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Short description: Hallucination caused by eating certain species of fish

Ichthyoallyeinotoxism, or hallucinogenic fish inebriation, comes from eating certain species of fish found in several parts of the tropics, the effects of which are reputed to be similar in some aspects to LSD. Experiences may include vivid auditory and visual hallucinations. This has given rise to the collective common name "dream fish" for ichthyoallyeinotoxic fish.

The species most commonly claimed to be capable of producing this kind of toxicity include several species from the genus Kyphosus, including Kyphosus fuscus, K. cinerascens, and K. vaigiensis.[1] It is unclear whether the toxins are produced by the fish themselves or by marine algae in their diet, but a dietary origin may be more likely.[citation needed]

Sarpa salpa, a species of bream, can induce LSD-like hallucinations if it is eaten.[2] These widely distributed coastal fish[3] are called "the fish that make dreams" in Arabic. In 2006, two men who ate fish, apparently the Sarpa salpa caught in the Mediterranean, were affected by ichthyoallyeinotoxism and experienced hallucinations lasting for several days.[4][5]

Other hallucinogenic fish are Siganus spinus,[6] called "the fish that inebriates" in Reunion Island, and Mulloides flavolineatus (formerly Mulloidichthys samoensis),[7] called "the chief of ghosts" in Hawaii.[8]

See also


  1. Orsolini, Laura; Ciccarese, Michela; Papanti, Duccio; Berardis, Domenico De; Guirguis, Amira; Corkery, John M.; Schifano, Fabrizio (2021-06-02). "Psychedelic Fauna for Psychonaut Hunters: A Mini-Review". Frontiers in Psychiatry 9: 153. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00153. PMID 29910745. 
  2. Sarpa Salpa Mahalo
  3. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Sarpa salpa" in FishBase. October 2009 version.
  4. de Haro, L.; Pommier, P. (2006). "Hallucinatory fish poisoning (ichthyoallyeinotoxism): two case reports from the Western Mediterranean and literature review.". Clinical Toxicology 44 (2): 185–8. doi:10.1080/15563650500514590. PMID 16615678. 
  5. Clarke, Matt (2006-04-19). "Men hallucinate after eating fish". Practical Fishkeeping. 
  6. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Siganus spinus" in FishBase. October 2009 version.
  7. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Mulloidichthys samoensis" in FishBase. October 2009 version.
  8. Thomas, Craig, M.D. and, Susan Scott (Jun 1, 1997). All Stings Considered: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Hawai'i's Marine Injuries. Hawaii: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 120. ISBN 9780824819002.