Biology:Chlamydia research

From HandWiki

Chlamydia research[1] is the systematic study of the organisms in the taxonomic group of bacteria Chlamydiota (formerly Chlamydiae), the diagnostic procedures[2] to treat infections, the disease chlamydia, infections caused by the organisms, the epidemiology of infection and the development of vaccines. The process of research can include the participation of many researchers who work in collaboration from separate organizations, governmental entities and universities.[3]

Funding

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offers funding to research the biology, physiology, epidemiology, vaccine development, publish systematic reviews of Chlamydia species. Other funding sources include the National Chlamydia Coalition.[4][5]

NIAID

NIAID conducts research at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton, Montana, This facility is developing a vaccine to prevent Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The vaccine being tested is a single-component vaccine that is designed to protect against all 15 chlamydia varieties. Studies have already shown that the vaccine can prevent laboratory cells from becoming infected.

Another prevention strategy being pursued is the development of topical microbicides (preparations that can be inserted into the vagina to prevent infection) that are effective and easy for women to use.

Studies continue to determine organism's genetic makeup. NIAID-supported scientists determined the complete genome (genetic blueprint) for C. trachomatis.[6]

Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology

This institution continues its research into Chlamydia infection.[7][8][9] The Institute has published over 140 studies related to Chlamydia.[10]

Queensland University of Technology

There are research projects in several areas, including: development of a human vaccine for chlamydial sexually transmitted disease understanding basic mechanisms of regulation, including the importance of chlamydial proteases. Chlamydia infections in wildlife are part of the research into Chlamydia particularly koalas genomics and gene regulation studies in Chlamydia[11]

A sample list of primary publications.[11]

10.1111/j.1574-695X.2011.00843.x
10.1186/1471-2334-6-152

University of Southampton UK

Vaccine development continues in many independent areas and institutions.[12][13]

Vaccine

Vaccine research is ongoing in independent and institutional settings.[14][15]

Clinical studies

A clinical study involves research using human volunteers (also called participants) that is intended to add to medical knowledge. There are two main types of clinical studies: clinical trials (also called interventional studies) and observational studies.

Clinical trials

Clinical trials are used by researchers investigating the efficacy of interventions or protocol in the epidemiology, detection, prevention and treatment of Chlamydia infections. Interventions are the use of medical products, medication. devices; procedures or changes in the participants' behavior. The effects on the participants are measured and compared to previous trials, placebo or a new medical approach, or to no intervention.[16] The National Institutes of Health support on-going research in the study of Chlamydia infection. At least 113 studies have been initiated as of 2015.[16][17] One example was the clinical trial of eye prophylaxis in newborns in the prevention of neonatal conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis[18]

Observational studies

Research related to Chlamydia can take the form of an observational study. This type of study assesses outcomes in groups of participants according to a research plan or protocol. The volunteers in the study may receive interventions such as medical products, medications, devices, or procedures as part of their routine medical care. The volunteers in this type of study are not assigned to specific interventions as in a clinical trial.[19] An example of an oberservational study regarding Chlamydia infection was "Non-Invasive Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Testing in Women Seeking Emergency Contraception or Urine Pregnancy Testing: Meeting the Needs of an At-Risk Population" in 2010.[20] Observational studies employ the use of randomised control studies.[21]

Case studies

A case study that researches the prevalence and prevention of Chlamydia can be many things. It often entails personal contact, and a detailed history of the participants along with an extensive physical examination. Included in case studies of Chlamydia infection and the case results include its related contextual conditions. Chlamydia case studies also can be produced by following a formal research method. These case studies are likely to appear in formal research venues, such as journals and professional conferences. ork, and administrative science.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag[22][23]

Specific case studies

Evidence-based research

Evidence-based medicine Chlamydia studies optimizes decision-making by employing the use of information based upon well-designed research. This approach to the study of Chlamydia requires that only research conducted coming from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials) can yield widely applied recommendations.[24][25][26]

Some examples of Evidenced-based research on Chlamydia include:

  • Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health. Ljubin-Sternak S, Meštrović T.

Journal Pathog. 2014;2014:183167. doi: 10.1155/2014/183167. Epub 2014 Dec 31.[27]

  • Screening for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations [Internet].

