Biology:Quadrigyridae

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Short description: Family of thorny-headed worms

Quadrigyridae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Acanthocephala
Class: Eoacanthocephala
Order: Gyracanthocephala
Van Cleve, 1936
Family: Quadrigyridae
Van Cleve, 1920

Quadrigyridae is the only family within Gyracanthocephala, an order of parasitic worms of class Eoacanthocephala. This family contains two subfamilies, ten genera and about 92 species.

Species

Species in Quadrigyridae are divided into two subfamilies: Pallisentinae Van Cleave, 1928 with five genera and Quadrigyrinae Van Cleave, 1920 with three.[lower-alpha 1]

Pallisentinae Van Cleave, 1928

Acanthogyrus Thapar, 1927

Golvan in 1959 divided the genus Acanthogyrus into two subgenera: Acanthogyrus and Acanthosentis based on the number of proboscis hooks 18 (3 circles of 6 hooks each) in Acanthosentis and 24 (3 circles of 8 hooks each) in Acanthogyrus.

Acanthogyrus (Acanthogyrus) Thapar, 1927

  • Acanthogyrus acanthogyrus Thapar, 1927

Found in the intestine of a rohu (Labeo rohita) in Lucknow, and from the intestines of a catla (Catla catla) from Kolkata, both in India .

  • Acanthogyrus tripathi Rai, 1967

Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) Verma and Datta, 1929

  • Acanthogyrus acanthuri (Cable and Quick, 1954)
  • Acanthogyrus adriaticus Amin, 2005
  • Acanthogyrus alternatspinus Amin, 2005
  • Acanthogyrus anguillae (Wang, 1981)
  • Acanthogyrus antespinus (Verma and Datta, 1929)
  • Acanthogyrus arii (Bilqees, 1971)
  • Acanthogyrus bacailai (Verma, 1973)
  • Acanthogyrus barmeshoori Amin, Gholami, Akhlaghi and Heckmann, 2013

A. barmeshoori was found infesting Aphanius farsicus in Maharlou Lake, Fars Province, Iran.[1]

  • Acanthogyrus betwai (Tripathi, 1956)
  • Acanthogyrus bilaspurensis (Chowhan, Gupta and Khera, 1987)
  • Acanthogyrus cameroni (Gupta and Kajaji, 1969)
  • Acanthogyrus cheni Amin, 2005
  • Acanthogyrus dattai (Podder, 1938)
  • Acanthogyrus giuris (Soota and Sen, 1956)
  • Acanthogyrus gobindi (Chowhan, Gupta and Khera, 1987)
  • Acanthogyrus golvani (Gupta and Jain, 1980)
  • Acanthogyrus heterospinus (Khan and Bilqees, 1990)
  • Acanthogyrus holospinus (Sen, 1937)
  • Acanthogyrus indicus (Tripathi, 1959)
  • Acanthogyrus intermedius (Achmerov and Dombrovskaja-Achmerova, 1941)
  • Acanthogyrus lizae (Wang, 1986)
  • Acanthogyrus malawiensis Amin and Hendrix, 1999
  • Acanthogyrus maroccanus (Dollfus, 1951)
  • Acanthogyrus multispinus Wang, 1966
  • Acanthogyrus nigeriensis Dollfus and Golvan, 1956
  • Acanthogyrus papilo Troncy and Vassiliades, 1974
  • Acanthogyrus parareceptaclis Amin, 2005
  • Acanthogyrus partispinus (Furtado, 1963)
  • Acanthogyrus paucispinus Wang, 1966
  • Acanthogyrus periophthalmi (Wang, 1980)
  • Acanthogyrus phillipi (Mashego, 1988)
  • Acanthogyrus putitorae (Chowhan, Gupta and Khera, 1988)
  • Acanthogyrus scomberomori (Wang, 1980)
  • Acanthogyrus seenghalae (Chowhan, Gupta and Khera, 1988)
  • Acanthogyrus shashiensis (Tso, Chen, and Chien, 1974)
  • Acanthogyrus shuklai (Agrawal and Singh, 1982)
  • Acanthogyrus siamensis (Farooqi and Sirikanchana, 1987)
  • Acanthogyrus similis (Wang, 1980)
  • Acanthogyrus sircari (Podder, 1941)
  • Acanthogyrus thapari (Parasad, Sahay and Shambhunath, 1969)
  • Acanthogyrus tilapiae (Baylis, 1948)
  • Acanthogyrus vancleavei (Gupta and Fatma, 1986)
  • Acanthogyrus vittatusi (Verma, 1973)

Palliolisentis Machado-Filho, 1960

  • Palliolisentis ornatus Machado-Filho, 1960
  • Palliolisentis polyonca Schmidt and Hugghins, 1973
  • Palliolisentis quinqueungulis Machado-Filho, 1960

Pallisentis Van Cleave, 1928[lower-alpha 2]

