Felipe Gómez Pinilla
Miguel Angel Ramos
Felipe Gómez Pinilla
|Products||Hollywood Monsters series|
Pendulo Studios S.L. is a Madrid-based video game developer founded in 1993 by Ramón Hernáez, Felipe Gómez Pinilla, Rafael Latiegui and Miguel Angel Ramos. Since the company's 1994 debut project, Igor, it has specialized in graphic adventure games. Pendulo first achieved mainstream prominence in Spain via Hollywood Monsters (1997), which met with critical and commercial success in the country but was never released beyond Southern Europe.
The company broke into the international market with its third game, Runaway (2001), whose hit status in Europe contributed to the reenergization of the adventure game genre. It also saved Pendulo from bankruptcy, following the closure of its publisher Dinamic Multimedia. Thereafter, Pendulo created two sequels to Runaway; the series collectively had sold more than 1.5 million units worldwide by 2010. After the release of Yesterday in 2012, Pendulo entered another period of financial uncertainty, but in 2014 signed a deal with Microids that led to the creation of Yesterday Origins, Blacksad and other titles.
As of 2019, Pendulo Studios was Spain's longest-running active game development company. The company has been cited as a major force in Spanish game development, particularly in the adventure genre. In 2017, the Spanish publication HobbyConsolas declared Pendulo "synonymous with graphic adventures in Spain" and one of the country's most significant developers.
Early years: 1993–1997
Pendulo Studios was established in Madrid during September 1993 by Ramón Hernáez, Rafael Latiegui, Felipe Gómez Pinilla and Miguel Angel Ramos. The founders had been students together in college, and they formed for the purpose of creating a graphic adventure game. While Spanish developers like Aventuras AD had released successful interactive fiction games in the 1980s, including those with graphics, a fully graphic adventure game had never been made in Spain.
The result was Igor in 1994, a game developed in dire economic circumstances by Pendulo's four founders, assisted by two contractors. While Spain's game industry had thrived in the golden age of Spanish software, the 16-bit era had heralded a market collapse for game development in the country. Pendulo later noted that "there was practically no national production and the prospects were not too encouraging" when Igor began, and Latiegui recalled a moment when the team nearly abandoned the project because of low financial projections by publishers. The team's funds were limited—Gerard Masnou of GameLive PC reported that Igor was made on a budget under 400,000 pesetas—and working conditions were poor. Pendulo was located for a time in the corner of a warehouse in Madrid's Arganda del Rey municipality. According to Latiegui, Igor's development was "absolutely amateurish", and he noted that the team was self-taught throughout production. In retrospect, Pinilla summarized Pendulo's situation during Igor as a serious challenge. Nevertheless, Latiegui later called the game successful enough to inspire Pendulo to pursue game development as a profession.
Ramos ultimately left Pendulo after Igor's completion, but Latiegui, Ramón Hernáez and Felipe Gómez Pinilla chose to continue the company alone. Pendulo's second game was Hollywood Monsters. The team found it to be a significantly greater challenge than Igor had been, and its budget was tight. It required a long production cycle of around two and a half years. Including the voice cast, roughly 40 people contributed to Hollywood Monsters, most of them outside contractors. Hernáez said that managing the large number of contributors was the "most important change" to Pendulo's development process since Igor. Pinilla told Game 40 that development would have gone faster with more contributors, but that it was "impossible to have more people." Spain's game development industry remained weak during production: Francisco Delgado of Micromanía cited Hollywood Monsters as one of the few Spanish-made games under development in 1997. To obtain a theme song for Hollywood Monsters, publisher Dinamic Multimedia hired the band La Unión to record an original track.
Upon its launch in December 1997, Hollywood Monsters became a hit. In 2011, a writer for MarcaPlayer called it "one of the most played and best-selling adventures in Spanish software" history. It had sold 250,000 units in Spain alone by that date. As a greater commercial and critical success than Igor: Objective Uikokahonia, Hollywood Monsters marked a turning point for Pendulo Studios. It has been cited by publications such as PC Actual, 3DJuegos, Vandal and MeriStation as the title that put Pendulo on the map. It became a classic in its home country, although it failed to see releases outside Southern Europe. In 1997, a PC Manía writer cited Hollywood Monsters as proof that Pendulo "is to graphic adventure in Spain what LucasArts is to the rest of the world." Xan Pita of El Mundo later remarked, "Thanks to this game, ... Pendulo made a good dent in the industry."
Financial upheaval and recovery: 1998–2003
Hollywood Monsters' success led Pendulo to begin a sequel. However, the project changed shape to become Runaway, conceived during summer 1998. Runaway became Pendulo's largest production to date, and GameLive PC's Gerard Masnou wrote that it "was the most ambitious graphic adventure ever developed in Spain" at the time. According to Joan Font of GameLive PC, the industry still suffered from a dearth of professional talent while Runaway was in development. Spain's education system lacked courses for game development, and the country's existing industry professionals often migrated to foreign companies for better working conditions and pay. As a result, most of Pendulo's staff on Runaway consisted of autodidacts who learned in part on the job. The game's team was small: Rafael Latiegui said that Runaway had nine core members during most of its creation, assisted by a series of part-timers on elements such as music. Despite the industry's limited workforce, Ramón Hernáez said that Pendulo had a "relatively" easy time finding talent.