Nelson HD, Zakher B, Cantor A, Deagas M, Pappas M.Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2014 Sep.[28]

References

Blue question mark icon.svg Using Wikipedia for Research

  1. OECD (2002) Frascati Manual: proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development, 6th edition. Retrieved 27 May 2012 from www.oecd.org/sti/frascatimanual.
  2. Corsaro D, Greub G (2006). "Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria". Clin Microbiol Rev 19 (2): 283–97. doi:10.1128/CMR.19.2.283-297.2006. PMID 16614250. 
  3. Valdivia, Raphael H.; Derré, Isabelle; Swiss, Rachel; Agaisse, Hervé (2011). "The Lipid Transfer Protein CERT Interacts with the Chlamydia Inclusion Protein IncD and Participates to ER-Chlamydia Inclusion Membrane Contact Sites". PLOS Pathogens 7 (6): e1002092. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002092. ISSN 1553-7374. PMID 21731489. 
  4. "Supplemental FOA for Enhanced Evaluation". Center For Disease Control. July 29, 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/std/foa/aapps/enhancedeval.htm. Retrieved 2015-07-27. 
  5. "Innovative Strategies". National Chlamydia Coalition. http://ncc.prevent.org/products/mini-grants. Retrieved 2015-07-28. 
  6. "Chlamydia Research". http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/chlamydia/research/pages/research.aspx. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  7. "Chlamydia promotes gene mutations". Max-Plank-Gesselshaft. June 20, 2013. http://www.mpg.de/7329412/chlamydia-gene-mutations. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  8. "Max-Planck-Institut für Infektionsbiologie". http://www.mpiib-berlin.mpg.de/. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  9. Agermanguy, Prof. Dr. Thomas F. Meyer. "Chlamydien durchbrechen die körpereigene Krebsabwehr". Max-Planck-Institut für Infektionsbiologie. http://www.mpiib-berlin.mpg.de/1625224/news_publication_8727330?c=2279. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  10. "Search". http://www.mpg.de/en/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&searchfield=Chlamydia. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "QUT - Chlamydia Research Program". https://www.qut.edu.au/research/research-projects/chlamydia-research-program#. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  12. "Breakthrough chlamydia treatment". University of Southampton. http://www.southampton.ac.uk/medicine/research/case_studies/breakthrough_chlamydia_treatment.page. Retrieved 2015-07-26. 
  13. "Crucial Breakthrough In Quest For Chlamydia Jab". 2011-10-17. http://www.wessexscene.co.uk/news/2011/10/17/crucial-breakthrough-in-quest-for-chlamydia-jab/. Retrieved 2015-07-26. 
  14. "Study brings chlamydia vaccine hope " The EPT". http://www.ectopic.org.uk/news/study-brings-chlamydia-vaccine-hope/. Retrieved 2015-07-26. 
  15. "Significant breakthrough in study of chlamydia". October 12, 2011. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111012131411.htm. Retrieved 2015-07-26. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Learn About Clinical Studies - ClinicalTrials.gov". https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/about-studies/learn. Retrieved 2015-07-27. 
  17. "Clinical Trials.gov - A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health". National Institutes of Health. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=%22Chlamydia+Infections%22. Retrieved 2015-07-27. 
  18. "Clinical Trial of Eye Prophylaxis in the Newborn - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov". September 2009. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000120?cond=%22Chlamydia+Infections%22&rank=42. Retrieved 2015-07-27. 
  19. "Learn About Clinical Studies - ClinicalTrials.gov". https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/about-studies/learn#ObservationalStudies. Retrieved 2015-07-27. 
  20. "Non-Invasive Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Testing in Women Seeking Emergency Contraception or Urine Pregnancy Testing: Meeting the Needs of an At-Risk Population". https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00978848?cond=%22Chlamydia+Infections%22&rank=54. Retrieved 2015-07-27. 
  21. Oakeshott, P.; Kerry, S.; Aghaizu, A.; Atherton, H.; Hay, S.; Taylor-Robinson, D.; Simms, I.; Hay, P. (2010). "Randomised controlled trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial". BMJ 340 (apr08 1): c1642. doi:10.1136/bmj.c1642. ISSN 0959-8138. PMID 20378636. 
  22. Suzanne Corkin. Permanent Present Tense: The Unforgettable Life of the Amnesic Patient, H.M.. Basic Books. New York. 2013. ISBN:978-0-4650-3159-7
  23. Rodger Kessler & Dale Stafford. Editors. Collaborative Medicine Case Studies: Evidence in Practice. Springer. New York. 2008. ISBN:978-0-3877-6893-9
  24. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group (November 1992). "Evidence-based medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine". JAMA 268 (17): 2420–5. doi:10.1001/JAMA.1992.03490170092032. PMID 1404801. 
  25. Eddy DM (1990). "Practice Policies: Guidelines for Methods". JAMA 263 (13): 1839–41. doi:10.1001/jama.263.13.1839. PMID 2313855. 
  26. Eddy DM (1990). "Guidelines for Policy Statements". Journal of the American Medical Association 263 (16): 2239–43. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440160101046. PMID 2319689. 
  27. Ljubin-Sternak, S; Meštrović, T (2014). "Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health". J Pathog 2014: 1–15. doi:10.1155/2014/183167. PMID 25614838. 
  28. Nelson, HD; Zakher, B; Cantor, A; Deagas, M; Pappas, M (2014). Screening for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations. PMID 25356451.