From HandWiki
Short description: Epithet for god, lord, blessed one in Hinduism and Buddhism

The word Bhagavan (Sanskrit: भगवान्, romanized: Bhagavān; Pali: Bhagavā), also spelt as Bhagwan (sometimes translated in English as "Lord","God"), an epithet within Indian religions used to denote figures of religious worship. In Hinduism it is used to signify a deity or an avatar, particularly for Krishna and Vishnu in Vaishnavism, Shiva in Shaivism and Durga or Adi Shakti in Shaktism.[1][2] In Jainism the term refers to the Tirthankaras, and in Buddhism to the Buddha.[3]

In many parts of India and South Asia, Bhagavan represents the concept of a universal God or Divine to Hindus who are spiritual and religious but do not worship a specific deity.[1]

In bhakti school literature, the term is typically used for any deity to whom prayers are offered. A particular deity is often the devotee's one and only Bhagavan.[2] The female equivalent of Bhagavān is Bhagavati.[4][5] To some Hindus, the word Bhagavan is an abstract, genderless concept of God.

In Buddhism's Pali and Sanskrit scriptures, the term is used to denote Gautama Buddha, referring him as Bhagavā or Bhagavān (translated with the phrase "Lord" or "The Blessed One").[6][7] The term Bhagavan is also found in Theravada, Mahayana and Tantra Buddhist texts.[8][9]

Etymology and meaning

Bhagavān, nominative singular of the adjective Bhagavat, literally means "fortunate", "blessed" (from the noun bhaga, meaning "fortune", "wealth"), and hence "illustrious", "divine", "venerable", "holy", etc.[10] Bhagavān is related to the root Bhaj (भज्, "to revere", "adore"), and implies someone "glorious", "illustrious", "revered", "venerable", "divine", "holy" (an epithet applied to gods, holy or respectable personages).[11] The root Bhaj also means "share with", "partake of", "aportion".[12][13] Clooney and Stewart state that this root, in Vaishnava traditions, implies Bhagavān as one perfect creator that a devotee seeks to partake from, share his place with, by living in god, in the way of god, the loving participation between the two being its own reward.[14]

The Vishnu Purana defines Bhagavān as follows,

उत्पत्तिं प्रलयं चैव भूतानामागतिं गतिम् |
वेत्तिं विद्यामविद्यां च स वाच्यो भगवानिति ||
He who understands the creation and dissolution, the appearance and disappearance of beings, the wisdom and ignorance, should be called Bhagavān.

—Vishnu Purana, VI.5.78 [15]

The same text defines Bhaga and provides the etymological roots as follows as translated by Wilson,[16]

Knowledge is of two kinds, that which is derived from scripture, and that which is derived from reflection. Brahma that is the word is composed of scripture; Brahma that is supreme is produced of reflection. Ignorance is utter darkness, in which knowledge, obtained through any sense (as that of hearing), shines like a lamp; but the knowledge that is derived from reflection breaks upon the obscurity like the sun. (...) That which is imperceptible, undecaying, inconceivable, unborn, inexhaustible, indescribable; which has neither form, nor hands, nor feet; which is almighty, omnipresent, eternal; the cause of all things, and without cause; permeating all, itself unpenetrated, and from which all things proceed; that is the object which the wise behold, that is Brahma, that is the supreme state, that is the subject of contemplation to those who desire liberation, that is the thing spoken of by the Vedas, the infinitely subtle, supreme condition of Vishnu.

That essence of the supreme is defined by the term Bhagavat. The word Bhagavat is the denomination of that primeval and eternal God: and he who fully understands the meaning of that expression is possessed of holy wisdom, the sum, and substance of the Vedas. The word Bhagavat is a convenient form to be used in the adoration of that supreme being, to whom no term is applicable; and therefore Bhagavat expresses that supreme spirit, which is individual, almighty, and the cause of causes of all things. The letter Bh implies the cherisher and supporter of the universe. By ga is understood the leader, impeller, or creator. The disyllable Bhaga indicates the six properties, dominion, might, glory, splendor, wisdom, and dispassion. The purport of the letter va is that elemental spirit in which all beings exist, and which exists in all beings. And thus this great word Bhagavan is the name of Vásudeva, who is one with the supreme Brahma, and of no one else. This word, therefore, which is the general denomination of an adorable object, is not used in reference to the supreme in a general, but a special signification. When applied to any other (thing or person) it is used in its customary or general import. In the latter case, it may purport one who knows the origin and end and revolutions of beings, and what is wisdom, what ignorance. In the former, it denotes wisdom, energy, power, dominion, might, glory, without end, and without defect.