Originally planned as a 2D project, Runaway was revamped during development to utilize 3D aspects, and after numerous delays debuted in Spain during July 2001. Early sales reports were positive, but the game's performance was severely hampered by the bankruptcy of its publisher, Dinamic, that September. The closure was a major blow to the Spanish game industry: MarcaPlayer later called it "probably the most traumatic event that the Spanish video game industry has experienced in history". Although English, Italian and German localizations of Runaway had been planned, the closure of Dinamic cast doubt on the game's future outside Spain. Latiegui remarked at the time that, unless a deal to repurchase the rights from Dinamic emerged "very quickly", Pendulo could go bankrupt. Pendulo proceeded to undertake lawsuits and engage the publisher in a legal battle for the rights, a process that lasted roughly one year. Pendulo struggled to stay solvent. Latiegui later called the period an extreme challenge; the company had to lay off the majority of its staff to make payroll, and Pendulo ceased game development activities.
Pendulo secured the rights to Runaway in July 2002. At the time, Latiegui said that the developer could recover if the game sold well enough, noting that Pendulo had "never stopped having development ideas". It was released in the German market by DTP Entertainment, and met with commercial success there. Pendulo soon landed deals to launch the game in Poland and France, the latter through Focus Home Interactive. By January 2004, Runaway's sales totaled 400,000 units at full price in Europe. The game's success financially stabilized Pendulo, which rehired most of its layoffs from the Dinamic turmoil. Felipe Gómez Pinilla dubbed the game "a turning point for" the company; in 2015, researchers Víctor Manuel Martínez and Manuel Garin cited Runaway as the start of Pendulo's own brand of adventure game. Its later games reused Runaway's cartoonish aesthetic. Runaway's popularity also helped to reinvigorate the adventure genre as a whole, which had been seen as a declining field in countries such as Germany and France. Runaway has been cited as a contributing factor to the reenergization of adventure games by publications such as La Libre Belgique, Gameblog, GameStar, Hamburger Wirtschaft, Jeux Video, PC Games and MeriStation.
Runaway sequels: 2003–2009
Pendulo Studios began to plan a sequel to Runaway soon after the first game's international launch. Rafael Latiegui later said that the team "wanted to immediately get [into] a video game" after spending a year away, and that a sequel was the "quickest way" because of the groundwork already laid. He noted that Runaway had not been developed with a sequel in mind, but that a large number of unused ideas nevertheless remained after the first game's release. The first game's commercial performance, combined with the team's desire to explore Runaway further, ultimately became a key inspiration to greenlight a sequel.
Runaway 2 was first announced by DTP Entertainment in August 2003, at the Games Convention in Leipzig. Pendulo opted to reuse the same game engine from the first title, with upgrades. The project was initially scheduled for late 2004. Because of Runaway's high profits, Pendulo was able to put its own money into Runaway 2, although most of the game's funding derived from French investments. The game underwent numerous delays, first to mid-2005 and then to late 2005, spring 2006 and September 2006. Discussing these setbacks at the time, Latiegui argued that it was "important for the quality of development" to take precedence over deadlines. Released in November 2006 as Runaway 2: The Dream of the Turtle, the game continues the story of Brian Basco and Gina, who fall into trouble because of a plane crash during their vacation to Hawaii. Runaway 2 received an international release roughly 8 months before its mid-2007 Spanish launch.
A third Runaway game was considered during Runaway 2's creation, and Pendulo unofficially confirmed that it was under development in November 2006. It received an official announcement at Games Convention in August 2007; certain outlets initially reported that Runaway 3 would be set in Japan and would take place immediately after its predecessor. The game was first shown in February 2008 at the Game Developers Conference, where its name was revealed as Runaway. Pendulo and publisher Focus Home Interactive hoped to attract series newcomers with the numberless title, and Jeux Video reported that the game was "not the direct follow-up" to Runaway 2, but a relatively standalone project. A new engine was adopted for A Twist of Fate that offered improved graphics, although the game retained a pre-rendered 2D visual style. A Twist of Fate tells the story of Brian's attempt to escape from an insane asylum, where he is detained after being accused of murder. Unlike the first two Runaway entries, the game features Gina as a playable character alongside Brian. A Twist of Fate was first released internationally in November 2009; its Spanish version, again delayed, launched in early 2010. By the time of its Spanish release, global sales of the three Runaway games had reached 1.5 million units, according to ABC.
Diversification and renewed financial trouble: 2010–2014
Pendulo opted to retire the Runaway franchise after A Twist of Fate, although the team retained ideas for potential sequels. Latiegui explained in 2011, "After almost a decade with the saga, we needed a break." The team reported that it was particularly tired of Brian as a character. Instead, the team chose to pursue a new project under the name The Next Big Thing. Fan requests for a sequel to Hollywood Monsters were ongoing throughout the creation of the Runaway trilogy. Latiegui said of the situation, "To each new game that we have been making, the reaction of the Spanish public has been the same: 'When is the next Hollywood Monsters?' " This pressure from fans became a key motivation for the team to return to the Hollywood Monsters concept. In April 2010, Pendulo and publisher Focus Home Interactive announced The Next Big Thing. Commentators from Adventure Gamers and Jeux Video noted the project's close similarity to Hollywood Monsters, and in April 2011 the game was retitled Hollywood Monsters 2 in Spain.
