Hitachi Headquarters in Marunouchi
|Kabushiki gaisha Hitachi Seisaku-sho|
lit. "Share Company Hitachi Manufacturing Plant"
|Traded as||TYO: 6501|
Nikkei 225 component
TOPIX Core30 component
Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan
Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo,
|Revenue||¥9.480 trillion (2019)|
|¥516.5 billion (2019)|
|¥321.0 billion (2019)|
|Total assets||¥9.626 trillion (2019)|
|Total equity||¥3.262 trillion (2019)|
Number of employees
Hitachi, Ltd. (株式会社日立製作所 Kabushiki gaisha Hitachi Seisaku-sho, lit. "Hitachi Works Corporation") (Japanese pronunciation: [çi̥taꜜtɕi]) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It is the parent company of the Hitachi Group (Hitachi Gurūpu) and formed part of the Nissan zaibatsu and later DKB Group of companies before DKB merged into the Mizuho Financial Group. As of April 2019, Hitachi operates ten business segments, ranging from IT Services, including AI and big data analysis, to Construction Machinery.
Hitachi is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. It is ranked 38th in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 and 129th in the 2012 Forbes Global 2000.
Although it is still a large conglomerate, Hitachi does not have the size and an extensive business portfolio it was proud of; From 2008 to 2018, it has reduced the number of its listed group companies and consolidated subdiaries in Japan from 22 to 4 and around 400 to 202, respectively, through restructuring and sell-offs.
- 1 History
- 2 Products and services
- 2.1 Automotive systems
- 2.2 Components and devices
- 2.3 Construction machinery
- 2.4 Defense systems
- 2.5 Digital media and consumer products
- 2.6 Electronic systems and equipment
- 2.7 Financial services
- 2.8 Advanced materials
- 2.9 Information and telecommunication systems
- 2.10 Power systems
- 2.11 Social infrastructure and industrial systems
- 2.12 Other
- 3 Subsidiaries and divisions
- 4 Discontinued or divested businesses
- 5 Corporate social responsibility
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Hitachi was founded in 1910 by electrical engineer Namihei Odaira in Ibaraki Prefecture. The company's first product was Japan's first 4-kilowatt (5 hp) induction motor, initially developed for use in copper mining. The company began as an in-house venture of Fusanosuke Kuhara's mining company in Hitachi, Ibaraki. Odaira moved headquarters to Tokyo in 1918. Odaira coined the company's toponymic name by superimposing two kanji characters: hi meaning "sun" and tachi meaning "rise".
World War II had a significant impact on the company with many of its factories being destroyed by Allied bombing raids, and discord after the war. Founder Odaira was removed from the company and Hitachi Zosen Corporation was spun out. Hitachi's reconstruction efforts after the war were hindered by a labor strike in 1950. Meanwhile, Hitachi went public in 1949.
In March 2011, Hitachi agreed to sell its hard disk drive subsidiary, HGST, to Western Digital for a combination of cash and shares worth US$4.3 billion. Due to concerns of a duopoly of WD and Seagate Technology by the EU Commission and the Federal Trade Commission, Hitachi's 3.5" HDD division was sold to Toshiba. The transaction was completed in March 2012.
In January 2012, Hitachi announced it would stop producing televisions in Japan. In September 2012, Hitachi announced that it had invented a long-term data solution out of quartz glass that was capable of preserving information for millions of years. In October 2012, Hitachi agreed to acquire the United Kingdom-based nuclear energy company Horizon Nuclear Power, which plans to construct up to six nuclear power plants in the UK, from E.ON and RWE for £700 million. In November 2012, Hitachi and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries agreed to merge their thermal power generation businesses into a joint venture to be owned 65% by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and 35% by Hitachi. The joint venture began operations in February 2014.
In October 2015, Hitachi completed a deal with Johnson Controls to form a joint-venture that would takeover Hitachi's HVAC business. Hitachi maintained a 40% stake of the resulting company, Johnson Controls-Hitachi Air Conditioning. In May 2016, Hitachi announced it was investing $2.8 billion into its IoT interests.
In February 2017, Hitachi and Honda announced a partnership to develop, produce and sell motors for electric vehicles. On March 14, 2018, Zoomdata announced its partnership with Hitachi INS Software to help develop big data analytics market in Japan. In December 2018, Hitachi Ltd. announced it would take over ABB Ltd.'s power grid division for $6.4 billion. Also in 2017, private equity firm KKR bought Hitachi Kokusai's (itself a subsidiary of Hitachi) semiconductor equipment division, becoming Kokusai Electric. In 2019, Applied Materials announced that it would acquire Kokusai Electric from KKR for US$2.2 billion.
