Physics:Moliere's formula

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Approximates the projected scattering angle of multiple scattering by a Gaussian, with a width

Hepb img473.gif

with Hepb img80.gif , P, and z the particle velocity, momentum (in GeV/c) and charge, x the depth of the traversed material, and X0 the radiation length. For a more detailed discussion and further approximations, see Barnett96.