At the start, Pendulo conceived The Next Big Thing as a high-definition remake of Hollywood Monsters, but it increasingly drifted from this framework over time. Latiegui explained that the final product "is not a second part, nor a remake"; rather, the team borrowed heavily from Hollywood Monsters and attempted to take its ideas in new directions. Sue Bergman and Ron Ashman were removed in favor of new protagonists: reporters Dan Murray and Liz Allaire of The Quill. As with Hollywood Monsters, The Next Big Thing takes place in a fantasy version of Hollywood where monsters act in films. The story explores the film industry's shift away from monster movies, which threatens to leave their casts out of work. The Next Big Thing first launched in April 2011, and it proved to be a "huge failure" commercially, according to Pendulo's Josué Monchan.
Rethinking the company's style and brand after the failure of The Next Big Thing, Pendulo opted to create a game with a darker, more serious tone and more casual gameplay. Monchan stated that Pendulo could not find funding for a more traditional project. As a result, the team created Yesterday (2012), its first fully dramatic title. However, Pendulo was hit hard by Spanish economic turmoil; Yesterday's budget was significantly smaller than the one for Runaway 3. Monchan noted that Yesterday again underperformed, which he blamed in part on a publisher that had lost faith in the team's ability to succeed. Pendulo undertook a new Runaway title in 2012, under the name Hidden Runaway. Unlike Pendulo's earlier work, Hidden Runaway is a hidden object game aimed at casual players. The game was released for iOS devices in October 2012, and proved once again to be a commercial failure.
Unable to find an investor for another game, Pendulo turned to a crowdfunding campaign in 2012 for the tentative project Day One. The campaign proved unsuccessful; Monchan stated that Pendulo had not spent time building a network of connections that would allow it to survive without a publisher. Following Pendulo's failure to fund Day One, the company entered a two-year period in which it released no original games. Albert Garciá of La Vanguardia noted that "the future of this company was uncertain" during the period. To survive during these two years, Pendulo downsized and spent time porting its existing catalogue of games to iOS. Monchan compared the strategy to one that Revolution Software had previously used to stay solvent, and noted that The Next Big Thing and Yesterday saw more success on mobile devices than they had on personal computers.
With Microids: 2014–present
In November 2014, Pendulo Studios began an undisclosed new project with publisher Microids, ending its hiatus from original releases. The two companies announced the deal that December. Pendulo and Microids proceeded to release a sequel to Yesterday, entitled Yesterday Origins, in November 2016. Directly after the game's completion, Microids proposed the idea of adapting the Blacksad comic series into a game. The publisher was owned by the same media conglomerate as Blacksad publisher Dargaud. Although Pendulo had never worked with a license before, the developer's Josué Monchán noted that the team had "been Blacksad fans for a long time" and agreed to the idea immediately. The team then storyboarded a pitch and submitted it to Dargaud and Blacksad's authors, who approved it. YS Interactive initially assisted Pendulo.
Blacksad was unexpectedly announced in June 2017. Gameblog's Vincent Elmer-Haerrig called the project a "gamble" for Pendulo, as Under the Skin is aimed at "a fringe of players who are both comic-philes and video game lovers." It was Pendulo's first game to use fully 3D visuals. Lead animator Carlos Hernández told Mundo Deportivo that the game's production was "a great difficulty" for the team, particularly because of its small size: Pendulo numbered 17 members by 2019. Under the Skin was released in November 2019. In late 2020, Pendulo reported that "the impact [Blacksad] has had on the market has been much greater" than Pendulo's other recent titles, which the company attributed to the project's "more narrative, modern adventure" style.
In March 2018, during the production of Under the Skin, Microids announced that Pendulo would develop an adaptation of Alfred Hitchcock's film Vertigo. The publisher obtained the rights to Hitchcock's "name and likeness" for the game, Rock, Paper, Shotgun reported. According to Microids, the game would be "loosely" inspired by the film, following it aesthetically and thematically. In November 2020, Pendulo revealed that development of Vertigo was "quite advanced" and that it would be a "narrative adventure" title. The game was first shown at the Guerrilla Collective Showcase in June 2021, where its title was announced as Alfred Hitchcock – Vertigo. The game follows the story of Ed Miller, a man who enters therapy to cope with the mysterious after-effects of a car crash. Monchan noted that "Vertigo [was] not our only frame of reference" for the story, also citing Hitchcock's Spellbound, Rebecca and Psycho as influences, among others. The game was first released for computers in 2021, followed by a console release in 2022.
In August 2022, Microids revealed that Pendulo Studios was developing Tintin Reporter: Cigars of the Pharaoh, an "action and investigation adventure" based on the comic of the same name in the Adventures of Tintin series. Microids had announced its plan to publish an unnamed Tintin video game previously, after striking a deal with the Hergé Foundation in 2020.
|1997||Hollywood Monsters||Graphic adventure||Windows|
|2001||Runaway||Graphic adventure||Windows, iOS|
|2006||Runaway 2||Graphic adventure||Windows, iOS, Wii, DS|
|2009||Runaway||Graphic adventure||Windows, DS, iOS|
|2011||The Next Big Thing||Graphic adventure||Windows, OS X, iOS|
|2012||Yesterday||Graphic adventure||Windows, OS X, iOS|
|2012||Hidden Runaway||Hidden object||Windows, iOS|
|2016||Yesterday Origins||Graphic adventure||Windows, OS X, PlayStation 4, Xbox One|
|2019||Blacksad||Graphic adventure||Windows, OS X, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Switch|
|2021||Alfred Hitchcock – Vertigo||Graphic adventure||Windows, PlayStation 5, PlayStation 4, Xbox Series X/S, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch|
|TBA 2023||Tintin Reporter – Cigars of the Pharaoh||Action-adventure||Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, PlayStation 5, Xbox Series, Nintendo Switch|
- Day One
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Staff (August 2019). "Retro Hobby; Pendulo Studios: Pasión por las aventuras gráficas" (in Spanish). HobbyConsolas (337): 96, 97.