In 2019, Hitachi sold its medical imaging business to Fujifilm for US$6.38 billion. Showa Denko bought Hitachi Chemical from Hitachi and other shareholders, at US$42.97 per share. In October 2019, Honda was reported to be in talks with Hitachi to merge the two companies' car parts businesses, creating a components supplier with almost $17 billion in annual sales, the second largest among the Japanese car parts companies. Hitachi retained the control of the new company with a 67 percent stake.
Products and services
- Car Information Systems
- Drive Control
- Electric Powertrain Systems
- Engine Management Systems
Components and devices
- Information Storage Media
- Hydraulic Excavators
- Forestry Equipment
- Mechanical & Hydraulic Cranes
- Mining Dump Trucks
- Crawler Dump trucks
- Wheel Loaders
- Military vehicles
- Crisis management
- C4I systems
- Satellite image processing systems
- Social Infrastructure security business (in coordination with Hitachi's Infrastructure Systems Group)
- Electric propulsion technology
- Electro-mechanical systems (including some robotics research & development)
- Advanced Combat Infantry Equipment System [ACIES] (JSDF) - Primary contractor
Digital media and consumer products
- Air conditioning equipment - Joint venture with Johnson Controls
- Hitachi Magic Wand
- Optical disc drives - Joint venture with optical disc drive division of LG as Hitachi-LG Data Storage
- Washing machines
Electronic systems and equipment
- Test and measurement equipment
- Loan guarantees
- Invoice finance (via the Hitachi Capital arm of the business)
- Consumer finance (personal and retail)
- Business finance
- Specialty steels
- Wires and cables
Information and telecommunication systems
- Disk array subsystems
- Mainframe computers
- Outsourcing services
- Telecommunications equipment
- Nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power plants
- Wind Power Generation Systems
- Power Grids
Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 and the extended temporary closure of most Japanese nuclear plants, Hitachi's nuclear business became unprofitable and in 2016 Hitachi CEO Toshiaki Higashihara argued Japan should consider a merger of the various competing nuclear businesses. Hitachi is taking for 2016 an estimated ¥65 billion write-off in value of a SILEX technology laser uranium enrichment joint venture with General Electric. In 2019 Hitachi suspended the ABWR development by its British subsidiary Horizon Nuclear Power as it did not provide an adequate "economic rationality as a private enterprise" to proceed.
Social infrastructure and industrial systems
- Logistics (Through Hitachi Transport System)
- Property management
Subsidiaries and divisions
Hitachi Vantara is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi which provides hardware, software and services to help companies manage their digital data. Its flagship products are the Virtual Storage Platform (for enterprise storage), Hitachi Unified Storage VM for large sized companies, Hitachi Unified Storage for small and mid-sized companies, Hitachi Content Platform (archiving and cloud architecture), Hitachi Command Suite (for storage management), Hitachi TrueCopy and Hitachi Universal Replicator (for remote replication), and the Hitachi NAS Platform.
Since September 19, 2017, Hitachi Data Systems (HDS) has become part of Hitachi Vantara, a new company that unifies the operations of Pentaho, Hitachi Data Systems and Hitachi Insight Group. The company name "Hitachi Data Systems" (HDS) and its logo is no longer used in the market.
Hitachi Consulting, the international management and technology consulting subsidiary with headquarters in Dallas, Texas, was integrated with Hitachi Vantara in 2019.
Among other things, Hitachi Metals supplies materials for aircraft engines and fuselage components (e.g. landing gear), along with finished components for same and other aerospace applications. It also provides materials, components and tools for the automotive and electronics industries.
Hitachi Rail is the rolling stock manufacturing division of Hitachi.
The rail division delivered 120 CQ311 series railcars to MARTA from 1984 to 1988.
Hitachi markets a general-purpose train known as the "A-train", which uses double-skin, friction-stir-welded aluminium body construction. Hitachi's products have included the designing and manufacturing of many Shinkansen models, including the N700 Series Shinkansen.
On February 24, 2015, Hitachi agreed to purchase the Italian rolling stock manufacturer AnsaldoBreda and acquire Finmeccanica's stake in Ansaldo STS, the railway signaling division of Finmeccanica The purchase was completed later that year, at which point the company was renamed as Hitachi Rail Italy. Since then, Hitachi has obtained a majority stake in Ansaldo STS.
Hitachi Monorail builds monorail systems with 10 built to date.
- Hitachi Zosen
- Hitachi High-tech
- Hitachi Automotive Systems
- GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (co-owned by General Electric)
- Hitachi Global Life Solutions - Manufacturing home appliances, air conditioners.
