From HandWiki

Citation policy

A HandWiki article should contain useful information and have at least one reference to an external source that supports the content of this research information. The external sources can be journal articles, preprints, arxiv.org, preprints.org (or similar), verifiable web pages and other. However, such articles should not be advertisements for any product, company or service.

An article without a single external reference will contain box:

which will be added automatically (or by humans) at the very end of articles. In the case if an article uses only URL for external sources, but not a proper citation (to be described below), then you will see a box like this:

Adding citations in HandWiki

To create a simple reference in the form of URL, use <ref></ref> as follows

Bizco was founded in 1942.<ref>Offcial web site [https://www.nytimes.com/bizco]</ref>

The reference to external site "Offcial web site [https://www.nytimes.com/bizco]" will be added to the end of the article.

In order to make your citations more visible, add these lines at the very end of your article:


Below we describe how to create the standard Mediawiki references and references that are more specific to HandWiki.

Wiki-style citations

HandWiki uses the standard Mediawiki/Wikipedia styles for references. You can find the full description in this article How to cite articles or books in Mediawiki. For example, to make this [1] citation, program it as:

This is my first Mediawiki citation

Or you can use this style [2], so you can repeat it again [2]. Such repetitions in references looks should be coded as:

Or you can use this style <ref name=test>Repeated citation</ref>, 
so you can repeat it again  later as  <ref name=test/>.

Citations can be quite complex. This is how you can reference web resource [3]

<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gap-system.org/Download/copyright.html | title=GAP Copyright |date=2012-06-14 |accessdate=2015-02-26}}</ref>

And this is how to cite a journal article McCullough, B. D. (1999). "Econometric software". Journal of Applied Econometrics Journal of Applied Econometrics 14 (2): 191–202. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1255). . It should be programmed as this:

<ref>{{Cite journal |first=B. D. |last=McCullough | title=Econometric software  | journal=<wipe>Journal of Applied Econometrics</wipe> |year=1999 |volume=14 | issue=2 |pages=191–202 |doi=10.1002/(SICI)1099-1255</ref>

Here is an example of a book reference [4]. This book is cited as this:

<ref>{{cite book |first=Marius |last=Ooms |chapter=Trends in Applied Econometrics Software  |title=Palgrave Handbook of Econometrics  |publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |year=2009 |isbn=978-1-4039-1800-0 |pages=1321–1348 }}</ref>

Here is how to cite news [5]

<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.schoolofmotion.com/blog/| title=Why I Use Affinity Designer | work=School of Motion|access-date=2018-08-06}}</ref>

You can also cite an arXiv article [6]

{{Cite arXiv |last=Leinster |first=Tom |date=2007 | title=The Euler characteristic of a category | eprint=0707.0835 |class=math.CT}}

BibTeX citations

Unlike Wikipedia, HandWiki handles citations from BibTeX files. This is important for researches since HandWiki articles can be converted to actual papers for journals or books using LaTeX. This is explained in Section conversion to LaTeX.

You can use citation keys from the Citation Manager. It is a database filled from uploaded BibTeX files. Here is an example where we cite the article two times using the key dong05bordereps enclosed by the tags bib:

This is an article from a BibTex file <bib>dong05bordereps</bib>  and <bib>Aad:2010af</bib>. 
You can cite it again using the same key <ref name=dong05bordereps/>

This produces this sentence:

This is an article from a BibTeX file [7] and [8]. You can cite it again using the same key s [7]

You can find all BibTeX citations and the keys in HandWiki BibTeX manager. In order to insert an article or book entry to the BibTeX manager, first, you should prepare a BibTeX file (with the extension "bib"). To create citation entries inside Citation Database, you will need to upload a BibTeX file with your references. This can be done by registered HandWiki users from the upload BibTeX file page.

Note that you can cite multiple articles using a comma to separate the keys. Here is the sentence that cites several articles

Example articles that use BibTeX files <bib>Aad:2010af,Belov:2007qg</bib>.

This sentence looks like this: "Example articles that use BibTeX files [8] [9]". As you can see, we can group citation into the single "bib" tag.

If you will use the LaTeX Export command from the top-right menu, you will see that the citations of this section will be converted correctly into the LaTeX.

You can also use the internal Mediawiki citations as described below. However, they cannot be converted correctly to the LaTeX text.

If citation key is not found in the database, there will be a warning shown at the end of the article. Here is an example: Here is a test of wrong key [10], programmed as:

Here is a test of wrong key <bib>wrong_key</bib>

arXiv.org citations

HandWiki allows to cite articles from arXiv - is a free distribution service and an open-access archive in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science etc. To do this, Citation Database should be filled from arXiv.org. You need to know the ID of the article from arXiv.org. See the description for more detail (available for the registered users).

Finding book sources

Check this list of book sources or this ISBN search that help find book citations for HandWiki articles.


  1. This is my first Mediawiki citation
  2. 2.0 2.1 Repeated citation
  3. "GAP Copyright". 2012-06-14. http://www.gap-system.org/Download/copyright.html. Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  4. Ooms, Marius (2009). "Trends in Applied Econometrics Software". Palgrave Handbook of Econometrics. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1321–1348. ISBN 978-1-4039-1800-0. 
  5. "Why I Use Affinity Designer". School of Motion. https://www.schoolofmotion.com/blog/illustrator-vs-affinity. 
  6. Leinster, Tom (2007). "The Euler characteristic of a category". arXiv:0707.0835 [math.CT].
  7. 7.0 7.1 Dong, G.Li, J. "Mining border descriptions of emerging patterns from dataset pairs" Knowledge and Information Systems (2005) 8, 2 p.178--202
  8. 8.0 8.1 Aad, G.others "Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions" Eur. Phys. J. (2010) C70, p.1193-1236 arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1007.5423
  9. Belov, S.Dudko, L.Galkin, E.Gusev, A.Pokorski, W. etc. "LCG MCDB: A Knowledgebase of Monte Carlo Simulated Events" Comput.Phys.Commun. (2008) 178, p.222-229 arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0703287
  10. Warning: Reference wrong_key is not found in the HandWiki citation database.