- ↑ Arroyo, David (19 July 2019). "Blacksad: Under The Skin, impresiones; una carta de amor a los cómics" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2019/07/19/avances/1563487768_423079.html.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Garin, Manuel; Martínez, Víctor Manuel (May 2015). "Spain". Video Games Around the World. MIT Press. pp. 521–533. ISBN 978-0-262-52716-3.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Gómez, Julio (14 March 2008). "A Propósito de las Aventuras Gráficas" (in Spanish). Vandal. http://www.vandal.net/reportaje/a-proposito-de-las-aventuras-graficas.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Ruiz, Clara Castaño (11 April 2017). "Mejores aventuras gráficas del estudio español Pendulo Studios" (in Spanish). HobbyConsolas. https://www.hobbyconsolas.com/reportajes/mejores-aventuras-graficas-estudio-espanol-pendulo-studios-93548.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Gutiérrez, Francisco (June 1994). "En Directo con... Los programadores de "Igor: Objetivo Uikokahonia"" (in Spanish). PC Manía (20): 26.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 François, Tommy (Director); Guillemonat, Victorien (Editor) (2003). Making Of (in French). Game One, Focus Home Interactive. Retrieved 17 June 2019.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Rodríguez, Fernando. "Entrevista a Rafael Latiegui, Ramón Hernáez y Felipe Gómez" (in Spanish). Macedonia Magazine. http://www.ciudadfutura.com/macedonia/pendulo.htm.
- ↑ Esteve, Jaume (9 January 2013). "Aventuras AD: de la pediatría al videojuego" (in Spanish). IGN España. https://es.ign.com/la-aventura-original-zx/63099/blog/aventuras-ad-de-la-pediatria-al-videojuego.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Ruiz, Clara Castaño (12 August 2017). "Las mejores aventuras gráficas españolas" (in Spanish). HobbyConsolas. https://www.hobbyconsolas.com/reportajes/mejores-aventuras-graficas-espanolas-61010.
- ↑ Staff. "Actualidad; Primera aventura gráfica española" (in Spanish). Micromanía Second Época (72): 6.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Gutiérrez, Francisco (June 1994). "El Gran Salto" (in Spanish). PC Manía (20): 24, 25.
- ↑ Ricart, Enrique (July 1994). "Todo por Amor" (in Spanish). Micromanía Second Época (74): 46, 47.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Conditt, Jessica (2 April 2012). "'Brunchstorming' is Spanish for 'work,' if you're Pendulo Studios". Joystiq. http://www.joystiq.com/2012/04/02/brunchstorming-is-spanish-for-work-if-youre-pendulo-studio.
- ↑ Staff (2 September 2005). "Interview met Rafael Latiegui van Pendulo Studios". Adventure Island. http://www.adventure-island.nl/index.php?file=interviews/interviewpendulo.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Luna, Alberto de Vega (29 June 2001). "Entrevista; Péndulo Studios, creadores de Runaway" (in Spanish). MeriStation. http://www.meristation.com/sc/articulos/articulo.asp?c=GEN&cr=846.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 Masnou, Gerard (June 2003). "Hispano aventuras gráficas" (in Spanish). GameLive PC (30): 28–33.
- ↑ The 3DJuegos Team (22 February 2010). "Entrevista con Péndulo Studios: Rafael Latiegui" (in Spanish). 3DJuegos. http://www.3djuegos.com/juegos/articulos/31/0/entrevista-con-pendulo-studios-rafael-latiegui/.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 "Interview with Pendulo". The Inventory (Just Adventure) (12): 10–14. February 2004. http://www.justadventure.com:80/TheInventory/TheInventory.shtm. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Staff (2007). "Una historia aventurada". Edge España (16): 18, 19.
- ↑ Jordi (12 December 1997). "Entrevistamos a los creadores de Hollywood Monsters" (in Spanish). MeriStation. http://www.meristation.com/articulos/pendulo1.htm.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 Pinilla, Felipe Gómez; Latiegui, Rafael (7 December 1997). "Entrevista a Péndulo Studios". Game 40 (Interview) (in Spanish). Interviewed by Caballé, Guillem. Retrieved 19 June 2019.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- ↑ Delgado, Francisco (November 1997). "Hollywood Monsters: Brillante futuro" (in Spanish). Micromanía Third Época (34): 72, 73.
- ↑ "Un poco de Historia; 97" (in Spanish). Dinamic Multimedia. http://www.dinamic.com/acercate/historia.asp?id=7.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Navarro, David (1 July 2011). "Los maestros de la aventura gráfica" (in Spanish). MarcaPlayer. http://www.marcaplayer.com/2011/07/01/reportajes/1309519934.html.
- ↑ Staff (May 2011). "Vuelve la madre de las aventuras" (in Spanish). MarcaPlayer (32): 72.
- ↑ Sanz, José Luis (25 May 2011). "Visitamos las oficinas de Péndulo Studios" (in Spanish). HobbyConsolas. https://www.hobbyconsolas.com/noticias/visitamos-oficinas-pendulo-studios-10297.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Cano, Jorge (29 April 2011). "Impresiones Hollywood Monsters 2 (PC)" (in Spanish). Vandal. https://vandal.elespanol.com/avances/pc/hollywood-monsters-2/12391/2#p-13.
