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Short description: Extinct clade of carnivores

Temporal range: Oligocene-Early Pliocene
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Borophaginae
Tribe: Borophagini
G. G. Simpson, 1945
Borophagini range.png
Range of Borophagini based on fossil distribution

Borophagini is a clade or tribe of the subfamily Borophaginae. This is an extinct group of terrestrial canids that were endemic and widespread throughout North America and Central America which lived during the Geringian stage of the Oligocene epoch to the Zanclean age of the Early Pliocene living 30.8—3.6 Mya existing approximately 27.2 million years.[1]


Borophagini were short-faced, heavy-jawed canids, usually massive in size. They were primarily carnivores but dentition demonstrates omnivore traits.[2][3]


Borophagini was named by Simpson (1945)[4] [credited to Simpson because he named Borophaginae]. It was assigned to Borophaginae by Wang et al. (1999)[5] and Wang et al. (2004).[6]


The clade includes: Cormocyon, Desmocyon, Metatomarctus, Euoplocyon, Psalidocyon, Microtomarctus, Protomarctus, and Tephrocyon.

Subtaxa and sister taxa

The subtaxa or subtribes are: Aelurodontina, Borophagina, and Cynarctina. Phlaocyonini is a sister taxon.

Fossil distribution

With the clade comprising many genus and subtaxa, the distribution of fossil specimens for Borophagini is widespread throughout the entire continent extending from coast to coast as well as Florida to western Oregon to Panama.


  1. PaleoBiology Database: Borophagini, Taxonomy, Subtaxa
  2. Nowak, R. M., Walker's Mammals of the World. Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press (edited volume) II, 1991
  3. Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae
  4. Simpson, George Gaylord (1945). The Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals. Bulletin of the AMNH. 85. New York. 
  5. Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H.; Taylor, Beryl E. (1999). Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae (Carnivora, Canidae). Bulletin of the AMNH. 243. New York. 
  6. Wang, Xiaoming; Wideman, Benjamin C.; Nichols, Ralph; Hanneman, Debra L. (2004). "A new species of Aleurodon (Carnivora, Canidae) from the Barstovian of Montana". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24 (2): 445–452. doi:10.1671/2493. 

Wikidata ☰ Q4946288 entry