Religion:Grand Mufti

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Short description: Appointed leading or chief muftis of states
Grand Mufti of various countries:

Template:Usul al-fiqh

The Grand Mufti (also called Chief Mufti, State Mufti and Supreme Mufti) is the head of regional muftis, Islamic jurisconsults, of a state. The office originated in the early modern era in the Ottoman empire and has been later adopted in a number of modern countries.[1][2]

Muftis are Islamic jurists qualified to issue a nonbinding opinion (fatwa) on a point of Islamic law (sharia). In the 15th century, muftis of the Ottoman empire, who had acted as independent scholars in earlier times, began to be integrated into a hierarchical bureaucracy of religious institutions and scholars. By the end of the 16th century, the government-appointed mufti of Istanbul came to be recognized under the title Shaykh al-Islam (Turkish: şeyhülislam) as the Grand Mufti in charge of this hierarchy. The Ottoman Grand Mufti performed a number of functions, including advising the sultan on religious matters, legitimizing government policies, and appointing judges. After the dissolution the Ottoman Empire the office of the Grand Mufti has been adopted in a number of countries across the Muslim world, often serving the role of providing religious support for government policies.[2] The Grand Mufti is generally an individual appointed by the state, although the office has collective or elective character in some modern countries.[1][2]

History

Muftis are Muslim religious scholars who issue legal opinions (fatwas) interpreting Sharia (Islamic law).[3]:16–20 The Ottoman Empire began the practice of giving official recognition and status to a single mufti, above all others, as the Grand Mufti.[3]:5 The Sheikh ul-Islam (or "grand mufti") of Istanbul had, since the late 16th century, come to be regarded as the head of the religious establishment.[4] He was thus not only pre-eminent but bureaucratically responsible for the body of religious-legal scholars and gave legal rulings on important state policies such as the dethronement of rulers.[4] This practice was subsequently borrowed and adapted by Egypt for the head of its Dar al-Ifta (House of Fatwas) from the mid-19th century.[3]:5 From there, the concept spread to other Muslim states, so that today there are approximately 16 countries with sizable Muslim populations which have a Grand Mufti.[3]:85 The relationship between the Grand Mufti of any given state and the state's rulers can vary considerably, both by region and by historical era.

Election

Brunei

The State Mufti of Brunei is nominated by the Sultan.

India

The Grand Mufti of India is elected by the Electoral college and appointed by the Islamic Community of India.

Jerusalem

Throughout the era of British colonialism, the British retained the institution of Grand Mufti in some Muslim areas under their control and accorded the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem the highest political stature in Palestine. During World War I (1914–1918), there were two competing Grand Muftis of Jerusalem, one endorsed by the British and one by the Ottoman Empire. When Palestine was under British rule, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a position appointed by the British Mandate authorities. In the Palestinian National Authority, the administrative organization established to govern parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Grand Mufti is appointed by the president.

Malaysia

Malaysia has a unique system of collective mufti. Nine of the fourteen Malaysian states have their own constitutional monarchy; nine are ruled by their own constitutional monarch while the country is led by a monarch elected from the nine. These nine monarchs have authority over religious matters within their own states: therefore, each of these nine states have their own mufti who usually controls the Islamic Council or Islamic Department of the state. At the national level, a National Council of Fatwa (Majlis Fatwa Kebangsaan) has been formed under the Department of Islamic Advancement of Malaysia (Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia or JAKIM). JAKIM appoints five Muftis for the five states which do not have monarchs. The muftis of the nine monarchical states, together with the five officials appointed by JAKIM in the National Council of Fatwā, collectively issue fatāwā at the national level.

Mughal Empire

In the Mughal Empire, the Grand Mufti of India was a state official.

Ottoman Empire

In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Mufti was a state official, and the Grand Mufti of Constantinople was the highest of these.

Saudi Arabia

The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, with office created in 1953, is appointed by the King.

Tunisia

According to Article 78 of the 2014 Constitution, the Grand Mufti of Tunisia is appointed and can be dismissed by the President of the Republic.[5]

List of Grand Muftis

The list includes the names of currently appointed Grand Muftis who will take office on an appointed date and appointed by a governing committee.