- ↑ Staff (25 September 2008). "La odisea de crear un juego en España" (in Spanish). PC Actual. https://www.pcactual.com/noticias/actualidad/odisea-crear-juego-espana-2_1902.
- ↑ Pastor, Alberto (22 June 2011). "Análisis de Hollywood Monsters 2" (in Spanish). 3DJuegos. https://www.3djuegos.com/juegos/analisis/11116/0/hollywood-monsters-2/.
- ↑ Fontanet-Bel, Fernando (10 March 2010). "Impresiones de Runaway: A Twist of Fate para Ordenador" (in Spanish). Vandal. http://www.vandal.net/avances/pc/runaway-a-twist-of-fate/7744/3.
- ↑ García, Roberto (16 June 2011). "El rejuvenecer de un clásico" (in Spanish). MeriStation. http://www.meristation.com/v3/des_analisis.php?pic=PC&idj=cw4bc864e5a6832&id=cw4df76c5a31ef5.
- ↑ Staff (March 2010). "Avances; Runaway: A Twist of Fate". MarcaPlayer (18): 84.
- ↑ Bronstring, Marek (13 October 2000). "Previews – Runaway: A Road Adventure". Adventure Gamers. http://www.adventuregamer.com/previews/runaway.shtml.
- ↑ García, Enrique (26 May 2011). "Pendulo: "Hollywood Monsters 2 no es ni un homenaje ni una secuela"" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2011/05/26/noticias/1306393200_090939.html.
- ↑ Staff (December 1997). "Con sabor nacional" (in Spanish). PC Manía (62): 202.
- ↑ Pita, Xan (7 March 2002). "El juego del 'Lucas Arts' español" (in Spanish). El Mundo. https://www.elmundo.es/ariadna/2002/83/1015582423.html.
- ↑ Gilbertz, Luc (12 January 2001). "Interviews; Kai Fiebig" (in German). Adventure-Treff. http://www.adventure-treff.de/artikel/interviews.php?id=1.
- ↑ Staff (10 November 1999). "Dinamic prepara sus novedades" (in Spanish). GameSpot Spain. http://www.gamespot-es.com/news/99_11/10/1/index.asp.
- ↑ "Interview de Pendulo Studios" (in French). Focus Home Interactive. http://www.runaway-lejeu.com/lejeu/lejeu_pendulo.htm.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 Font, Joan (June 2001). "Así se hace un juego" (in Spanish). GameLive PC (8): 24–28, 30–33.
- ↑ Staff (6 July 2001). "Runaway ya está a la venta." (in Spanish). GameSpot Spain. http://www.gamespot-es.com/news/01_07/06/8/index.asp.
- ↑ Staff (17 September 2001). "Los Sims encabezan la lista de juegos más vendidos en España" (in Spanish). GameSpot Spain. http://www.gamespot-es.com/news/01_09/17/7/index.asp.
- ↑ Masnou, Gerard (March 2003). "Aventuras; Ediciones de lujo" (in Spanish). GameLive PC (27): 101.
- ↑ Staff (24 September 2001). "Confirmado oficialmente el cierre de Dinamic" (in Spanish). GameSpot Spain. http://www.gamespot-es.com/news/01_09/24/1/index.asp.
- ↑ Hagerup, Eivind (3 January 2001). "Runaway delayed & new screenshots". Adventure Gamers. http://www.adventuregamer.com/news/archives/arc0-2001.shtml.
- ↑ "Runaway; Noticias" (in Spanish). Pendulo Studios. 10 July 2001. http://www.pendulostudios.com:80/spanish/noticias.htm.
- ↑ Tichacek, Petr (16 October 2001). "Vydani adventury Runaway ohrozeno!" (in Czech). BonusWeb. http://www.bonusweb.cz/zurnal/zurnalpc/runaway011016.html.
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 García, Paco (July 2007). "Entrevista con Rafael Latiegui" (in Spanish). Aventura y CÍA. http://www.aventuraycia.com/v3/entrevista.php?id=11.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 Korgull (21 August 2002). "Těžká cesta adventury Runaway do Čech" (in Czech). Tiscali.cz. http://games.tiscali.cz/news/news.asp?id=5593.
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 51.2 Althor (8 July 2007). "Entrevista a Rafael Latiegui" (in Spanish). La Aventura. http://la-aventura.net/entrevistas/rafael-latiegui.
- ↑ 52.0 52.1 52.2 52.3 52.4 Fernández, Mireia (17 May 2011). "Entrevistamos en exclusiva a Pendulo Studios" (in Spanish). OnGames. http://pc.ongames.com/articulos_hollywood-monsters-2.
- ↑ Romero, Eric (2003). "FX publica Runaway versión mejorada" (in Spanish). Terra Juegos. http://www4.terra.es/juegos/pc/avances/articulo_avances_pc/0,2075,3248%7c0,00.html.
- ↑ "The Lounge; Interview with DTP". The Inventory (Just Adventure) (10): 20–23. November 2003. http://www.justadventure.com:80/TheInventory/TheInventory.shtm. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 Mansutti, Klaus Jürgen (April 2006). "Die Spielemacher vom Goldbekkanal" (in German). Hamburger Wirtschaft. Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. http://www.hamburger-wirtschaft.de/html/hw2006/artikel/08_portrait/06_04_16_dtp_entertainment.html.
- ↑ Staff (20 December 2002). "Runaway" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/whatsnew.htm?20021220.
- ↑ "Francia y Polonia Se Apuntan" (in Spanish). Pendulo Studios. 16 December 2002. http://www.pendulostudios.com/runaway/esp_noticias.htm.
