Religion:Historical Vedic religion

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Map of North India in the late Vedic period. The location of shakhas is labeled in green; the Thar Desert is dark yellow.

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism[note 1]) refers to the religious ideas and practices among Indo-Aryan-speaking peoples of ancient India after about 1500 BCE.[2][3][4] These ideas and practices are found in the Vedic texts, and they were one of the major influences that shaped contemporary Hinduism.[2] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, in the Hindu tradition and particularly in India, the Vedic religion is considered to be a part of Hinduism.[1]

According to Heinrich von Stietencron, in the 19th century western publications, the Vedic religion was believed to be different from and unrelated to Hinduism. The Hindu religion was thought to be linked to the Hindu epics and the Puranas through sects based on Purohita, Tantras and Bhakti. In the 20th-century, a better understanding of the Vedic religion, its shared heritage and theology with contemporary Hinduism, has led scholars to gradually encompass Brahmanism and the Vedic religion into "Hinduism".[5] The Hindu reform movements and the Neo-Vedanta emphasized the Vedic heritage and "ancient Hinduism", and this term has been co-opted by some Hindus.[5] Vedic religion is now generally accepted to be a predecessor of Hinduism, but they are not the same because the textual evidence suggests significant differences between the two.[note 2]

The Vedic religion is described in the Vedas and associated voluminous Vedic literature preserved into the modern times by the different priestly schools.[6] The Vedic religion texts are cerebral, orderly and intellectual, but it is unclear if the theory in diverse Vedic texts actually reflect the folk practices, iconography and other practical aspects of the Vedic religion.[6] The evidence suggests that the Vedic religion evolved in "two superficially contradictory directions", state Jamison and Witzel. One part evolved into ever more "elaborate, expensive, and specialized system of rituals", while another part questioned all of it and emphasized "abstraction and internalization of the principles underlying ritual and cosmic speculation" within oneself. Both of these traditions impacted Indic religions such as Buddhism and Jainism, and in particular Hinduism.[7][8] The complex Vedic rituals of Śrauta continue to be practiced in coastal Andhra.[9]

Some scholars consider the Vedic religion to have been a composite of the religions of the Indo-Aryans, "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian, new Indo-European elements",[10] which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices"[11] from the Bactria–Margiana culture,[11] and the remnants of the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley.[12]


The term Brahmanism is related to the metaphysical concept of Brahman that developed during the Vedic era.[13][14][15] The concept of Brahman is posited as that which existed before the creation of the universe, which constitutes all of existence thereafter, and into which the universe will dissolve into, followed by similar endless creation-maintenance-destruction cycles.[16][17][18]

According to Indologist Jan Heesterman, the terms Vedism and Brahmanism are "somewhat imprecise terms". They refer to ancient forms of Hinduism based on the ideologies found in its early literary corpus.[19] Vedism refers to the oldest version, states Heesterman, and it was older than Brahmanism. Vedism refers to the religious ideas of Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Indus River valley region of the subcontinent, whose religion relied on the Vedic corpus including the early Upanishads.[19] Brahmanism, according to Heesterman, refers to the religion that had expanded to a region stretching from the northwest subcontinent to the Ganges valley.[19] Brahmanism included the Vedic corpus and non-Vedic literature such as the Dharmasutras and Dharmasastras, and was the version of ancient Hinduism that gave prominence to the priestly (Brahmin) class of the society.[19] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Brahmanism refers to both the predominant position of the priests (Brahmans) and the importance given to Absolute reality (Brahman) speculations in the early Upanishads, as these terms are etymologically linked.[2]

Origins and development

The Vedic religion was probably the religion of the Vedic Indo-Aryans,[23][24][note 3] and existed in northern India from c. 1750–500 BCE.[26][note 4] The Indo-Aryans were a branch of the Indo-European language family, which originated in the Sintashta culture and further developed into the Andronovo culture, which in turn developed out of the Kurgan culture of the Central Asian steppes.[29][note 6][note 7] The commonly proposed period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to 2nd millennium BCE.[47]