—Vishnu Purana, VI.5 [16]

Buddha is referred to as Bhagavan in ancient and medieval Theravada, Mahayana and Tantra Buddhist texts, where it connotes, "Lord", "Blessed One", "Fortunate One".[9][17][18]



The Vedic texts neither mention nor provide a basis to explain the origin of the Bhagavān concept.[19]


The root of "Bhagavan", "Bhaga" is mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad, but it does not mean or imply "Bhagavan"':

शौनको ह वै महाशालोऽङ्गिरसं विधिवदुपसन्नः पप्रच्छ ।
कस्मिन्नु भगवो विज्ञाते सर्वमिदं विज्ञातं भवतीति ॥ ३ ॥
Shaunaka asked: Can knowledge of the world's reality be so complete that all the many things we see are understood in it?
Can something so complete, excellent be found that knowing it, one knows everything?
Mundaka Upanishad I.1.3 [20][21]

The Mundaka Upanishad then answers this question in two parts over verses 1.1.4 through 3.2.11.[22] These verses split knowledge into two sections: lower knowledge and higher knowledge. Lower knowledge includes Vedas, phonetics, grammar, etymology, meter, astronomy and ceremony rituals.[23] The higher knowledge indicates, the Upanishad asserts, is Self-knowledge and realizing its oneness with Brahman—the one which cannot be seen, nor seized, which has no origin, no qualities, no hips, nor ears, no hands, nor feet, one that is the eternal, all-pervading, infinitesimal, imperishable.[citation needed] The word Bhagavan does not appear in the Mundaka Upanishad and other early or middle Upanishads.[2]

Later and medieval era Upanishads mention Bhagavān. For example, the very first verse of the Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa Upaniṣhad uses the term, as follows,[24]

द्वापरान्ते नारदो ब्रह्माणं जगाम कथं भगवन् गां पर्यटन् कलिं सन्तरेयमिति

At the start of the Dvapara [Yuga] Narada went to Brahma and asked, "O Lord, how shall I, roaming over the earth, be able to overcome the effects of Kali [Yuga]?"

Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa Upaniṣad, 1.1 [24]

Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa, a minor Upanishad, then proceeds to disclose, among other things, two Bhagavan names in the Hare Krishna mantra in verse 2.[25] This verse is sung by International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) devotees.[24]


In Bhagavata Dharma, it denotes Narayana Vasudeva's four vyuha formations. Ishvara or God is called Bhagavan and the person dedicated to Bhagavan is called a Bhagavata. The Bhagavata Purana (I.iii.28) identifies Krishna as Narayana, Vāsudeva, Vishnu and Hari—Bhagavan present in human form.[26] Bhagavan is the complete revelation of the Divine; Brahman, the impersonal Absolute, is unqualified and therefore, never expressed. Paramatman is Bhagavan in relation to Prakṛti and the Jiva.[27] The Yoga of Devotion implies that if a Bhagavata, the devotee of Bhagavan, seeks and longs for Bhagavan, then Bhagavan too seeks his devotee in equal measure.[28]

Bhagavad Gita

The term Bhagavan appears extensively in the Bhagavad Gita, as Krishna counsels Arjuna.[2] For example,

श्रीभगवानुवाच। कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमिदं विषमे समुपस्थितम्। अनार्यजुष्टमस्वर्ग्यमकीर्तिकरमर्जुन॥ २-२॥

Shri Bhagavan said, "from where had this weakness arisen, at this inconvenient time?
It is not noble, neither will it lead you to heaven, nor will it earn you valor, O Arjuna.


The Bhagavata tradition of Hinduism invoke Bhagavan in the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata. The devotion to Vishnu (identified as Vasudeva in the Mahabharata) is elaborated to mean the ten incarnations of the deity. This tradition introduced the chaturvyuha concept and laid emphasis on the worship of the five Vrishni warriors, which reached the peak of its popularity during the Gupta Period.[30]


In Hinduism, the word, Bhagavān, indicates the Supreme Being or Absolute Truth conceived as a Personal God.[31] This personal feature indicated by the word Bhagavān differentiates its usage from other similar terms[32] such as Brahman, the "Supreme Spirit" or "spirit", and thus, in this usage, Bhagavan is analogous to the Christian concept of God the Father. In Vaisnavism, a devotee of Bhagvān Krishna is called a Bhāgavata.

