# Organization:International Atomic Energy Agency

Short description: International organization

Type International organization Active Vienna, Austria 175 Member States[1] iaea.org
Vienna (HQ)
New York
Geneva
Seibersdorf
Monaco
Toronto
Tokyo
Trieste
IAEA's worldwide sites:[2]

In Europe:

• Geneva - Liaison Office
• Monaco - Laboratory/Research Centre
• Seibersdorf - Laboratory/Research Centre
• Trieste - Laboratory/Research Centre

In North America:

• New York City - Liaison Office
• Toronto - Regional Safeguard Office

In Asia:

• Tokyo - Regional Safeguard Office

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an intergovernmental organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. It was established in 1957 as an autonomous organization within the United Nations system;[3][4] though governed by its own founding treaty, the organization reports to both the General Assembly and the Security Council of the United Nations , and is headquartered at the UN Office at Vienna, Austria.

The IAEA was created in response to growing international concern toward nuclear weapons, especially amid rising tensions between the foremost nuclear powers, the United States and the Soviet Union.[5] U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech, which called for the creation of an international organization to monitor the global proliferation of nuclear resources and technology, is credited with catalyzing the formation of the IAEA, whose treaty came into force on 29 July 1957 upon U.S. ratification.

The IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide. It maintains several programs that encourage the development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy, science, and technology; provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials; and promote and implement nuclear safety (including radiation protection) and nuclear security standards. The organization also conducts research in nuclear science and provides technical support and training in nuclear technology to countries worldwide, particularly in the developing world.[6]

Following the ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1968, all non-nuclear powers are required to negotiate a safeguards agreement with the IAEA, which is given the authority to monitor nuclear programs and to inspect nuclear facilities. In 2005, the IAEA and its administrative head, Director General Mohamed ElBaradei, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way".[7]

## Missions

The IAEA is generally described as having three main missions:

• Peaceful uses: Promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by its member states,
• Safeguards: Implementing safeguards to verify that nuclear energy is not used for military purposes, and
• Nuclear safety: Promoting high standards for nuclear safety.[8]

### Peaceful uses

According to Article II of the IAEA Statute, the objectives of the IAEA are "to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world" and to "ensure ... that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose." Its primary functions in this area, according to Article III, are to encourage research and development, to secure or provide materials, services, equipment, and facilities for Member States, and to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and training.[9]

Three of the IAEA's six departments are principally charged with promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The Department of Nuclear Energy focuses on providing advice and services to Member States on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle.[10] The Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications focuses on the use of non-power nuclear and isotope techniques to help IAEA Member States in the areas of water, energy, health, biodiversity, and agriculture.[11] The Department of Technical Cooperation provides direct assistance to IAEA Member States, through national, regional, and inter-regional projects through training, expert missions, scientific exchanges, and provision of equipment.[12]

### Safeguards

Article II of the IAEA Statute defines the Agency's twin objectives as promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy and "ensur[ing], so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose." To do this, the IAEA is authorized in Article III.A.5 of the Statute "to establish and administer safeguards designed to ensure that special fissionable and other materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its supervision or control are not used in such a way as to further any military purpose; and to apply safeguards, at the request of the parties, to any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or at the request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the field of atomic energy."[9]

The Department of Safeguards is responsible for carrying out this mission, through technical measures designed to verify the correctness and completeness of states' nuclear declarations.[13]

### Nuclear safety

International policy relationships in radiological protection.

### Criticism

IAEA experts at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4.

