Biology:Monacha cartusiana

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Short description: Species of gastropod

Monacha cartusiana
Monacha cartusiana fg01.jpg
Two live individuals of Monacha cartusiana on a human hand
Scientific classification
M. cartusiana
Binomial name
Monacha cartusiana
(O. F. Müller, 1774)[2]
  • Helix (Fruticicola) cartusiana O. F. Müller, 1774 (unaccepted combination)
  • Helix (Zenobia) bimarginata Gray, 1821 (junior synonym)
  • Helix cartusiana Müller, 1774
  • Helix cartusiana var. depressa Caziot, 1909 (invalid; preoccupied)
  • Monacha (Monacha) cartusiana (O. F. Müller, 1774)· accepted, alternate representation

Monacha cartusiana is a species of small air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Hygromiidae, the hairy snails and their allies.[3]

This is the type species of the genus Monacha.


Monacha cartusiana

The native distribution of this species is Atlantic-Mediterranean.[4] It lives in various areas including:

  • Great Britain. This species was fully protected in the United Kingdom under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 from 1981 to 1988.[5]
  • Ukraine[6]

This species has been accidentally introduced and naturalized in:

  • United States - Newcastle County, Delaware[7]

Life cycle

The size of the egg is 1.8 mm.[8]


  1. Neubert, E. (2011). "Monacha cartusiana". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN) 2011: e.T157222A5056149. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T157222A5056149.en. 
  2. Müller, O. F. 1774. Vermivm terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu animalium infusoriorum, helminthicorum, et testaceorum, non marinorum, succincta historia. Volumen alterum. pp. I-XXVI [= 1-36], 1-214, [1-10]. Havniae & Lipsiae. (Heineck & Faber).
  3. Helix cartusiana var. depressa Caziot, 1909 (invalid; preoccupied) Monacha (Monacha) cartusiana (O. F. Müller, 1774)· accepted, alternate representation
  4. (in Slovak) Lisický M. J. (1991). Mollusca Slovenska [The Slovak molluscs]. VEDA vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied, Bratislava, 344 pp.
  5. Protection for wild animals on Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981. website accessed 7 August 2009.
  6. Balashov I. & Gural-Sverlova N. 2012. An annotated checklist of the terrestrial molluscs of Ukraine. Journal of Conchology. 41 (1): 91-109.
  7. Robinson, D.G. & J. Slapcinsky. 2005. Recent introductions of alien land snails into North America. American Malacological Bulletin 20:89-93.
  8. Heller J.: Life History Strategies. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN:0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited page: 428.
  • Provoost, S.; Bonte, D. (Ed.) (2004). Animated dunes: a view of biodiversity at the Flemish coast [Levende duinen: een overzicht van de biodiversiteit aan de Vlaamse kust]. Mededelingen van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud, 22. Instituut voor Natuurbehoud: Brussel, Belgium. ISBN 90-403-0205-7. 416, ill., appendices pp.
  • Sysoev, A. V. & Schileyko, A. A. (2009). Land snails and slugs of Russia and adjacent countries. Sofia/Moskva (Pensoft). 312 pp., 142 plates.
  • Holyoak, D. T. & Holyoak, G. A. (2018). A new genus Zenobiellina for Helix subrufescens Miller, 1822 (Hygromiidae), with description of a new congeneric species from northern Spain. Iberus. 36 (2): 133-147

External links

Wikidata ☰ Q1734674 entry