The Bhagavata Purana (1.2.11) states the definition of Bhagavān to mean the supreme being:

The Learned Know the Absolute Truth call this non-dual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan.[lower-alpha 1]

Bhagavān used as a title of veneration is often directly used as Lord, as in Bhagavān Rama, Bhagavān Krishna, Bhagavān Shiva, etc. In Buddhism and Jainism, Gautama Buddha, Mahavira and other Tirthankaras, Buddhas and bodhisattvas are also venerated with this title. The feminine of Bhagavat is Bhagawatī and is an epithet of Durga and other goddesses. This title is also used by a number of contemporary spiritual teachers in India who claim to be Bhagavan or have realized impersonal Brahman.[citation needed]

Bhakti (devotion to God) consists of actions performed in dedication to the Paramatman, the individuated existence with free-will, and who is the final cause of the world; the Vedic Rishis describe the goals originating from God as Bhagavān, and the Ananda aspect of God where God has manifested His personality is called Bhagavān when consciousness (pure self-awareness) aligns with those goals to cause the unified existence and commencement of works follow.[33]



Bhagavān in Buddhist texts

In Pali Literature

Bhagava is the Pali word used for Bhagavan. Some Buddhist texts, such as the Pali suttas, use the word Bhagavā for the Buddha, meaning "the fortunate one".[34] The term Bhagavā has been used in Pali Anussati[citation needed] or recollections[clarification needed] as one of the terms that describes the "Tathāgata" as one full of good qualities, as arahant, sammā-sambuddho and sugato (Dīgha Nikāya II.93).[35]

Bhagavan is one of the nine qualities of the Buddha. In the Buddha Anussati, Bhagavan is defined the following way:

Iti pi so Bhagavā Arahaṃ Sammā-sambuddho Vijjā-caraṇa sampanno Sugato Lokavidū Anuttaro purisa-damma-sārathi Satthā deva-manusānaṃ Buddho Bhagavāti
Thus is the Buddha, deserving homage, perfectly awakened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, well gone to Nibbana, knower of the worlds, incomparable leader (lit. charioteer) of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, awakened one and Blessed One.[citation needed][non-primary source needed]
In Sanskrit Literature

Several Tibetan Buddhist tantra texts use the word Bhagavān. For example, the Pradipoddyotana manuscript of Guhyasamāja tantra-Samdhivyakarana uses the word Bhagavān, which Alex Wayman translates as "Lord".[18] The text, elsewhere refers to "Bhagavan Sarvatathagatakayavakcittadipatih", which John Campbell translates as "Lord, Master of the Vajras of Body, Speech, and Mind of all Buddhas."[36] Elsewhere, it states,[8]

Thereupon, having made offerings and bowing down to the Bhagavan,
The Lord of Body Speech and Mind of all Tathagatas,
All the Bhagavan Tathagatas spoke thus:
Glorious One, pray to explain the essence,
The unexcelled Bodhicitta,
The secret of all Tathagatas,
The supreme of Body Speech and Mind.

— Pradipoddyotana, II. 1 [8]

Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, a sutra of Mahāyāna Buddhism, for example, uses the word Bhagavān over three hundred times[citation needed], which is either left untranslated by scholars[citation needed], or translated as "Lord or Blessed One".[37] The devotional meditational text Sukhavati Vyuhopadesa by Vasubandhu uses the term Bhagavān in its invocations.[38]


Other variants of the term Bhagavan, such Bhagavant and Bhagavata can also be found throughout Buddhist texts. For instance, it is used in the initial chant, which is recited before almost every Sutta chanting,

NamoTassa Bhagavato Arahato Samma-sambuddhassa

I honour to that Bhagavan, who is Arhat and a fully-enlightened Buddha


The term Bhagavān is found in liturgical practices of Theravada Buddhism, where it is used as an epithet that means the "Blessed One". Examples of such usage is found in Sri Lanka's Bodhi Puja (or Atavisi Buddha Puja, Worship of the Twenty Eight Buddhas).[39]

The word Bhagavan is the most common word for the Buddhist texts to refer to the Buddha. For example, almost every sutra in Buddhist canonical and commentarial texts starts with the line like