- ↑ Mischkowski, Frank (9 January 2004). "Crimson Cow zieht positive Jahresbilanz" (in German). MCV. http://www.mcvonline.de/?article_id=268141.
- ↑ Jiménez, Daniel González (8 May 2014) (in Spanish). Arte de videojuegos. Da forma a tus sueños. Ra-Ma Editorial. pp. 140–149. ISBN 978-84-9964-276-5.
- ↑ Allin, Jack (15 August 2012). "Day One – Pendulo Studios Interview". Adventure Gamers. https://adventuregamers.com/articles/view/22157.
- ↑ 61.0 61.1 Wiesner, Thorsten (13 May 2003). "Klassische Adventures – Kehrt das totgeglaubte Genre zurück?" (in German). Golem.de. http://www.golem.de/0305/25464.html.
- ↑ Cifaldi, Frank (14 April 2006). "The Connection is Made: Developer Highlights from Game Connection 2006 (Part One)". Gamasutra. http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20060414/cifaldi_01.shtml.
- ↑ Sheffield, Brandon (23 March 2006). "Q&A: 'GDC: Game Connection – Nicolas Magnier, Krysalide'". Gamasutra. http://gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=8663.
- ↑ Bringewatt, Stefan (28 November 2002). "Runaway – Adventure-Zukunft gesichert?" (in German). PC Games. http://www.pcgames.de/index.cfm?article_id=107902.
- ↑ Cario, Erwan (18 April 2003). "A la poursuite de la croix indienne" (in French). Libération. https://next.liberation.fr/guide/2003/04/18/a-la-poursuite-de-la-croix-indienne_462055.
- ↑ 66.0 66.1 Staff (6 March 2004). "The Westerner – Focus – PC – 45 €" (in French). La Libre Belgique. https://www.lalibre.be/archive/the-westerner-focus-pc-45-51b882c4e4b0de6db9a9f645.
- ↑ "20 point and click essentiels de l'Histoire du Jeu Vidéo" (in French). Gameblog. 1 April 2017. http://www.gameblog.fr/dossier_1061_20-point-and-click-essentiels-de-l-histoire-du-jeu-video.
- ↑ Schmidt, Christian (4 December 2006). "Tests – Adventure; Runaway 2" (in German). GameStar. http://gamestar.de/tests/adventure/1466585/runaway_2.html.
- ↑ 69.0 69.1 Jihem (16 November 2006). "Runaway 2 : The Dream Of The Turtle; Test" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/articles/0000/00007057_test.htm.
- ↑ Schütz, Felix (January 2007). "Test; Runaway 2" (in German). PC Games: 120, 121.
- ↑ Otero, César (31 March 2012). "Regreso al Pasado: Aventuras Gráficas Españolas" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2012/03/31/reportajes/1333184400_101694.html.
- ↑ 72.0 72.1 72.2 Staff (24 November 2005). "Interviews : Interview de Pendulo Studios" (in French). Le Sanctuaire de l'Aventure. http://www.sanctuaire-aventure.net/modules/news/article.php?storyid=684.
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 Bringewatt, Stefan (21 August 2003). "GC: Angekündigt: Runaway 2" (in German). PC Games. http://www.pcgames.de/?article_id=212461.
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 Ortiz, Nacho (1 July 2007). "Entrevista; Runaway 2, Sueño de Verano" (in Spanish). MeriStation. http://www.meristation.com/v3/des_articulo.php?pic=GEN&id=cw468abbf962d69.
- ↑ Jihem (13 October 2006). "Preview; Runaway 2 : The Dream Of The Turtle" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/articles/0000/00006935_preview.htm.
- ↑ Staff (21 February 2006). "Runaway 2 reporté, épisode 3" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/news/2006/00015658.htm.
- ↑ Stolzenberg, Justin (18 August 2004). "Runaway 2 kommt später" (in German). PC Games. http://www.pcgames.de/?article_id=329703.
- ↑ Stolzenberg, Justin (31 May 2005). "Runaway 2 erst im 4. Quartal 2005" (in German). PC Games. http://www.pcgames.de/?article_id=375300.
- ↑ Stolzenberg, Justin (16 December 2005). "Weihnachtlicher Trailer" (in German). PC Games. https://www.pcgames.de/Runaway-2-The-Dream-Of-The-Turtle-Spiel-31110/Downloads/Weihnachtlicher-Trailer-435700/.
- ↑ Wollner, Ralph (23 March 2006). "Auf September verschoben" (in German). PC Games. https://www.pcgames.de/Runaway-2-The-Dream-Of-The-Turtle-Spiel-31110/News/Auf-September-verschoben-459263/.
- ↑ "Runaway 2 : The Dream of the Turtle – PC" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/jeux/0001/00011540.htm.
- ↑ Staff (29 November 2006). "Runaway 3 confirmé" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/news/2006/00018966-runaway-3-confirme.htm.
- ↑ Fortes, Francisco A. (29 November 2006). "Pendulo confirma un futuro Runaway 3" (in Spanish). MeriStation. http://www.meristation.com:80/v3/des_noticia.php?pic=PC&id=cw456e0c5ab3a06&idj=5750.
- ↑ Taboada, Pablo González (23 August 2007). "[GC Runaway 3 se ambientará en Japón"] (in Spanish). MeriStation. http://www.meristation.com/v3/des_noticia.php?id=cw46cdae7dd8b19&pic=PC&idj=cw46cdaea18a9e8&idp=.
