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Fructoselysine is an Amadori adduct of glucose to lysine.[1]

It breaks down into furosine on acid-catalysed hydrolysis.[2] E. coli breaks it down using the enzymes fructoselysine-6-kinase and fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase into glucose 6-phosphate and lysine, a set of enzymes located on the frl (fructoselysine) operon.[3]


  1. Wiame, E; Delpierre, G; Collard, F; Van Schaftingen, E (8 November 2002). "Identification of a pathway for the utilization of the Amadori product fructoselysine in Escherichia coli.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (45): 42523–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.m200863200. PMID 12147680. 
  2. Oimomi, M.; Hatanaka, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Kubota, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Baba, S. (May 1984). "Increased fructose-lysine of nail protein in diabetic patients". Klinische Wochenschrift 62 (10): 477–478. doi:10.1007/BF01726910. 
  3. Wiame, E; Van Schaftingen, E (15 March 2004). "Fructoselysine 3-epimerase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the unusual Amadori compound psicoselysine in Escherichia coli.". The Biochemical Journal 378 (Pt 3): 1047–52. doi:10.1042/bj20031527. PMID 14641112. was the original source. Read more.