Evaṃ me suttaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. (Pali)

evaṃ mayā śrutam | ekasmin samaye bhagavān śrāvastyāṃ viharati sma jetavane'nāthapiṇḍadasyārāme. (Sanskrit)

Thus have I heard - Once the Bhagavan was dwelling in Savatthi, at the Anathpindaka's monastery in Jetavana. (English Translation)


Heliodorus Khamba (pillar) in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Installed about 100 BCE, the pillar's Brahmi-script inscription states that Heliodorus is a Bhagvatena (devotee) of Vishnu.[40]


A word derived from Bhagavan is documented epigraphically from around 100 BCE, such as in the inscriptions of the Heliodorus pillar; in which Heliodorus, an Indo-Greek ambassador from Taxila to the court of a Shunga king, addresses himself as a Bhagvatena (devotee) of Vishnu. ("Heliodorena Bhagavata", Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908-1909)):[41]

This Garuda-standard of Vasudeva (Vishnu), the God of Gods was erected here by the Bhagavatena (devotee) Heliodoros, the son of Dion, a man of Taxila, sent by the Great Greek (Yona) King Antialcidas, as ambassador to King Kasiputra Bhagabhadra, the Savior son of the princess from Benares, in the fourteenth year of his reign."[lower-alpha 2]

Buddhist vase

Sākamunisa bhagavato is recorded in the kharoshthi dedication of a vase placed in a Buddhist stupa by the Greek meridarch (civil governor of a province) named Theodorus:[42]

"Theudorena meridarkhena pratithavida time sarira sakamunisa bhagavato bahu-Jana-stitiye":
"The meridarch Theodorus has enshrined relics of Lord Shakyamuni, for the welfare of the mass of the people"
– (Swāt relic vase inscription of the Meridarkh Theodoros[43])

Brass pillars and stupas

James Prinsep identified several engravings and inscriptions on ancient Buddhist artifacts that include the word Bhagavan and related words. For example,[44]

Bhagawana-sarirahi Sri Tabachitrasa Khamaspada putrasa dana.
"(Casket) containing relics of Bhagwan, the gift of Sri Tabachitra, the son of Khamaspada
– The Tope of Manikyala[44]

See also


  1. vadanti tat tattva-vidas/ tattvam yaj jnanam advayam/ brahmeti paramatmeti/ bhagavan iti sabdyate
  2. Original inscription:
    Devadevasa Va [sude]vasa Garudadhvajo ayam
    karito i[a] Heliodorena bhaga-
    vatena Diyasa putrena Takhasilakena
    Yonadatena agatena maharajasa
    Amtalikitasa upa[m]ta samkasam-rano
    Kasiput[r]asa [Bh]agabhadrasa tratarasa
    vasena [chatu]dasena rajena vadhamanasa"