State Incumbent Status Term
Albania Template:LinkedLabel ( – )[6] Appointed as Chairman of the Muslim Community of Albania (KMSH) by the Muslim Community of Albania March 2019
Australia Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Australia by the Australian National Imams Council September 2016
Bosnia and Herzegovina Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina September 2012
Brunei Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as State Mufti of Brunei by the Sultan of Brunei, Hassanal Bolkiah 1 September 1994
Bulgaria Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Chief Mufti of Bulgaria by the Supreme Muslim Council 1997 – 2005 (first term)
2005 –
Canada Syed Soharwardy (1955 – ) Chairman of the Islamic Supreme Council of Canada (Grand Mufti of Canada) 2000 –
Caucasus Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as chairman of the Supreme Religious Board of Caucasian People by the Religious Council of the Caucasus 1992 –
China Xilalunding Chen Guangyuan Chairman of the Islamic Association of China
Egypt Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Egypt by the Council of Senior Scholars of Al-Azhar and approved by the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi February 2013
Ghana Template:Mbabel ( – ) National Chief Imam of Ghana (De facto)
Guinea Template:Mbabel ( – ) Grand Imam of Guinea (De facto)
India Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of India by the Islamic Community of India 2019 –
Iraq Mahdi Al-Sumaidaie ( – ) Grand Mufti of the Iraqi Sunnis (de facto)
Jordan Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Jordan by the Cabinet of Jordan and Abdul Hafez Rabtah as Chief Islamic Justice of the Kingdom of Jordan 11 November 2019
Kazakhstan Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Supreme Mufti of Kazakhstan by the Spiritual Administration of the Muslims of Kazakhstan as per nomination of former Supreme Mufti, Serikbai Kazhy Oraz 7 February 2020
Kosovo Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Kosovo by the Islamic Community of Kosova
Kyrgyzstan Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Kyrgyzstan 2014
Lebanon Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Lebanon by the Higher Islamic Council 10 August 2014
Libya Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Libya by the National Transitional Council May 2011
Lithuania Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Grand Mufti of Lithuania (De facto)
Macedonia Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Reis-ul-ulema of the Islamic Religious Community of Macedonia
Malaysia Template:LinkedLabel ( – )[7] Mufti of the Federal Territories (Website: muftiwp.gov.my) 16 May 2020
Mohd Tahrir Samsudin Mufti of Johor (Website: mufti.johor.gov.my) 13 November 2008
Syeikh Fadzil Awang[8][9] Mufti of Kedah (Website: mufti.kedah.gov.my) 20 July 2017
Mohamad Shukri Mohamad[10] Mufti of Kelantan (Website: muftikelantan.gov.my)
Abdul Halim Tawil[11] Acting Mufti of Malacca (Website: muftimelaka.gov.my)
Mohd Yusof Ahmad[12][13] Mufti of Negeri Sembilan (Website: muftins.gov.my) 1 April 2009
Abdul Rahman Osman[14][15][16] Mufti of Pahang (Website: mufti.pahang.gov.my)
Wan Salim Wan Mohd Noor[17] Mufti of Penang (Website: mufti.penang.gov.my) 7 June 2014
Template:LinkedLabel ( – )[18] Mufti of Perak (Website: mufti.perak.gov.my) December 1985
Template:Mbabel ( – )[19] Mufti of Perlis (Website: mufti.perlis.gov.my) 2 February 2015
