Four corners of the world
Several cosmological and mythological systems portray four corners of the world or four quarters of the world corresponding approximately to the four points of the compass (or the two solstices and two equinoxes). At the center may lie a sacred mountain, garden, world tree, or other beginning-point of creation. Often four rivers run to the four corners of the world, and water or irrigate the four quadrants of the Earth.
In Christianity and Judaism, the Old Testament (Book of Genesis, Genesis 2:8-14) identifies the Garden of Eden, and the four rivers as the Tigris, Euphrates, Pishon, and Gihon. The Tigris runs to Assyria, the Euphrates to Armenia, the Pishon to Havilah or Elam, and the Gihon to Ethiopia.
In Mesopotamian cosmology, four rivers flowing out of the garden of creation, which is the center of the world, define the four corners of the world. From the point of view of the Akkadians, the northern geographical horizon was marked by Subartu, the west by Mar.tu, the east by Elam and the south by Sumer; later rulers of all of Mesopotamia, such as Cyrus, claimed among their titles LUGAL kib-ra-a-ti er-bé-et-tì, "King of the Four Corners".
In Hinduism, the sacred mountain Kailash has four sides, from which four rivers flow to the four quarters of the world (the Ganges, Indus, Oxus (Amu Darya), and Śita (Tarim)), dividing the world into four quadrants. Another account portrays a celestial mountain, Mount Meru, buttressed by four terrestrial mountain ranges which extend in four directions. Between them lie four sacred lakes, through which the celestial river divides into four earthly rivers, which flow to the four corners and irrigate the four quadrants of the Earth. Buddhism and the Bon religion of Tibet have similar accounts.
- George & George (2014) The Mythology of Eden, Rowman & Littlefield
- Nelson, Richard D. (2006). "Babes in the Wood". From Eden to Babel: An Adventure in Bible Study. St. Louis, Missouri: Chalice Press. p. 26. ISBN 9780827210776. https://books.google.com/books?id=3AK8YTfH-AEC. Retrieved 2016-05-20. "The four rivers flowing out to the four corners of the world explain global geography as the ancients would have pictured it ([Genesis] 2:10-14)."
- Jordan, James B. (1999). "Sociology: A Biblico-Historical Approach". The Sociology of the Church: Essays in Reconstruction (reprint ed.). Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 86. ISBN 9781579102487. https://books.google.com/books?id=33lKAwAAQBAJ. Retrieved 2016-05-20. "In a generally ignored but all-important paragraph of Genesis 2, we are told how the world was organized when it was created [...]. In short, the world was organized in terms of a primordial duality between the central sanctuary of Eden, and the outlying world watered by four rivers extending to the four corners of the world."
- "Archived copy". http://www.binujohn.name/2013/04/14/the-four-quarters-of-the-world/.
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