The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era has been proposed to be closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion,[48][note 8] and shows relations with rituals from the Andronovo culture, from which the Indo-Aryan people descended.[49] According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River (present-day Uzbekistan) and (present-day) Iran.[10] It was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements"[10] which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices"[11] from the Bactria–Margiana Culture (BMAC).[11] This syncretic influence is supported by at least 383 non-Indo-European words that were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma.[50] According to Anthony,

Many of the qualities of Indo-Iranian god of might/victory, Verethraghna, were transferred to the adopted god Indra, who became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture. Indra was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rig Veda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug (perhaps derived from Ephedra) probably borrowed from the BMAC religion. His rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers.[38]

The oldest inscriptions in Old Indic, the language of the Rig Veda, are found not in northwestern India and Pakistan, but in northern Syria, the location of the Mitanni kingdom.[51] The Mitanni kings took Old Indic throne names, and Old Indic technical terms were used for horse-riding and chariot-driving.[51] The Old Indic term r'ta, meaning "cosmic order and truth", the central concept of the Rig Veda, was also employed in the Mitanni kingdom.[51] Old Indic gods, including Indra, were also known in the Mitanni kingdom.[52][53][54]

The Vedic religion of the later Vedic period was consolidated in the Kuru Kingdom,[30] and co-existed with local religions, such as the Yaksha cults,[55][56][web 1] and was itself the product of "a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations".[57] David Gordon White cites three other mainstream scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic religion is partially derived from the Indus Valley Civilization.[12] The religion of the Indo-Aryans was further developed when they migrated into the Ganges Plain after c. 1100 BCE and became settled farmers,[30][58][59] further syncretising with the native cultures of northern India.[55][page needed][note 9]

Textual history

Texts dating to the Vedic period, composed in Vedic Sanskrit, are mainly the four Vedic Samhitas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and some of the older Upanishads (Bṛhadāraṇyaka, Chāndogya, Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana) are also placed in this period. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices. These texts are also considered as a part of the scripture of contemporary Hinduism.[65]



A Śrauta yajna being performed in South India

Specific rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic religion include, among others:[66][verification needed]

  • The Soma rituals, which involved the extraction, utility and consumption of Soma:
    • The Agnistoma or Soma sacrifice
  • Fire rituals involving oblations (havir):
    • The Agnihotra or oblation to Agni, a sun charm
    • The Agnicayana, the sophisticated ritual of piling the fire altar
    • The new and full moon as well as the Seasonal (Cāturmāsya) sacrifices
  • The royal consecration (Rajasuya) sacrifice
  • The Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) or a Yajna dedicated to the glory, wellbeing and prosperity of the kingdom or empire[67]
  • The Purushamedha
  • The rituals and charms referred to in the Atharvaveda are concerned with medicine and healing practices.[68]

The Hindu rites of cremation are seen since the Rigvedic period; while they are attested from early times in the Cemetery H culture, there is a late Rigvedic reference invoking forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)".(RV 10.15.14)


Though a large number of names for devas occur in the Rigveda, only 33 devas are counted, eleven each of earth, space and heaven.[69] The Vedic pantheon knows two classes, Devas and Asuras. The Devas (Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga, Amsa, etc.) are deities of cosmic and social order, from the universe and kingdoms down to the individual. The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities, most notably heroic Indra, Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods, and Soma, the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians.[70] Also prominent is Varuna (often paired with Mitra) and the group of "All-gods", the Vishvadevas.[71]


In the Hindu tradition, the revered sages of this era were Yajnavalkya, Atharvan, Atri, Bharadvaja, Gautama Maharishi, Jamadagni, Kashyapa, Vasistha, Bhrigu, Kutsa, Pulastya, Kratu, Pulaha, Vishwamitra Narayana, Kanva, Rishabha, Vamadeva, and Angiras.