In 2011, Russian nuclear accident specialist Iouli Andreev was critical of the response to Fukushima, and says that the IAEA did not learn from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. He has accused the IAEA and corporations of "wilfully ignoring lessons from the world's worst nuclear accident 25 years ago to protect the industry's expansion".[47] The IAEA's role "as an advocate for nuclear power has made it a target for protests".[48]

The journal Nature has reported that the IAEA response to the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan was "sluggish and sometimes confusing", drawing calls for the agency to "take a more proactive role in nuclear safety". But nuclear experts say that the agency's complicated mandate and the constraints imposed by its member states mean that reforms will not happen quickly or easily, although its INES "emergency scale is very likely to be revisited" given the confusing way in which it was used in Japan.[48]

Some scientists say that the Fukushima nuclear accidents have revealed that the nuclear industry lacks sufficient oversight, leading to renewed calls to redefine the mandate of the IAEA so that it can better police nuclear power plants worldwide.[49] There are several problems with the IAEA says Najmedin Meshkati of University of Southern California:

It recommends safety standards, but member states are not required to comply; it promotes nuclear energy, but it also monitors nuclear use; it is the sole global organisation overseeing the nuclear energy industry, yet it is also weighed down by checking compliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).[49]

In 2011, the journal Nature reported that the International Atomic Energy Agency should be strengthened to make independent assessments of nuclear safety and that "the public would be better served by an IAEA more able to deliver frank and independent assessments of nuclear crises as they unfold".[50]

## Membership

Member states
Membership approved
Membership withdrawn
Non-members

The process of joining the IAEA is fairly simple.[51] Normally, a State would notify the Director General of its desire to join, and the Director would submit the application to the Board for consideration. If the Board recommends approval, and the General Conference approves the application for membership, the State must then submit its instrument of acceptance of the IAEA Statute to the United States, which functions as the depositary Government for the IAEA Statute. The State is considered a member when its acceptance letter is deposited. The United States then informs the IAEA, which notifies other IAEA Member States. Signature and ratification of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) are not preconditions for membership in the IAEA.

The IAEA has 175 member states.[52] Most UN members and the Holy See are Member States of the IAEA. Non-member states Cape Verde (2007), The Gambia (2016), and Guinea (2020) have been approved for membership and will become a Member State if they deposit the necessary legal instruments.[52]

Four states have withdrawn from the IAEA. North Korea was a Member State from 1974 to 1994, but withdrew after the Board of Governors found it in non-compliance with its safeguards agreement and suspended most technical co-operation.[53] Nicaragua became a member in 1957, withdrew its membership in 1970, and rejoined in 1977,[54][55] Honduras joined in 1957, withdrew in 1967, and rejoined in 2003,[56] while Cambodia joined in 1958, withdrew in 2003, and rejoined in 2009.[57][58][59]

## Regional Cooperative Agreements

There are four regional cooperative areas within IAEA, that share information, and organize conferences within their regions:

### AFRA

The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA):[60]

### ARASIA

Cooperative Agreement for Arab States in Asia for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA):[61]

### RCA

Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA):[62]

### ARCAL

Latin American IAEA Fellows at the Regional Training Course on Mutation Breeding and Efficiency Enhancing Techniques for Resistance to Banana Fusarium Wilt TR4, 2022

Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL):[63]

## List of directors general

Name Nationality Duration Duration (years)
W. Sterling Cole American 1 December 1957 – 30 November 1961 4
Sigvard Eklund Swedish 1 December 1961 – 30 November 1981 20
Hans Blix Swedish 1 December 1981 – 30 November 1997 16
Mohamed ElBaradei Egyptian 1 December 1997 – 30 November 2009 12
Yukiya Amano Japanese 1 December 2009 – 18 July 2019 9
Cornel Feruță (Acting) Romanian 25 July 2019 – 2 December 2019[64] 0.33
Rafael Grossi Argentine 3 December 2019 – present 2

## Publications

Typically issued in July each year, the IAEA Annual Report summarizes and highlights developments over the past year in major areas of the Agency's work. It includes a summary of major issues, activities, and achievements, and status tables and graphs related to safeguards, safety, and science and technology.[65]