- Hitachi Digital Media Group - Selling electronic products including video projectors under its brand name.
- Hitachi Plant Technologies - Engaging in the design, development, manufacture, sale, servicing, and execution of social and industrial infrastructure machinery, mechatronics, air-conditioning systems, industrial plants, and energy plant equipment in Asia and internationally.
- Hitachi Communication Technologies America - Providing communications products and services for the telecommunications, cable TV, utility, enterprise, industrial and other markets.
- Hitachi Solutions America - A consulting firm and systems integrator focusing primarily on Microsoft Dynamics. Hitachi Solutions America acquired Ignify, a Microsoft Dynamics Solution provider, in December 2015.
Discontinued or divested businesses
- Hitachi T.2
- Hitachi TR.2
- Aircraft Engines
- Hitachi Hatsukaze
- Ships - Merged with the shipbuilding operation of NKK corporation to form Universal Shipbuilding Corporation
- Semiconductors - Spun off to be part of Elpida Memory and Renesas Electronics
- Mobile phones - Merged with Casio's cellphone manufacturing business, then absorbed into NEC Mobile Communications
- Batteries - Sold to Maxell
- Drilling instruments (Hitachi Via Mechanics) - Sold to The Longreach Group
- Hard disk drives - Separated division for this product line as Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, then HGST was purchased by Western Digital
- Chemical vapor deposition equipments (Hitachi Kokusai Electric) - Sold to KKR and renamed Kokusai Electric
- Power tools (Hitachi Koki) - Sold to KKR and renamed Hikoki
- Car navation system (Clarion) - Sold to Faurecia
- Circuit boards and materials, Semiconductor and display related materials, etc. (Hitachi Chemical) - Sold to Showa Denko and renamed Showa Denko Materials
- Medical electronics equipments - Sold to Fujifilm
- Gas turbines (Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems) - Shares held by Hitachi transferred to Mitsubishi
In August 2011, it was announced that Hitachi would donate an electron microscope to each of five universities in Indonesia (the University of North Sumatra in Medan, the Indonesian Christian University in Jakarta, Padjadjaran University in Bandung, General Soedirman University in Purwokerto and Muhammadiyah University in Malang).
- "Super Technical Server HITACHI SR24000". http://www.hitachi.co.jp/Prod/comp/hpc/SR_series/sr24000/index_en.html.
- "SR24000：技術計算向けサーバ：日立" (in ja). http://www.hitachi.co.jp/Prod/comp/hpc/SR_series/sr24000/index.html.
- "Hitachi Financial Statements". Hitachi. https://www.hitachi.com/New/cnews/month/2019/04/190426/2018_An.pdf.
- "Corporate Profile". http://www.hitachi.com/about/corporate/index.html. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Business Segment Information : Investor Relations : Hitachi Global". https://www.hitachi.com/IR-e/financial/segment/index.html.
- Marr, Bernard. "The Amazing Ways Hitachi Uses Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning" (in en). https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/06/14/the-amazing-ways-hitachi-uses-artificial-intelligence-and-machine-learning/.
- "Global 500 2014". http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2012/full_list/. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- "Governance reboot keeps Hitachi in the spotlight". https://www.ft.com/content/9061ef70-e8ca-11e9-85f4-d00e5018f061.
- "Little Known Facts About Hitachi". http://us.hitachi-solutions.com/miraibio/blog/little-known-facts-about-hitachi. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- III, Kenneth E. Hendrickson (2014-11-25) (in en). The Encyclopedia of the Industrial Revolution in World History. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810888883. https://books.google.com/books?id=EdwsCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA430&lpg=PA430&dq=Hitachi+was+founded+in+1910#v=onepage.
- Jr, Alfred D. Chandler; Hikino, Takashi; Nordenflycht, Andrew Von (2005) (in en). Inventing the Electronic Century. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674018051. https://books.google.com/books?id=ujP9GmMJMMQC&pg=PA205&lpg=PA205&dq=hitachi+founded+by+namihei+odaira#v=onepage.
- "History (1910–1959) : Hitachi Global". Hitachi.com. 2010-06-29. http://hitachi.com/about/corporate/history. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- Fransman, Martin; Fransman, Professor of Economics and Director of the Institute for Japanese-European Technology Studies (Jets) Martin (1995) (in en). Japan's Computer and Communications Industry: The Evolution of Industrial Giants and Global Competitiveness. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198233336. https://books.google.com/books?id=M_F_syq_NBwC&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=Odaira+moved+headquarters+to+Tokyo+in+1918#v=onepage.