- ↑ Allin, Jack (29 February 2008). "Runaway sequel's fate takes a twist". Adventure Gamers. http://www.adventuregamers.com/newsitem.php?id=1626.
- ↑ Jihem (22 February 2008). "Aperçus; Runaway : A Twist of Fate" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/articles/0000/00008693-runaway-a-twist-of-fate-preview.htm.
- ↑ Thöing, Sebastian (7 October 2009). "Runaway: A Twist of Fate: Neue Screenshots zum kommenden Adventure" (in German). PC Games. https://www.pcgames.de/Runaway-3-A-Twist-of-Fate-Spiel-31111/News/Runaway-A-Twist-of-Fate-696870/.
- ↑ Linken, Andre (11 September 2009). "Runaway: A Twist of Fate; Screenshots aus dem Adventure" (in German). GameStar. http://www.gamestar.de/news/pc/adventure/pointclick/1958954/runaway_a_twist_of_fate.html.
- ↑ Braun, Benjamin (30 September 2009). "Archived Preview: Runaway: A Twist of Fate". Adventure Gamers. http://adventuregamers.com/article/id,1074.
- ↑ 90.0 90.1 García, Roberto (24 March 2010). "Una oda a los clásicos" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2010/03/24/analisis/1269414000_019277.html.
- ↑ Allin, Jack (26 November 2009). "Runaway 3 takes off early at Adventure Shop". Adventure Gamers. http://adventuregamers.com/newsitem.php?id=2016.
- ↑ Staff (25 March 2010). "Ya esta aqui Runaway: A Twist of Fate, una saga que ha vendido 1,5 millones de copias en todo el mundo" (in Spanish). ABC. https://sevilla.abc.es/videos-cultura/20100325/esta-aqui-runaway-twist-592540443001.html.
- ↑ 93.0 93.1 93.2 93.3 Marquez, Rubén (4 July 2011). "'Los Sims han mordido el polvo frente a Hollywood Monsters 2': entrevista a Pendulo Studios" (in Spanish). Vida Extra. https://www.vidaextra.com/entrevistas/hollywood-monsters-2-entrevista-a-pendulo-studios.
- ↑ 94.0 94.1 Team Adventure Corner (21 May 2012). "Interview with Pendulo Studios (Englisch)". Adventure Corner. https://www.adventurecorner.de/pages/486/interview-with-pendulo-studios-englisch.
- ↑ Bronstring, Marek (20 July 2003). "Runaway Interview". Adventure Gamers. http://www.adventuregamers.com/display.php?id=269.
- ↑ 96.0 96.1 García, Enrique (26 May 2011). "Pendulo: 'Hollywood Monsters 2 no es ni un homenaje ni una secuela'" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2011/05/26/noticias/1306393200_090939.html.
- ↑ Allin, Jack (16 April 2010). "Small peek at The Next BIG Thing unveiled by Pendulo Studios". Adventure Gamers. https://adventuregamers.com/news/view/20920.
- ↑ "Focus Home Interactive and Pendulo Studios Unveil 'The Next Big Thing'" (Press release). Focus Home Interactive. 16 April 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2011.
- ↑ 99.0 99.1 Allin, Jack (4 March 2011). "The Next BIG Thing hands-on". Adventure Gamers. https://adventuregamers.com/articles/view/18533.
- ↑ Baryton, Antoine (2 June 2010). "Aperçu; The Next BIG Thing" (in French). Jeux Video. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/articles/0001/00012886-the-next-big-thing-preview.htm.
- ↑ Otero, César (14 April 2011). "The Next Big Thing cambia su nombre por Hollywood Monsters 2" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2011/04/14/noticias/1302802800_089948.html.
- ↑ Raha, Shuva (21 April 2011). "The Next BIG Thing Review". Adventure Gamers. http://www.adventuregamers.com/articles/view/18468.
- ↑ Blair, Jason L. (21 April 2011). "The Next BIG Thing releases right on cue". Adventure Gamers. http://www.adventuregamers.com/news/view/21086.
- ↑ 104.0 104.1 104.2 104.3 104.4 104.5 104.6 Monchan, Josué (6 December 2014). "Trial, Success, Error, Restart: Twenty Years of Pendulo Studios". AdventureX. London. https://archive.org/details/josuemonchan2014. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- ↑ Hernández, David Alonso (28 November 2012). "Análisis point and click de Hidden Runaway" (in Spanish). HobbyConsolas. https://www.hobbyconsolas.com/reviews/analisis-point-and-click-hidden-runaway-45798.
- ↑ "Day One – Pendulo Studios". 15 August 2012. https://adventuregamers.com/articles/view/22157.
- ↑ Alonso, Álvaro (9 December 2014). "Pendulo Studios trabaja en su nueva aventura gráfica" (in Spanish). El Diario. https://www.eldiario.es/juegoreviews/noticias/Pendulo-Studios-trabaja-aventura-grafica_0_333167305.html.
- ↑ Garciá, Albert (12 December 2014). "Pendulo Studios trabaja en una nueva aventura gráfica" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. https://www.lavanguardia.com/tecnologia/videojuegos/20141212/54421343639/pendulo-studios-nueva-aventura-grafica.html.
- ↑ García, Enrique (9 December 2014). "Los españoles Pendulo Studios están de vuelta" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2014/12/09/noticias/1418129820_139575.html.