## References

### Notes

1. "IAEA Offices and Contact Information". International Atomic Energy Agency. n.d..
2. "History" (in en). 2016-06-08.
3. IAEA Factsheet, Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (2015)
4. "History" (in en). 2016-06-08.
5. 2005 - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei | United Nations
6. "The Statute of the IAEA". 2 June 2014.
7. Jonathan Tirone (9 December 2011). "UN Atomic Agency Funds Anti-Terrorism, Not Safety". Bloomberg.
8. Fischer, David (1997). History of the International Atomic Energy Agency: The First Forty Years. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. pp. 2, 108–109. ISBN 978-92-0-102397-1. "The Three Mile Island accident and especially the Chernobyl disaster persuaded governments to strengthen the IAEA's role in enhancing nuclear safety."
9. "IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan Approved by General Conference". International Atomic Energy Agency. 22 September 2011.
10. Sylvia Westall and Fredrik Dahl (24 June 2011). "IAEA Head Sees Wide Support for Stricter Nuclear Plant Safety". Reuters.
11. "IAEA team begins inspection of Zaporizhzhia NPP; Grossi leaves after a few hours". Nuclear Engineering International. 1 September 2022.
12. Brittain, John (22 June 2015). "The International Atomic Energy Agency: Linking Nuclear Science and Diplomacy". Science and Diplomacy.
13. William Burr, ed (26 October 2017). "60th Anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency". National Security Archive.
14. "About the Statute of the IAEA". IAEA. 8 June 2016.
15. ElBaradei, Mohamed (10 December 2005). "The Nobel Lecture". IAEA.
16. "Yukiya Amano says 'very pleased' at IAEA election". The News. 2 July 2009.
17. "Japan envoy wins UN nuclear post". BBC. 2 July 2009.
18. Announcement, IAEA, 22 July 2019.
19. Designation of an Acting Director General, IAEA, 25 July 2019
20. Acting Director General, IAEA.
21. "Faurie presentará al candidato argentino para liderar el mayor organismo mundial en materia nuclear". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship. 2 August 2019.
22. "Argentina's Rafael Grossi elected head of UN's nuclear watchdog". The Times of Israel. 29 October 2019.
23. IAEA: Rafael Mariano Grossi to Assume Office as Director General on 3 December, IAEA Press Release 46/2019, 2 December 2019.
24. "Rafael Mariano Grossi" (in en). International Atomic Energy Agency.
25. "The Statute of the IAEA" (in en). 2014-06-02.
26. Nuclear Power Infrastructure, the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Group (INIG), International Atomic Energy Agency.
27. IAEA Highlights in 2010, A Retrospective View of Year's Major Events.
28. Michael Shields (15 March 2011). "Chernobyl clean-up expert slams Japan, IAEA". Reuters.
29. Geoff Brumfiel (26 April 2011). "Nuclear agency faces reform calls". Nature 472 (7344): 397–398. doi:10.1038/472397a. PMID 21528501.
30. Kurczy, Stephen (17 March 2011). "Japan nuclear crisis sparks calls for IAEA reform". The Christian Science Monitor.
31. "A watchdog with bite". Nature 472 (7344): 389. 28 April 2011. doi:10.1038/472389a. PMID 21525887. Bibcode2011Natur.472Q.389..
32. "Member States of the IAEA". International Atomic Energy Agency.
33. "NFCIRC/447 – The Withdrawal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the International Atomic Energy Agency". International Atomic Energy Agency. 21 June 1994.
34. "The Members of the Agency". International Atomic Energy Agency. 10 February 2005.
35. "Actions taken by states in connection with the Statute". International Atomic Energy Agency. 9 July 1971.
36. "Actions taken by states in connection with the Statute". International Atomic Energy Agency. 18 September 1967.
37. "Cambodia, Kingdom of". International Atomic Energy Agency.
38. "The Members of the Agency". International Atomic Energy Agency. 6 May 2003.
39. "The Members of the Agency". International Atomic Energy Agency. 9 December 2009.
40. "List of States" (in en-gb). AFRA - IAEA.
41. "Miembros(Members) ARCAL" (in es-ES). arcal-lac.
42. Rumänischer Diplomat wird vorübergehend Chef der Wiener UN-Atomenergiebehörde