- Francis McInerney; Sean White (1995). The Total Quality Corporation. North River Ventures. p. 95. ISBN 9780525939283. https://books.google.com/books?id=ql9Sri-LbisC.
- "History of Hitachi, Ltd. – FundingUniverse". http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/hitachi-ltd-history/.
- "History (1910–1959)". Hitachi. http://www.hitachi.com/about/corporate/history/index.html. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "History (1980–1999)". Hitachi. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20121107035130/http://hitachi.com/about/corporate/history/1980.html. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Hitachi warns of $7.8 billion loss, to restructure". Reuters. January 30, 2009. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hitachi-restructuring-idUSTRE50T2F920090130.
- "Hitachi forecasts record profit as restructuring pays off". https://asia.nikkei.com/Editor-s-Picks/Japan-Update/Hitachi-forecasts-record-profit-as-restructuring-pays-off.
- Wakabayashi, Daisuke (May 11, 2012). "Hitachi President Prods Turnaround". https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303630404577389840792383050.
- Omuro, Masami (December 26, 2018). Hitachi, the largest Japanese conglomerate, and its transformation in the innovation era (Thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. hdl:1721.1/117988.
- "WD to Buy Hitachi's Drive Business for $4.3 Billion". PC Magazine. 7 March 2011. https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2381551,00.asp. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Western Digital Closes Hitachi GST Acquisition, to Operate Separate Subsidiaries". Network World. 2012-03-09. http://www.networkworld.com/article/2186667/data-center/western-digital-closes-hitachi-gst-acquisition--to-operate-separate-subsidiaries.html. Retrieved 2014-09-01.
- Television, Marc Chacksfield 2012-01-23T13:26:00 22Z. "Hitachi to stop making TVs in 2012" (in EN-GB). https://www.techradar.com/news/television/hitachi-to-stop-making-tvs-in-2012-1056785.
- Welch, Chris (2012-09-27). "Hitachi invents quartz glass storage capable of preserving data for millions of years". https://www.theverge.com/2012/9/27/3417918/hitachi-quartz-glass-data-preservation.
- "Hitachi buys UK nuclear project from E.On and RWE". BBC News. 30 October 2012. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-20134735. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "Hitachi wins bid to build up to six UK nuclear plants". Reuters. 30 October 2012. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/10/30/uk-horizon-hitachi-idUKBRE89T0B420121030. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "Hitachi and Mitsubishi Heavy shares rise after merger". BBC News. 30 November 2012. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-20551428. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "MHI, Hitachi plan to merge thermal power units to boost overseas sales". The Japan Times. 30 November 2012. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nb20121130n2.html. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "News Releases". http://www.hitachi.com/New/cnews/140128b.html. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Lockwood, Denise (3 March 2014). "An inside look at Johnson Controls joint venture with Hitachi". https://www.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/news/2014/03/03/an-inside-look-at-johnson-controls.html.
- "Hitachi to invest $2.8B in IoT: launches new unit and platform" (in en-US). 2016-05-11. https://readwrite.com/2016/05/11/hitachi-invest-2-8b-iot-launches-new-iot-unit-platform-pl4/.
- "Honda, Hitachi Automotive to form EV motor joint venture" (in en). Reuters. 2017-02-07. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-honda-strategy-hitachi-idUSKBN15M0HR.
- GlobeNewsWire. "Hitachi INS Software and Zoomdata Partner to Develop Big Data Analytics Market in Japan." March 14, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- "Bloomberg – Are you a robot?". https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-12-17/hitachi-to-acquire-abb-s-power-grids-unit-valued-at-11-billion.
- "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". https://www.ft.com/content/d4abb0e7-4a7d-3d22-8b7b-a0987d44f926.
- "Exclusive: Applied Materials to buy KKR's Kokusai Electric for $2.2bn". https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Business-deals/Exclusive-Applied-Materials-to-buy-KKR-s-Kokusai-Electric-for-2.2bn.
- "Bloomberg – Are you a robot?". https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-07-01/applied-materials-said-to-buy-kokusai-electric-for-2-3-billion.
- "Applied Materials to Acquire Kokusai Electric | Applied Materials". http://www.appliedmaterials.com/company/news/press-releases/2019/07/applied-materials-to-acquire-kokusai-electric.
- "Hitachi to sell chemical unit and diagnosis imaging equipment business". December 19, 2019. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/12/19/business/corporate-business/hitachi-to-sell-chemical-and-diagnosis-imaging-equipmt-units/.
- "Hitachi considers selling Hitachi Chemical". April 25, 2019. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/04/25/business/corporate-business/hitachi-considers-selling-hitachi-chemical/.