Ethics — satya and rta

Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of satya and ṛta. Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute.[72] Panikkar remarks:

Ṛta is the ultimate foundation of everything; it is "the supreme", although this is not to be understood in a static sense [...] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything...."[73]

The term is also found in the Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples.[74] The term dharma was already used in Brahmanical thought, where it was conceived as an aspect of ṛta.[75]

Post-Vedic religions

The Vedic period is held to have ended around 500 BCE. The period between 800 BCE and 200 BCE is the formative period for later Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.[76][77][page needed][78][page needed][79] According to Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of "ascetic reformism".[80] According to Michaels, the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of "classical Hinduism", since there is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions".[81] Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the "Classical Period", when "traditional religious practices and beliefs were reassessed. The brahmins and the rituals they performed no longer enjoyed the same prestige they had in the Vedic period".[82]

According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation", which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed between 800 BCE and 200 BCE:[78][page needed]

Some scholars consider the term Brahmanism as synonymous with Hinduism and use it interchangeably.[83][84] Others consider them different, and that the transition from ancient Brahmanism into schools of Hinduism that emerged later as a form of evolution, one that preserved many of the central ideas and theosophy in the Vedas, and synergistically integrated new ideas.[85] Of the major traditions that emerged from Brahmanism are the six darshanas, particular the Vedanta, Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hinduism.[86]


Vedic religion was followed by Upanishads which gradually evolved into Vedanta, which is regarded by some as the primary institution of Hinduism. Vedanta considers itself "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas."[87] There are some conservative schools which continue portions of the historical Vedic religion largely unchanged (see Śrauta, Nambudiri).[88]

Of the continuation of the Vedic tradition in a newer sense, Jeaneane D. Fowler writes the following:


According to German Professor Axel Michaels, the Vedic gods declined but did not disappear, and local cults were assimilated into the Vedic-brahmanic pantheon, which changed into the Hindu pantheon. Deities such as Shiva and Vishnu became more prominent and gave rise to Shaivism and Vaishnavism.[90]

Interpretations of Vedic Mantras in Hinduism

The various Hindu schools and traditions give various interpretations of the Vedic hymns.

Mīmāṃsā philosophers argue that there was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a god to validate the rituals.[91] Mīmāṃsā argues that the gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. To that regard, the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of gods.[92]

Adi Shankara, an 8th-century CE philosopher who unified and established the main currents of thought in Hinduism,[93] interpreted Vedas as being nondualist or monist.[94] However, the Arya Samaj New religious movement holds the view that the Vedic mantras tend to monotheism.[95] Even the earlier Mandalas of Rig Veda (books 1 and 9) contains hymns which are thought to resemble monotheism.[96] Often quoted isolated pada 1.164.46 of the Rig Veda states (trans. Griffith):

Indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo gharutmān,
ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānamāhuḥ
"They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garutmān.
To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan".

Moreover, the verses of 10.129 and 10.130, deal with the one being (Ékam sát). The verse 10.129.7 further confirms this (trans. Griffith):

iyám vísṛṣṭiḥ yátaḥ ābabhūva / yádi vā dadhé yádi vā ná / yáḥ asya ádhyakṣaḥ paramé vyóman / sáḥ aṅgá veda yádi vā ná véda
"He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not, He who surveys it all from his highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps even he does not"

Sramana tradition

The non-Vedic śramaṇa traditions existed alongside Brahmanism.[97][98][note 10][note 11][note 12] These were not direct outgrowths of Vedism, but movements with mutual influences with Brahmanical traditions,[97] reflecting "the cosmology and anthropology of a much older, pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India".[99] Jainism and Buddhism evolved out of the Shramana tradition.[100]

There are Jaina references to 22 prehistoric tirthankaras. In this view, Jainism peaked at the time of Mahavira (traditionally put in the 6th Century BCE).[101][102] Buddhism, traditionally put from c. 500 BCE, declined in India over the 5th to 12th centuries in favor of Puranic Hinduism[103] and Islam.[104][105]