Bungsu Aziz Jaafar[20] Mufti of Sabah (Website: mufti.sabah.gov.my) 10 August 2012
Kipli Yassin[21] Mufti of Sarawak (Website: muftinegeri.sarawak.gov.my)
Template:LinkedLabel ( – )[22][23] Mufti of Selangor (Website: muftiselangor.gov.my) 16 March 1998
Zulkifly Muda[24] Mufti of Terengganu (Website: mufti.terengganu.gov.my) 1 April 2013
Mali Chérif Ousmane Madani Haïdara Chairman of the High Islamic Council of Mali April 2019
Mauritania Ahmed Ould Murabit[25] Grand Mufti of Mauritania
Montenegro Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Reis-ul-ulema of the Islamic Community of Montenegro
New Zealand Template:LinkedLabel ( – )[26] Appointed as Grand Mufti of New Zealand
Nigeria Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Nigeria by the Supreme Council for Fatwa and Islamic Affairs in Nigeria
Oman Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman by the Sultan of Oman, Qaboos bin Said 1975
Pakistan Muhammad Rafi Usmani Grand Mufti of Pakistan
Palestine Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the President of the Palestinian National Authority, Mahmoud Abbas July 2006
Poland Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of the Republic of Poland by the Muslim Religious Union in the Republic of Poland 2004
Romania Template:Mbabel ( – ) (Murād Yūsuf) Grand Mufti of Romania 2005
Russia Template:Mbabel ( – ) Grand Mufti of Russia 1 July 1996
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Chechnya by Head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov 12 June 2014
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Dagestan 1998
Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Tatarstan 17 April 2013
Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Bashkortostan
Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Kabardino-Balkaria
Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Ingushetia
Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai
Saudi Arabia Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia by the King of Saudi Arabia, Fahd of Saudi Arabia June 1999
Serbia Template:Mbabel ( – )[27][28] Appointed as Mufti of Serbia by the Islamic Community of Serbia July 2016
Singapore Nazirudin Mohd Nasir ( – )[29][30][31] Appointed as Mufti of the Republic of Singapore by the Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura, the statutory board of Ministry of Culture, Community and Youth 1 March 2020 –
South Africa Abdurragmaan Khan [32] Appointed as Mufti by the Muslim Judicial Council (MJC)[33] 12 October 2021 –
Tunisia Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Tunisia by the President of Tunisia, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2008 and Beji Caid Essebsi in 2016 2008 – 5 January 2016 (resigned for haj pilgrimage in 2016)
12 January 2016 – (reappointed by the president after one week)
Turkey Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as President of Directorate of Religious Affairs by the President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, acting as Grand Mufti of the country. 17 September 2017
United Arab Emirates Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Dubai by Islamic Affairs and Charitable Activities Department
United States Muneer Ahmed Akhoon Grand Mufti of the United States
Uzbekistan Template:Mbabel ( – ) Grand Mufti of Uzbekistan 8 August 2006
Zimbabwe Ismail ibn Musa Menk (b. 1975)[34] Grand Mufti of Zimbabwe

