Organization:Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad

From HandWiki

Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (Arabic: المدرسة النظامية), one of the first nezamiyehs,[1] was established in 1065. In July 1091, Nizam al-Mulk appointed the 33-year-old Al-Ghazali as a professor of the school.[2] Offering free education,[3] it has been described as the "largest university of the Medieval world".[4] Ibn Tumart, founder of the Berber Almohad dynasty, reputedly attended the school and studied under al-Ghazali.[5] Nizam al-Mulk's son-in-law Mughatil ibn Bakri was also employed by the school. In 1096, when al-Ghazali left the nezamiyeh, it housed 3000 students.[6] In 1116, Muhammad al-Shahrastani taught at the nezamiyeh.[7] In the 1170s, statesman Beha Ud-Din taught at the nezamiyeh, before he moved on to teach in Mosul. The Persian poet Sa'di studied at the nezamiyeh from 1195 until 1226, when he set out on a thirty-year journey. He was also among those who witnessed first-hand accounts of its destruction by Mongol Ilkhanate invaders led by Hulagu during the Sack of Baghdad in the year 1258. Sa'di recalls clearly his days of studies at Al-Nizamiyya in Baghdad: "A fellow-student at Nizamiah displayed malevolence towards me, and I informed my tutor, saying: 'Whenever I give more proper answers than he the envious fellow becomes offended.' The professor replied: 'The envy of thy friend is not agreeable to thee, but I know not who told thee that back-biting was commendable. If he seek perdition through the path of envy, thou wilt join him by the path of slander.'"[page needed]

The curriculum initially focused on religious studies, Islamic law, Arabic literature, and arithmetic, and later extended to history, mathematics, the physical sciences, and music.[8]

See also

  • Mustansiriya School, another Baghdad school, founded in 1233
  • Nizamiyya
  • Madrasah
  • Islamic Golden Age


  • Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264
  1. Al-Ahram Weekly | Baghdad Supplement | They came to Baghdad : Its famous names
  3. Black, A. A History of Islamic Political Thought – From the Prophet to the Present. Cambridge: Edinburgh University Press, 2001.
  4. "Metapress | Discover More" (in en). Metapress. 2016-06-24. [permanent dead link]
  6. "Fastupdate sheet". 
  7. Shahrastani
  8. B.G. Massialas & S.A. Jarrar (1987), "Conflicts in education in the Arab world: The present challenge", Arab Studies Quarterly: "Subjects such as history, mathematics, physical sciences, and music were added to the curriculum of Al-Nizamiyah at a later time."