  • Pallisentis channai Gupta, Maurya and Saxena, 2015
  • Pallisentis vinodai Gupta, Maurya and Saxena, 2015
    • Pallisentis (Brevitritospinus) Amin, Heckmann, Ha, Luc and Doanh, 2000
  • Pallisentis allahabadii Agarwal, 1958
  • Pallisentis cavasii Gupta and Verma, 1980
  • Pallisentis croftoni Mital and Lal, 1981
  • Pallisentis fasciati Gupta and Verma, 1980
  • Pallisentis fotedari Gupta and Sinha, 1991
  • Pallisentis guntei Sahay, Nath, and Sinha, 1967
  • Pallisentis indica Mital and Lal, 1981
  • Pallisentis mehrai Gupta and Fatma, 1986
  • Pallisentis vietnamensis Amin, Heckmann, Ha, Luc and Doanh, 2000
    • Pallisentis (Demidueterospinus) Amin, Heckmann, Ha, Luc and Doanh, 2000
  • Pallisentis basiri Farooqi, 1958
  • Pallisentis ophiocephali (Thapar, 1931)
    • Pallisentis (Pallisentis) Van Cleave, 1928
  • Pallisentis celatus (Van Cleave, 1928)
  • Pallisentis cholodkowskyi (Kostylev, 1928)
  • Pallisentis chongqingensis Liu and Zhang, 1993
  • Pallisentis clupei Gupta and Gupta, 1980
  • Pallisentis colisai Sarkar, 1956
  • Pallisentis gaboes (Maccallum, 1918)
  • Pallisentis garuai (Sahay, Sinha and Ghosh, 1971)
  • Pallisentis gomtii Gupta and Verma, 1980
  • Pallisentis guptai Gupta and Fatma, 1986
  • Pallisentis jagani Koul, Raina, Bambroo and Koul, 1992
  • Pallisentis kalriai Khan and Bilqees, 1985
  • Pallisentis magnum Saeed and Bilgees, 1971
  • Pallisentis nagpurensis' (Bhalerao, 1931)
  • Pallisentis nandai Sarkar, 1953
  • Pallisentis pesteri (Tadros, 1966)
  • Pallisentis rexus Wongkham and Whitfield, 1999
  • Pallisentis singaporensis Khan and Ip, 1988

P. singaporensis has 8 to 12 proboscis hooks per circle, gradually declining in size posteriorly. They measure from the anterior are 62 to 64, 49 to 54, 36 to 46 and 24 to 28 um long. The trunk spines are conical and do not extend to the posterior end in 25 or 26 circles, each with 10 spines. In the male, the cement gland is long and has 23 to 25 giant nuclei and lack Saefftigen's pouch. They have unequal lemnisci. The female gonopore is terminal.[2]

  • Pallisentis sindensis Khan and Bilqees, 1987
  • Pallisentis umbellatus Van Cleave, 1928
  • Pallisentis ussuriensis (Kostylev, 1941)

Pararaosentis Amin, Heckmann, Ha, Luc and Doanh, 2000

  • Pararaosentis golvani (Troncy and Vassiliades, 1973)

Raosentis Datta, 1947

  • Raosentis dattai Gupta and Fatma, 1986
  • Raosentis godavarensis Vankara and Vijayalakshmi, 2009
  • Raosentis ivaniosi George and Nadakal, 1978
  • Raosentis podderi Datta, 1947
  • Raosentis thapari Rai, 1967

Triaspiron Smales, Aydogdu and Emre, 2012

  • Triaspiron aphanii Smales, Aydogdu and Emre, 2012

Quadrigyrinae Van Cleave, 1920

Acanthodelta Diaz-Ungria and Gracia-Rodrigo, 1958

  • Acanthodelta scorzai (Diaz-Ungria and Gracia-Rodrigo, 1957)

Machadosentis Noronha, 1992

  • Machadosentis travassosi Noronha, 1992

Quadrigyrus Van Cleave, 1920

  • Quadrigyrus brasiliensis Machado-Filho, 1941
  • Quadrigyrus chinensis Mao, 1979
  • Quadrigyrus guptai Gupta and Gunjan-Sinh, 1992
  • Quadrigyrus machadoi Fabio, 1983
  • Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt and Hugghins, 1973

Q. nickoli was found infesting Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from Colombia. It has four circular rows of between 23 and 29 trunk spines each with heavy dendritic roots. The species name nickoli is named after Dr. Brent B. Nickol, a parasitologist from the University of Nebraska.[3]

  • Quadrigyrus polyspinosus Li, 1984
  • Quadrigyrus rhodei Wang, 1980
  • Quadrigyrus simhai Gupta and Fatma, 1986
  • Quadrigyrus torquatus Van Cleave, 1920

Q. torquatus has been found infesting the intestines of Ageneiosus caucanus and Hoplias malabaricus in the Magdalena River basin in Colombia.[4] It was also found in Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus also from Colombia.[3]

Hosts

Quadrigyridae species parasitize fish.

Notes

  1. A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than the present genus.
  2. The genus Pallisentis has three subgenera: Brevitritospinus, Demidueterospinus, and Pallisentis

References

  1. Tavakol, Sareh; Amin, Omar M.; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Halajian, Ali (22 October 2015). "The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran, a check list". Zootaxa 4033 (2): 237. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4033.2.3. PMID 26624401. 
  2. Amin, Omar & Heckmann, Richard & Nguyen, Ha & Luc, P. & Ngoc Doanh, Pham. (2000). Revision of the genus Pallisentis (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) with the erection of three new subgenera, the description of Pallisentis (Brevitritospinus) vietnamensis subgen. et sp. n., a Key to species of Pallisentis, and the description of a new quadrigyrid genus, Pararaosentis gen. n.. Comparative Parasitology. 67. 40-50.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Schmidt, G. D., & Hugghins, E. J. (1973). Acanthocephala of South American Fishes. Part I, Eoacanthocephala. The Journal of Parasitology, 829-835.
  4. Buckner, R. L., & Brooks, D. R. (1980). Occurrence of Quadrigyrus torquatus Van Cleave, 1920 (Acanthocephala) in north-central Colombia, South America. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 47(1), 139-140.

See also Wikidata entry Q2197866.