List of former Grand Muftis

State Incumbent Status Term
Bosnia and Herzegovina Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina April 1993 – November 2012
Brunei Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as State Mufti of Brunei 1962–1994
India Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of India by the Mughal emperor, Akbar, appointed him to the muftiat in 1574 where he spent much of his career. 16th century – 17th century
Template:LinkedLabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of India by the final Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar. 19th century
Template:Mbabel ( - )

مفتی اعظم محمد کفایت اللہ دہلوی (Urdu, his native language),
مفتی کفایت اللہ الدہلوی(Arabic)
[35][36]

20th century
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Elected as Grand Mufti of India by Electoral college and Appointed by the Islamic Community of India. 20th century
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Elected as Grand Mufti of India by Electoral college and Appointed by the Islamic Community of India. 20th century
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Elected as Grand Mufti of India by Electoral college and Appointed by the Islamic Community of India. 20th century – 20 July 2018[37][38]
Malaysia Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of the Federal Territories 20 June 2014 - 16 May 2020
Palestine Template:Mbabel ( – ) (Hanafi) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1869–1908
Template:Mbabel ( – ) (Hanafi) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1908–1921
Template:Mbabel ( – ) (Hanafi) Appointed as Qadi by the Ottoman Empire during the World War I. 1914–1918
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1921–1937
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1948–1952
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf 1952–1993
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1993–1994
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... October 1994 – July 2006
Saudi Arabia Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia by the .... 1953–1969
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia by the .... 1992–1999
Syria Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Syria 26 October 1964 – 1 September 2004
Template:Mbabel ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of the Republic by the President of President of Syria, Bashar al-Assad July 2005 – November 2021[39]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 John L. Esposito, ed (2014). "Grand Mufti". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e737. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 James Broucek (2013). "Mufti/Grand mufti". in Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Vogel, Frank E. (2000). Islamic Law and the Legal System of Saudí: Studies of Saudi Arabia. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004110625. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Faroqhi, Suraiya N. (2006). The Cambridge History of Turkey. The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603–1839 (1st ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 9780521620956. https://books.google.com/books?id=g9UfRAnZzU4C&pg=PA213. Retrieved 23 May 2012. 
  5. "Title four, chapter one, article 78". THE CONSTITUTION OF THE TUNISIAN REPUBLIC (Unofficial english translation). UNDP and International IDEA. 26 January 2014. http://www.constitutionnet.org/files/2014.01.26_-_final_constitution_english_idea_final.pdf. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  6. "Bujar Spahiu, Elected New Chairman of KMSH". https://www.albaniandailynews.com/index.php?mod=2&idm=28873. 
  7. Baharu, Media. "Dr Luqman Abdullah Mufti Wilayah kelapan" (in ms-my). https://berita.rtm.gov.my/index.php/semasa/18416-dr-luqman-abdullah-mufti-wilayah-kelapan. 
  8. "Syeikh Fadzil Awang appointed new Kedah mufti | The Star Online". Malaysia. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/07/21/syeikh-fadhil-awang-appointed-new-kedah-mufti. 
  9. Zulkefli, Adie Suri (21 July 2017). "Syeikh Fadzil Awang appointed new Kedah Mufti". https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2017/07/259471/syeikh-fadzil-awang-appointed-new-kedah-mufti. 
  10. Zaidi, Hazira Ahmad (14 February 2020). "Kelantan guna pakai fatwa kebangsaan" (in ms). https://www.hmetro.com.my/mutakhir/2020/02/544678/kelantan-guna-pakai-fatwa-kebangsaan. 
  11. "Ahli MAIM – Majlis Agama Islam Melaka (MAIM)". https://www.maim.gov.my/index.php/my/informasi/2013-01-31-06-54-32/video. 
  12. Nor, Mohd Helmi Irwadi Mohd (17 March 2019). "Negri mufti wants PUBG online shooting game banned". https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2019/03/470109/negri-mufti-wants-pubg-online-shooting-game-banned. 
  13. "Negri mufti wants PUBG online shooting game banned". MSN. https://www.msn.com/en-my/news/national/negri-mufti-wants-pubg-online-shooting-game-banned/ar-BBUSh5E. 
  14. Bernama (10 January 2020). "Agong: I will strive to unite Malaysians". https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/506590. 
  15. "Jabatan Mufti Negeri Pahang – MUFTI PAHANG". http://mufti.pahang.gov.my/index.php/organisasi/mufti-pahang. 