- ↑ Ruiz, Clara Castaño (8 November 2016). "Yesterday Origins – Análisis de la aventura de Pendulo Studios" (in Spanish). HobbyConsolas. https://www.hobbyconsolas.com/reviews/yesterday-origins-analisis-aventura-pendulo-studios-71036.
- ↑ 112.0 112.1 Yago Lago (28 February 2019). "La Mansión Maníaca #3: Entrevista a Pendulo sobre Blacksad y mucho más" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2019/02/26/reportajes/1551213785_058186.html.
- ↑ 113.0 113.1 Amores, Marina (15 April 2019). "Corrupción, fama, boxeo y detectives: Blacksad pasa del papel al videojuego" (in Spanish). Mundo Deportivo. https://www.mundodeportivo.com/videojuegos/20190415/461657468667/blacksad-under-the-skin-videojuego-avance.html.
- ↑ Jiménez, Jesús (5 October 2018). "Blacksad, uno de los videojuegos más esperados" (in Spanish). RTVE. http://www.rtve.es/noticias/20181005/blacksad-uno-videojuegos-mas-esperados/1811862.shtml.
- ↑ Mimran, Olivier (12 June 2017). "Le dessinateur de "Blacksad" se réjouit de la future adaptation de sa BD en jeu vidéo" (in French). 20 minutes. https://www.20minutes.fr/culture/2085083-20170612-dessinateur-blacksad-rejouit-future-adaptation-bd-jeu-video.
- ↑ Diaz, Patricia (8 June 2017). "Pendulo Studios adaptara el comic Blacksad en un videojuego" (in Spanish). Sport. https://areajugones.sport.es/2017/06/08/pendulo-studios-adaptara-el-comic-blacksad-en-un-videojuego/.
- ↑ ChewbieFR (9 June 2017). "Microïds annonce la trilogie Syberia sur Switch, ainsi que Blacksad, Flashback et Gear.Club" (in French). Jeuxvideo.com. http://www.jeuxvideo.com/news/669114/microids-annonce-la-trilogie-syberia-sur-switch-ainsi-que-blacksad-flashback-et-gear-club.htm.
- ↑ Elmer-Haerrig, Vincent (28 June 2018). "Blacksad (Pendulo) se révèle en images pour les fans de BD" (in French). Gameblog. http://www.gameblog.fr/news/76419-blacksad-pendulo-se-revele-en-images-pour-les-fans-de-bd.
- ↑ 119.0 119.1 Oller, Martin (28 November 2020). "Pendulo Studios, los españoles que quisieron competir con LucasArts" (in Spanish). MeriStation. https://as.com/meristation/2020/11/28/reportajes/1606550515_914667.html.
- ↑ Martín, María P. (13 March 2018). "Microïds hará una adaptación de Vertigo" (in Spanish). IGN Spain. https://es.ign.com/vertigo-1/130629/news/microids-hara-una-adaptacion-de-vertigo.
- ↑ O'Connor, Alice (13 March 2018). "Alfred Hitchcock's face licensed for a Vertigo game". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. https://www.rockpapershotgun.com/2018/03/13/microids-vertigo-game/.
- ↑ Wöbbeking, Jan (14 March 2018). "Vertigo: Pendulo und Microïds arbeiten an einem Adventure zu Hitchcocks Kino-Oldie" (in German). 4Players. https://www.4players.de/4players.php/spielinfonews/XboxOne/39513/2173807/Vertigo-Pendulo_und_Microds_arbeiten_an_einem_Adventure_zu_Hitchcocks_Kino-Oldie.html.
- ↑ "Guerrilla Collective: Microids unveils narrative game Alfred Hitchcock – Vertigo through a first enigmatic teaser" (Press release). Paris: Microids. 5 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ↑ 124.0 124.1 124.2 Kleffmann, Marcel (6 June 2021). "Alfred Hitchcock – Vertigo: Psychothriller zwischen Realität und Fantasie angekündigt" (in German). 4Players. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20210607061003/https://www.4players.de/4players.php/spielinfonews/Allgemein/43296/2198417/Alfred_Hitchcock_-_Vertigo-Psychothriller_zwischen_Realitaet_und_Fantasie_angekuendigt.html.
- ↑ 125.0 125.1 Cano, Jorge (August 22, 2022). "Anunciado Tintin Reporter: Cigars of the Pharaoh, un juego basado en el mítico cómic" (in Spanish). Vandal. Archived from the original on August 22, 2022. https://web.archive.org/web/20220822170400/https://vandal.elespanol.com/noticia/1350755939/anunciado-tintin-reporter-cigars-of-the-pharaoh-un-juego-basado-en-el-mitico-comic/.
- ↑ Kleffmann, Marcel (April 26, 2020). "Microids: Action-Adventure auf Basis von Tim und Struppi für PC und Konsolen in Entwicklung" (in German). 4Players. Archived from the original on January 3, 2023. https://web.archive.org/web/20230103013102/https://www.4players.de/4players.php/spielinfonews/Allgemein/36985/2189618/Microds.html.
- ↑ Knirsch, Lion (August 23, 2022). "Tim und Struppi - Die Zigarren des Pharaos: Erste Bilder zur neuen Videospieladation der Comic-Reihe" (in German). 4Players. Archived from the original on August 23, 2022. https://web.archive.org/web/20220823094857/https://www.4players.de/4players.php/spielinfonews/Allgemein/43983/2202480/Tim_und_Struppi_-_Die_Zigarren_des_Pharaos-Erste_Bilder_zur_neuen_Videospieladaption_der_Comic-Reihe.html.
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pendulo Studios. Read more