  1. 1.0 1.1 James Lochtefeld (2000), "Bhagavan", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN:978-0823931798, page 94
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Friedhelm Hardy (1990), The World's Religions: The Religions of Asia, Routledge, ISBN:978-0415058155, pages 79-83
  3. Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 108. 
  4. Friedhelm Hardy (1990), The World's Religions: The Religions of Asia, Routledge, ISBN:978-0415058155, page 84
  5. Sarah Caldwell (1998), Bhagavati, in Devi: Goddesses of India (Editors: John Stratton Hawley, Donna Marie Wulff), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN:978-8120814912, pages 195-198
  6. The latter term preferred by Bhikkhu Bodhi in his English translations of the Pali Canon
  7. Ju-Hyung Rhi (1994), From Bodhisattva to Buddha: The Beginning of Iconic Representation in Buddhist Art, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 54, No. 3/4, pages 207-225
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 John Campbell (2009), Vajra hermeneutics: A study of Vajrayana scholasticism in the "Pradipoddyotana", PhD Thesis accepted by Columbia University (Advisor: Robert Thurman), page 355
    Christian K. Wedemeyer, Aryadeva's Lamp that Integrates the Practices (Caryamelapakapradlpa): The Gradual Path of Vajraydna Buddhism According to the Esoteric Community Noble Tradition, ed. Robert A. F. Thurman, Treasury of the Buddhist Sciences series (New York: The American Institute of Buddhist Studies at Columbia University, 2007), ISBN:978-0975373453
  9. 9.0 9.1 Peter Harvey, Buddhism, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN:978-0826453501, page 4
  10. Macdonell Sanskrit-English dictionary
  11. V.S.Apte (1957). The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia. p. 118. Retrieved 10 December 2014. 
  12. bhaj, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Cologne
  13. Francis Clooney and Tony Stewart, in S Mittal and GR Thursby (Editors): The Hindu World, Routledge, ISBN:0-415215277, pages 163-178
  14. Clooney, Francis; Stewart, Tony (2007). "Chapter Eight: Vaisnava". in Mittal, Sushil. The Hindu world. Routledge worlds. New York: Routledge. pp. 163. ISBN 978-0-415-77227-3. 
  15. Alain Daniélou, The Myths and Gods of India, Princeton/Bollingen Paperbacks, ISBN:978-0892813544, page 36
  16. 16.0 16.1 The Vishnu Purana HH Wilson (Translator)
  17. D Keown (2008), A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, ISBN:978-0192800626, page 31
  18. 18.0 18.1 Alex Wayman (1974), Two Traditions of India: Truth and Silence Philosophy East and West, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Oct., 1974), pages 389-403, for the original verse see footnote 13 on page 402, for Wayman's translation, see page 391
  19. World's Religions. Routledge. 2004-01-14. p. 611. ISBN 9781136851858. 
  20. R.D.Ranade (1926). A Constructive Survey of Upanishadic Philosophy. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 45. 
  21. Ananda Wood (1996), Interpreting the Upanishads, pages 31-32
  22. Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 2, Mundaka Upanishad, Oxford University Press
  23. Vedic, Heritage. "Upanishad history". 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Sanskrit: कलि-सण्टारण उपनिषद् Wikisource;
    English Translation: KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, Madras (1914), Reprinted in 1980 as ISBN:978-0935548006
  25. Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare
    Hare Krishna Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare Hare
  26. Dennis Hudson (2008-09-25). The Body of God. Oxford University Press. pp. 578, 33, 34. ISBN 9780199709021. 
  27. David R.Kinsley (1995). The Sword and the Flute-Kali and Krsna. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 69. ISBN 9788120813151. 
  28. Sri Aurobindo (1992). The Synthesis of Yoga. Lotus Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780941524667. 
  29. GK Marballi (2013), Journey Through The Bhagavad Gita, ISBN:978-1304558480, page 26
  30. Optional Indian History – Ancient India. Upkar Prakashan. p. 65. 
  31. Who is Krishna? "God the person, or Bhagavan"
  32. Bhag-P 1.2.11 "Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this the non-dual "Brahman", "Paramatmān " or "Bhagavān"
  33. Ashish Dalela (December 2008). Vedic Creationism. iUniverse. p. 337. ISBN 9780595525737. 
  34. David J. Kalupahana (1992). A History of Buddhist Philosophy. University of Hawaii Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780824814021. 
  35. Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Routledge. 2013-12-16. p. 94. ISBN 9781136985881. 
  36. John Campbell (2009), Vajra hermeneutics: A study of Vajrayana scholasticism in the "Pradipoddyotana", PhD Thesis accepted by Columbia University (Advisor: Robert Thurman), page 210
  37. English Translation: Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Mahayana Lankavatara Sutra Ohio State University;
    Sanskrit: Lankavatara Sutra Archived original at a Buddhist Library in Russia
  38. Minoru Kiyota (2009), Mahāyāna Buddhist Meditation: Theory and Practice, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN:978-8120807600, pages 274-275
  39. Frank Reynolds and Jason A. Carbine (2000), The Life of Buddhism, University of California Press, ISBN:978-0520223370, pages 179-187
  40. PP Behera, The Pillars of Homage to Lord Jagannatha Orissa Review, June 2004, page 65
  41. John Irvin (1973-1975), Aśokan Pillars: A Reassessment of the Evidence, The Burlington Magazine. v. 115, pages 706-720; v. 116, pages 712-727; v. 117, pages 631-643; v. 118, pages 734-753; OCLC 83369960
  42. The Greeks in Bactria and India, W.W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press, page 391
  43. The Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project University of Washington
  44. 44.0 44.1 James Prinsep and Henry Thoby Prinsep, Essays on Indian Antiquities, p. 107, at Google Books, Volume 1, page 107


  • Thomas Mcevilley (2002). The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Skyhorse Publishing Inc.. ISBN 978-1-58115-203-6. 
  • Baij Nath Puri (1987). Buddhism In Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. ISBN 978-81-208-0372-5. 

Further reading