Biography:Anne Conway (philosopher)

From HandWiki
Short description: English philosopher
Anne Conway
Samuel van Hoogstraten - Perspective View with a Woman Reading a Letter - 66 - Mauritshuis.jpg
Perspective View with a Woman Reading a Letter by Samuel van Hoogstraten. This painting is often thought to depict Anne Conway, though that attribution has been disputed.[1]
Anne Finch

London, England
Died23 February 1679(1679-02-23) (aged 47)
Ragley Hall, Warwickshire, England
Resting placeHoly Trinity Church, Arrow, Warwickshire[1]
Edward Conway, 1st Earl of Conway (m. 1651)
ChildrenHeneage Edward Conway
Parent(s)Sir Heneage Finch
Elizabeth Cradock
RelativesJohn Finch (brother)

Anne Conway (also known as Viscountess Conway; née Finch; 14 December 1631 – 23 February 1679[2]) was an English philosopher of the Enlightenment, whose work, in the tradition of the Cambridge Platonists, was an influence on Gottfried Leibniz. Conway's thought is a deeply original form of rationalist philosophy, with hallmarks of gynocentric concerns and patterns that lead some to think of it as unique among seventeenth-century systems.[3] Hugh Trevor-Roper called her "England's greatest female philosopher."[4][5]


Anne Finch was born to Sir Heneage Finch (who had held the posts of the Recorder of London and Speaker of the House of Commons under Charles I) and his second wife, Elizabeth (daughter of William Cradock of Staffordshire). Her father died the week before her birth. She was the youngest child.[6] Her early education was by tutors and included Latin, to which she later added Greek and Hebrew. Her half-brother, John Finch, who encouraged her interests in philosophy and theology, introduced Anne to the Cambridge Platonist Henry More, who was one of John's tutors at Christ's College, Cambridge. This led to a lifelong correspondence and close friendship between them on the subject of René Descartes' philosophy, over the course of which Anne grew from More's informal pupil to his intellectual equal. More said of her that he had "scarce ever met with any Person, Man or Woman, of better Natural parts than Lady Conway" (quoted in Richard Ward's The Life of Henry More (1710) p. 193), and that "in the knowledge of things as well Natural and Divine, you have not onely out-gone all of your own Sex, but even of that other also."[7] Conway grew up in the house now known as Kensington Palace, which her family owned at the time.[6]

In 1651, she married Edward Conway, later 1st Earl of Conway, and in the following year More dedicated his book Antidote against Atheism to her. Approximately one year following their wedding, Anne and Edward established their place of residence at Conway's home at Kensington Palace.[8] In 1658, Anne gave birth to her only child, Heneage Edward Conway, who died of smallpox just two years later.[9] Anne herself had also contracted the illness that had killed her son, but had managed to eventually get rid of it and survive the disease.[10]

Her husband was also interested in philosophy and had himself been tutored by More, but she went far beyond him in both the depth of her thought and the variety of her interests. She contacted Elizabeth Foxcroft probably via More and when Elizabeth's husband went to India in 1666 Foxcroft moved in with her and she became her companian and Amanuensis. They shared the same interests and Foxcroft lived at Ragley Hall until 1672.[11] Conway became interested in the Lurianic Kabbalah, and then in Quakerism, to which she converted in 1677. In England at that time the Quakers were generally disliked and feared, and suffered persecution and even imprisonment. Conway's decision to convert, to make her house a centre for Quaker activity, and to proselytise actively was thus particularly bold and courageous.[citation needed] Even Conway's own family was not very supportive and liking of Anne's conversion to Quakerism, nonetheless, they still respected her decision.

Her life from the age of twelve (when she suffered a period of fever) was marked by the recurrence of severe migraines. This meant that she was often incapacitated by pain, and she spent much time under medical supervision and searching for a cure (at one point even having her jugular veins opened). Her incapacitation from the pain had led her to pursue her philosophical studies from the comfort of her own home. She had medical advice from Dr. Thomas Willis and many others.[12] The entire Conway family did everything in their power to see to it that Anne was cured of her pain. The Conways had consulted the Swiss royal physician of the time, Theodore Turquet de Mayerne, as well as natural philosopher Robert Boyle.[13] She had also consulted William Harvey, who at the time was a physician and researcher of how blood circulated in the human body. Even though Conway was famously treated by many of the great physicians of her time, none of the treatments had any effect.[14] She died in 1679 at the age of forty-seven.

The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy

The text itself was probably written in 1677 and shows the influence of Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont.[15] The text was first published in Latin translation by van Helmont in Amsterdam in 1690 as Principia philosophiae antiquissimae et recentissimae. An English retranslation appeared in 1692.[16] The Principles develops Conway's monistic view of the world as created from one substance. Conway is critical of the Cartesian idea that bodies are constituted of dead matter, of Henry More's concept of the soul in his Antidote Against Atheism, and of dualist theories of the relationship between the body and spirit.[17]


Throughout Anne Conway's life, she had written numerous letters back and forth to Henry More, Francis Mercury van Helmont, and other great thinkers of their time. The Majority of Conway's letters were back and forth to Henry More as they talked about numerous philosophies and theological concepts and even at times, Conway would speak about personal things like the death of her son and other various family-related events. There were also around a dozen letters written to Conway's father-in-law, Lord Conway, and around a dozen addressed to Conway from her brother, John Finch.[18] These letters contained writings of many different things including personal information, talks about philosophy, and social issues. Marjorie Hope Nicolson collected as many letters as she could obtain and in 1930 she wrote a novel using 307 letters containing Conway's correspondence combined with an account of bibliographical information.[19] In 1992 Sarah Hutton wrote a revised version of Nicolson's Conway Letters.[20] Nicolson's version has a primary focus on Conway's social life between her friends and family as well as an analysis of her relationship with Henry More and others.[21]


  • The principles of the most ancient and modern philosophy (London: n. publ., 1692) 168 pp. in 12°. – originally printed in Latin: Principia philosophiae antiquissimae et recentissimae de Deo, Christo & Creatura, Amsterdam: M. Brown 1690.
  • Letters. The Correspondence of Anne, Viscountess Conway, Henry More and their friends, 1642–1684, ed. M. H. Nicolson (London 1930) 517 pp.
  • Collaborations with Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont (1614–1698)
    • A Cabbalistical Dialogue (1682) (in Christian Knorr von Rosenroth, Kabbala denudata, 1677–1684)
    • Two Hundred Quiries moderately propounded concerning the Doctrine of the Revolution of Humane Souls (1684).