  16. Lokman, Tasnim (28 November 2019). "Pahang Mufti: Children should be finishing school, not getting married". https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2019/11/542853/pahang-mufti-children-should-be-finishing-school-not-getting-married. 
  17. Mok, Opalyn. "Freedom in Islam must be balanced with responsibility, Penang mufti tells G25 | Malay Mail". https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/01/14/freedom-in-islam-must-be-balanced-with-responsibility-penang-mufti-tells-g2/1827942. 
  18. Mohsen, Amar Shah. "Khat controversy shows nation hyper-sensitive to racial, religious issues". Malaysia. https://www.thesundaily.my/local/khat-controversy-shows-nation-hyper-sensitive-to-racial-religious-issues-NC1224429. 
  19. Bakar, Adam Abu (27 January 2018). "Asri hits back at critics, maintains Shia Muslims a threat". https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2018/01/27/asri-hits-back-at-critics-maintains-shia-muslims-a-threat/. 
  20. Abdullah, Mohd Izham Unnip (12 July 2018). "Appointment of Sabah and Sarawak chief judge as Chief Justice is honour for East Malaysia". https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/07/390027/appointment-sabah-and-sarawak-chief-judge-chief-justice-honour-east. 
  21. "Seeking divine intervention to fight crime". 6 December 2013. https://www.theborneopost.com/2013/12/07/seeking-divine-intervention-to-fight-crime/. 
  22. HARIAN, WARTAWAN SINAR (17 June 2019). "Hindari fitnah demi perpaduan, pesan Mufti Selangor" (in ms). https://www.sinarharian.com.my/article/32927/BERITA/Nasional/Hindari-fitnah-demi-perpaduan-pesan-Mufti-Selangor. 
  23. Noh, Oleh Norzamira Che (1 August 2017). "Bin/Binti bapa biologi boleh cetus kekeliruan" (in ms). https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2017/08/307864/binbinti-bapa-biologi-boleh-cetus-kekeliruan. 
  24. "'Merry Christmas' is fine, but avoid being Santa, says mufti". MSN. https://www.msn.com/en-my/news/national/merry-christmas-is-fine-but-avoid-being-santa-says-mufti/ar-BBYglyA. 
  25. Hoda Al-Saleh (1 October 2018). "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in ar). Al Arabiya. https://www.alarabiya.net/ar/north-africa/2018/10/01/%D9%85%D9%81%D8%AA%D9%8A-%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A7-%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%AD%D8%AF%D8%AB-%D9%84%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%86%D8%AA-%D8%B9%D9%86-%D8%AD%D8%B8%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D8%AE%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86. "With these words, the Grand Mufti of Mauritania, Ahmed Ould al-Murabit" 
  26. Mufti of New Zealand praises measures taken by the Kingdom to suspend Umrah and visiting visas for countries infected with Coronavirus
  27. Serbia, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of. "Sead Nasufović novi reis Islamske zajednice Srbije". http://www.rts.rs/page/stories/sr/story/125/drustvo/2373292/sead-nasufovic-novi-reis-islamske-zajednice-srbije.html. 
  28. Tanjug. "Svečano ustoličen novi reis-ul-ulema Nasufović" (in sr). https://www.blic.rs/vesti/drustvo/svecano-ustolicen-novi-reis-ul-ulema-nasufovic/qs4jhm0. 
  29. "MEDIA STATEMENT ON KEY CHANGES TO SENIOR RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP IN MUIS". Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (Press release). On 1 Mar 2020, Ustaz Dr Mohamed Fatris Bakaram will step down and Ustaz Dr Nazirudin Mohd Nasir will be appointed as Mufti of the Republic of Singapore. The appointment of the Mufti is made by the President of Singapore in consultation with the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore.
  30. "New Mufti appointed as MUIS sees changes to senior religious leadership". https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/new-mufti-muis-fatris-bakaram-nazirudin-nasir-12247250. 
  31. hermes (10 January 2020). "Singapore Muslims to have new Mufti from March 1". https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-muslims-to-have-new-mufti-from-march-1. 
  32. "Moulana Abdurragmaan Khan as new Mufti of the MJC (SA)" (in en-US). 2021-10-12. https://mjc.org.za/2021/10/12/moulana-abdurragmaan-khan-as-new-mufti-of-the-mjc-sa/. 
  33. "Moulana Abdurragmaan Khan as new Mufti of the MJC (SA)" (in en-US). 2021-10-12. https://mjc.org.za/2021/10/12/moulana-abdurragmaan-khan-as-new-mufti-of-the-mjc-sa/. 
  34. Piscatori, James; Saikal, Amin (19 September 2019). Islam Beyond Borders: The Umma in World Politics. ISBN 9781108481250. https://books.google.com/books?id=ftGoDwAAQBAJ&q=grand+mufti+Menk&pg=PA103. 
  35. Mufti Azam Hind, Maulana Kifayatyullah Shahjahanpuri Thumma Dehlawi (2005 ed.). Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library. 
  36. https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/10603/245048/7/07%20chapter%203.pdf
  37. "Noted Barelvi cleric Azhari Miyan dies". https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bareilly/noted-barelvi-cleric-azhari-miyan-dies/articleshow/65075272.cms. 
  38. "Thousands throng funeral of noted Barelvi cleric; traffic blocked for eight hours". https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bareilly/thousands-throng-funeral-of-noted-barelvi-cleric-traffic-blocked-for-eight-hours/articleshow/65095015.cms. 
  39. "Syria's President Scraps Post of Mufti of Republic". November 16, 2021. https://iqna.ir/en/news/3476506.