diego. 2020-03-31. "following a $225,533 donation from the Amateur Radio Digital Communications (ARDC) association, the Alan Turing Memorial Scholarship is now fully endowed. ... gift honors former UC San Diego Department of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) employee and ARDC founder Brian Kantor, who died unexpectedly in November 2019." 
  83. Hooper, Milo (2021-05-07). "Update on Radome Project". Capital Campaign. W1MX. "extremely generous donation of $1.6M by Amateur Radio Digital Communications (ARDC) as well as donations and support from you - our alumni, members of the MIT community, and friends of amateur radio." 
  84. "ARISS Receives Generous ARDC Grant for ARISS STEREO Education Project". ARRL News. American Radio Relay League. 2021-11-03. 
  85. "Amateur Radio Digital Communications Grants Continue". News. American Radio Relay League. 2022-01-27. "a nearly $900,000 award that will permit the Internet Archive to build the Digital Library of Amateur Radio and Communications (DLARC)" 


  1. Statement of Financial Position 2012 (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2013-01-02. p. 1. 
  2. Statement of Financial Position 2013 (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2014-04-02. p. 1. 
  3. Statement of Financial Position 2014 (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2015-06-02. p. 1. 
  4. Statement of Financial Position 2015 (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2016-03-31. p. 1. 
  5. Statement of Financial Income and Expense 2016 (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2017-03-10. p. 1. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Statement of Financial Position 2017 (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2018-04-01. p. 2. 
  7. Statement of Financial Position 2018 (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2019-01-08. p. 2. 
  8. Financial Statements (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2020-09-04. pp. 4, 11. "Total Assets: $109,130,548 ... block of 16,777,216 internet protocol (IPv4) addresses ... acquired in 1981 at no charge ... At the time of receipt, there was no discernible market value for the IPv4 addresses and, accordingly, they are carried at no value on ARDC's statement of financial position. ... In 2019, ARDC elected to sell, on a one-time basis, one quarter of its IPv4 addresses to a large internet company, yielding $109,051,904 of proceeds ... net of a broker commission of $545,260. ... ARDC intends to use the proceeds of the sale for grant making and other activity to support the fields of amateur radio and digital communications ... designated the proceeds of the sale as a board designated endowment." 
  9. Statements of Financial Position (Report). Amateur Radio Digital Communications, Inc.. 2021-10-06. pp. 4, 5. Retrieved 2021-10-26. "Net Assets Without Donor Restrictions: Beginning of year [2020]: $109,130,548 End of year [2020]: $127,858,353 … Effective, [2021-01-01], ARDC operates as a private foundation subject to an texcise tax on net investment income" 

Further reading