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Conway (1631-1679)" (in en). 
  2. Hutton, Sarah (2009). "Death". Anne Conway : a woman philosopher. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 215. ISBN 9780521109819. OCLC 909355784. 
  3. Jane Duran (2006). Eight Women Philosophers: Theory, Politics, And Feminism. University of Illinois Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-252-03022-2. 
  4. Trevor-Roper, Hugh. One Hundred Letters from Hugh Trevor-Roper, Oxford 2014, 73
  5. Israel, Jonathan I. Spinoza, Life and Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2023, 1127-28
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ablondi, Fred (1 January 2014). "Géraud de Cordemoy". in Zalta, Edward N.. 
  7. Broad, Jacqueline (2002). Women philosophers of the seventeenth century. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-511-04237-X. OCLC 56208440. [page needed]
  8. Project Vox team. (2019). “Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway and Killultagh.” Project Vox. Duke University Libraries.
  9. Hutton, Sarah (2004). Anne Conway : A Woman Philosopher. Cambridge University Press. pp. 32. ISBN 9780521835473. OCLC 76904888. 
  10. Project Vox team. (2019). “Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway and Killultagh.” Project Vox. Duke University Libraries.
  11. Matthew, H. C. G.; Harrison, B., eds (2004-09-23). "The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53695. Retrieved 2023-08-21.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  12. Carol Wayne White, The Legacy of Anne Conway (1631–1679): Reverberations from a Mystical Naturalism (2008), p. 6.
  13. Project Vox team. (2019). “Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway and Killultagh.” Project Vox. Duke University Libraries.
  14. Owen, Gilbert Roy (1937). "The Famous Case of Lady Anne Conway". Annals of Medical History 9 (6): 567–571. PMID 33943893. [page needed]
  15. Merchant, Carolyn (1986). "Quaker and Philosopher". Guildford Review (23): 2–13. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  16. Derksen, Louise D.. "20th WCP: Anne Conway's Critique of Cartesian Dualism". 
  17. Broad, Jacqueline (13 August 2007). Women Philosophers of the Seventeenth Century, pg. 66–67. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521039178. 
  18. Project Vox team. (2019). “Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway and Killultagh.” Project Vox. Duke University Libraries.
  19. G. C. Moore Smith. The Review of English Studies 7, no. 27 (1931): 349–56.
  20. Project Vox team. (2019). “Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway and Killultagh.” Project Vox. Duke University Libraries.
  21. Duran, Jane. “ANNE CONWAY.” In Eight Women Philosophers: Theory, Politics, and Feminism, 49–76. University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Further reading

  • Broad, Jacqueline. Women Philosophers of the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Brown, Stuart. "Leibniz and Henry More’s Cabbalistic Circle", in S. Hutton (ed.) Henry More (1614–1687): Tercentenary Studies, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990.(Challenges the view that Conway influenced Leibniz.)
  • Duran, Jane. "Anne Viscountess Conway: a Seventeenth-Century Rationalist". Hypatia: a Journal of Feminist Philosophy. 4 (1989): 64–79.
  • Frankel, Lois. "Anne Finch, Viscountess Conway," Mary Ellen Waithe, ed., A History of Women Philosophers, Vol. 3, Kluwer, 1991, pp. 41–58.
  • Gabbey, Alan. "Anne Conway et Henry More: lettres sur Descartes" (Archives de Philosophie 40, pp. 379–404)
  • Head, Jonathan (2021). The Philosophy of Anne Conway: God, Creation and the Nature of Time. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-350-13452-2. 
  • Hutton, Sarah. "Conway, Anne (c.1630–79)", 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-DA021-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, .
  • Hutton, Sarah, "Lady Anne Conway", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).
  • Hutton, Sarah. Anne Conway, a Woman Philosopher. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Hutton, Sarah (1970–1980). "Conway, Anne". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 20. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 171–172. ISBN 978-0-684-10114-9. 
  • King, Peter J. One Hundred Philosophers (New York: Barron's, 2004) ISBN:0-7641-2791-8
  • Lascano, Marcy P. "Anne Conway: Bodies in the Spiritual World"; Philosophy Compass 8.4 (2013):327-336.
  • Merchant, Carolyn, "The Vitalism of Anne Conway: its Impact on Leibniz's Concept of the Monad" (Journal of the History of Philosophy 17, 1979, pp. 255–269) (Argues that Conway influenced Leibniz by showing parallels between Leibniz and Conway.)
  • Mercer, Christia. "Platonism in Early Modern Natural Philosophy: The Case of Leibniz and Conway", in Neoplatonism and the Philosophy of Nature, James Wilberding and Christoph Horn, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 103–26.
  • Bernet, Claus (2004). "Anne Conway (philosopher)". in Bautz, Traugott (in de). Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). 23. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 232–239. ISBN 3-88309-155-3. 
  • White,Carol Wayne. The Legacy of Anne Conway (1631–1679): Reverberations from a Mystical Naturalism (State University of New York Press, 2009)

External links