# List of mathematical symbols

This is a **list of mathematical symbols** used in all branches of mathematics to express a formula or to represent a constant.

A mathematical concept is independent of the symbol chosen to represent it. For many of the symbols below, the symbol is usually synonymous with the corresponding concept (ultimately an arbitrary choice made as a result of the cumulative history of mathematics), but in some situations, a different convention may be used. For example, depending on context, the triple bar "≡" may represent congruence or a definition. However, in mathematical logic, numerical equality is sometimes represented by "≡" instead of "=", with the latter representing equality of well-formed formulas. In short, convention dictates the meaning.

Each symbol is shown both in HTML, whose display depends on the browser's access to an appropriate font installed on the particular device, and typeset as an image using TeX.

## Guide

This list is organized by symbol type and is intended to facilitate finding an unfamiliar symbol by its visual appearance. For a related list organized by mathematical topic, see List of mathematical symbols by subject. That list also includes LaTeX and HTML markup, and Unicode code points for each symbol (note that this article doesn't have the latter two, but they could certainly be added).

There is a Wikibooks guide for using maths in LaTeX,^{[1]} and a comprehensive LaTeX symbol list.^{[2]} It is also possible to check to see if a Unicode code point is available as a LaTeX command, or vice versa.^{[3]} Also note that where there is no LaTeX command natively available for a particular symbol (although there may be options that require adding packages), the symbol could be added via other options, such as setting the document up to support Unicode,^{[4]} and entering the character in a variety of ways (e.g. copying and pasting, keyboard shortcuts, the `\unicode{<insertcodepoint>}`

command^{[5]}) as well as other options^{[6]} and extensive additional information.^{[7]}^{[8]}.

**Basic symbols:**Symbols widely used in mathematics. More advanced meanings are included with some symbols listed here.**Symbols based on equality :**Symbols derived from or similar to the equal sign "=", including double-headed arrows. These symbols are often associated with an equivalence relation.**Symbols that point left or right:**Symbols, such as "<" and ">", that appear to point to one side or another.**Brackets:**Symbols that are placed on either side of a variable or expression, such as |*x*|.**Other non-letter symbols:**Symbols that do not fall in any of the other categories.**Letter-based symbols:**Many mathematical symbols are based on, or closely resemble, a letter in some alphabet. This section includes such symbols, including symbols that resemble upside-down letters. Many letters have conventional meanings in various branches of mathematics and physics. These are not listed here. The See also section, below, has several lists of such usages.**Letter modifiers:**Symbols that can be placed on or next to any letter to modify the letter's meaning.**Symbols based on Latin letters**, including those symbols that resemble or contain an X.**Symbols based on Hebrew or Greek letters**e.g. ב ,א, δ, Δ, π, Π, σ, Σ, Φ.*Note:*symbols resembling Λ are grouped with V under Latin letters.

**Variations:**Usage in languages written right-to-left.

## Basic symbols

## Symbols based on equality

## Symbols that point left or right

## Brackets

## Other non-letter symbols

## Letter-based symbols

*Includes upside-down letters.*

### Letter modifiers

Also called diacritics.

### Symbols based on Latin letters

### Symbols based on Hebrew or Greek letters

## Variations

In mathematics written in Persian or Arabic, some symbols may be reversed to make right-to-left writing and reading easier.^{[9]}

## See also

- Greek letters used in mathematics, science, and engineering
- List of letters used in mathematics and science
- List of common physics notations
- Diacritic
- ISO 31-11 (Mathematical signs and symbols for use in physical sciences and technology)
- Latin letters used in mathematics
- List of mathematical abbreviations
- List of mathematical symbols by subject
- Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols (Unicode block)
- Mathematical constants and functions
- Mathematical notation
- Mathematical operators and symbols in Unicode
- Notation in probability and statistics
- Physical constants
- Table of logic symbols
- Table of mathematical symbols by introduction date
- Typographical conventions in mathematical formulae
- APL syntax and symbols

## References

- ↑ "LaTeX/Mathematics". https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Mathematics. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Cook, John. "Unicode / LaTeX conversion". https://www.johndcook.com/unicode_latex.html. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ↑ "LaTeX/Special Characters". https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Special_Characters. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ↑ "\unicode - Tex Command". https://tutorialsbay.org/tex_commands/unicode.html. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ↑ "Unicode characters in pdflatex output using hexcode without UTF-8 input". https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/89796/unicode-characters-in-pdflatex-output-using-hexcode-without-utf-8-input. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ↑ "fontenc vs inputenc". https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/44694/fontenc-vs-inputenc#44699. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ↑ "pdflatex crashes when Latex code includes \unicode{f818} and \unicode{f817} and how to handle it". https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/192626/pdflatex-crashes-when-latex-code-includes-unicodef818-and-unicodef817-and. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ↑ M. Benatia, A. Lazrik, and K. Sami, "Arabic mathematical symbols in Unicode ", 27th Internationalization and Unicode Conference, 2005.

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is not used in prior text.## External links

- Jeff Miller:
*Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols* - Numericana:
*Scientific Symbols and Icons* - GIF and PNG Images for Math Symbols
- Mathematical Symbols in Unicode

Some Unicode charts of mathematical operators and symbols:

- Index of Unicode symbols
- Range 2100–214F: Unicode Letterlike Symbols
- Range 2190–21FF: Unicode Arrows
- Range 2200–22FF: Unicode Mathematical Operators
- Range 27C0–27EF: Unicode Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols–A
- Range 2980–29FF: Unicode Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols–B
- Range 2A00–2AFF: Unicode Supplementary Mathematical Operators

Some Unicode cross-references:

- Short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols and Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List
- MathML Characters - sorts out Unicode, HTML and MathML/TeX names on one page
- Unicode values and MathML names
- Unicode values and Postscript names from the source code for Ghostscript