- "Moody's: Hitachi's restructuring will boost cash holdings and sharpen strategic focus, a credit positive". December 19, 2019. https://www.moodys.com/research/Moodys-Hitachis-restructuring-will-boost-cash-holdings-and-sharpen-strategic--PR_415514.
- GmbH, finanzen net. "Hitachi, Ltd. -- Moody's: Hitachi's restructuring will boost cash holdings and sharpen strategic focus, a credit positive | Markets Insider". https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/bonds/hitachi-ltd-moody-s-hitachi-s-restructuring-will-boost-cash-holdings-and-sharpen-strategic-focus-a-credit-positive-1028774700.
- News, Bloomberg (October 29, 2019). "Honda and Hitachi to Merge Four Car Parts Makers, Yomiuri Says – BNN Bloomberg". https://www.bnnbloomberg.ca/honda-and-hitachi-to-merge-four-car-parts-makers-yomiuri-says-1.1339709.
- "Honda and Hitachi Automotive combine forces for new global mega supplier" (in en). 2019-10-30. https://europe.autonews.com/suppliers/honda-and-hitachi-automotive-combine-forces-new-global-mega-supplier.
- "Defense Systems Company". http://hitachi.com/about/corporate/organization/defense/index.html.
- Stuart, Laura Anne (19 April 2013). "The Rebirth of the Magic Wand". Express Milwaukee. Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130423022836/http://expressmilwaukee.com/article-20926-the-rebirth-of-the-magic-wand.html. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Trout, Christopher (28 August 2014). "The 46-year-old sex toy Hitachi won't talk about". Engadget. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140827183517/http://www.engadget.com/2014/08/27/history-of-the-hitachi-magic-wand/. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Japan's nuclear companies look to restructuring". Nuclear Engineering International. 9 November 2016. http://www.neimagazine.com/news/newsjapans-nuclear-companies-look-to-restructuring-5663580. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- Patel, Sonal (1 June 2016). "GE-Hitachi Exits Nuclear Laser-Based Enrichment Venture". POWER. http://www.powermag.com/ge-hitachi-exits-nuclear-laser-based-enrichment-venture/. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Yasuhara, Akiko (31 March 2017). "Toshiba's U.S. unit bankruptcy dims Japan's nuclear ambitions". The Japan Times. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/03/31/business/corporate-business/toshibas-u-s-unit-bankruptcy-dims-japans-nuclear-ambitions/. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "UK unveils financial terms it offered Hitachi". World Nuclear News. 17 January 2019. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/UK-unveils-financial-terms-it-offered-Hitachi. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "G1TOWER : About Us : Hitachi Global". Hitachi, Ltd.. http://www.hitachi.com/businesses/elevator/about_us/g1tower/. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
- "Hitachi-Rail.com : Hitachi Railway Systems Website". http://www.hitachi-rail.com/.
- "Hitachi Transportation Systems website". http://www.hitachi-rail.com. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Hitachi agrees to buy Ansaldo STS and AnsaldoBreda". 24 February 2015. http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/business/single-view/view/hitachi-agrees-to-buy-ansaldo-sts-and-ansaldobreda.html. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "Hitachi completes Ansaldo deal". 2 November 2015. http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/business/single-view/view/hitachi-completes-ansaldo-deal.html. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "Company Overview of Hitachi Communication Technologies America, Inc.". bloomberg.com. https://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=7941604. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- PRWEB. "Hitachi Solutions Acquires Leading Microsoft Dynamics Solution Provider Ignify." December 14, 2015. Retrieved Jul 18, 2017.
- Author, No (2001-02-24). "Hitachi Zosen, NKK to merge shipbuilding units" (in en-US). https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2001/02/24/business/hitachi-zosen-nkk-to-merge-shipbuilding-units/.
- "Hitachi to end TV manufacturing" (in en-GB). BBC News. 2012-01-23. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-16677348.
- "News Releases : August 21, 2013 : Hitachi Global". https://www.hitachi.com/New/cnews/130821.html.
- "Hitachi starts sale of $5.6 billion chemical unit, first bids due by Aug. 9: sources" (in en). Reuters. 2019-07-11. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hitachi-chem-m-a-idUSKCN1U60XD.
- Patel, Sonal (2019-12-18). "Hitachi Exiting MHPS; MHI Will be Venture’s Sole Owner" (in en-US). https://www.powermag.com/hitachi-will-exit-mhps-leaving-mhi-as-joint-ventures-sole-owner/.
- "Hitachi to grant electron microscopes". The Jakarta Post. 5 August 2011. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/08/05/hitachi-grant-electron-microscopes.html. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hitachi. Read more