See also


  1. Scholars such as Jan Gonda have used the term ancient Hinduism, distinguishing it from "recent Hinduism". These terms are chronologically differentiated. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica from the Vedic religion emerged Brahmanism, a religious tradition of ancient India. It states, "Brahmanism emphasized the rites performed by, and the status of, the Brahman, or priestly, class as well as speculation about Brahman (the Absolute reality) as theorized in the Upanishads (speculative philosophical texts that are considered to be part of the Vedas, or scriptures)."[1]
  2. Stephanie W. Jamison and Michael Witzel, Vedic Hinduism, 1992, "... to call this period Vedic Hinduism is a contradictio in terminis since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu religion – at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from medieval and modern Christian religion. However, Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism".[6]
  3. Michaels: "They called themselves arya ("Aryans," literally "the hospitable," from the Vedic arya, "homey, the hospitable") but even in the Rgveda, arya denotes a cultural and linguistic boundary and not only a racial one."[25]
  4. There is no exact dating possible for the beginning of the Vedic period. Witzel mentions a range between 1900 and 1400 BCE.[27] Flood mentions 1500 BCE.[28]
  5. The Aryan migration theory has been challenged by some researchers,[25][33] due to a lack of archaeological evidence and signs of cultural continuity,[25] hypothesizing instead a slow process of acculturation[25] or transformation.[31] Nevertheless, linguistic and archaeological data clearly show a cultural change after 1750 BCE,[25] with the linguistic and religious data clearly showing links with Indo-European languages and religion.[34] According to Singh, "The dominant view is that the Indo-Aryans came to the subcontinent as immigrants."[33]
  6. The Indo-Aryans were pastoralists[30] who migrated into north-western India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization,[25][31][32][note 5] bringing with them their language[35] and religion.[36][37] They were closely related to the Indo-Aryans who founded Mitanni kingdom in northern Syria[38] (c.1500–1300 BCE). Both groups were rooted in the Andronovo-culture[39] in the Bactria-Margiana era, in present northern Afghanistan,[38] and related to the Indo-Iranians, from which they split-off around 1800–1600 BCE.[40] Their roots go back further to the Sintashta culture, with funeral sacrifices which show close parallels to the sacrificial funeral rites of the Rig Veda.[41]
    The immigrations consisted probably of small groups of people.[29] Jonathan Mark Kenoyer notes that "there is no archaeological or biological evidence for invasions or mass migrations into the Indus Valley between the end of the Harappan phase, about 1900 B.C. and the beginning of the Early Historic period around 600 B.C."[42]

    For an overview of the current relevant research, see:
    • Michael Witzel (2001), "Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts", in Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS) 7-3, pp 1-93
    • Shereen Ratnagar (2008), “The Aryan homeland debate in India”, in Kohl, PL, M Kozelsky and N Ben-Yehuda (Eds) Selective remembrances: archaeology in the construction, commemoration, and consecration of national pasts, pp 349-378
    • Suraj Bhan (2002), “Aryanization of the Indus Civilization” in Panikkar, KN, Byres, TJ and Patnaik, U (Eds), The Making of History, pp 41-55.
    • Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press 
  7. Some writers and archaeologists have opposed the notion of a migration of Indo-Aryans into India.[43][44] Edwin Bryant used the term "Indo-Aryan Controversy" for an oversight of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory, and some of its opponents.[45] These ideas are outside the academic mainstream. Mallory and Adams note that two types of models "enjoy significant international currency," namely the Anatolian hypothesis, and a migration out of the Eurasian steppes.[46] According to Upinder Singh, "The original homeland of the Indo-Europeans and Indo-Aryans is the subject of continuing debate among philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, and others. The dominant view is that the Indo-Aryams came to the subcontinent as immigrants. Another view, advocated mainly by some Indian scholars, is that they were indigenous to the subcontinent."[33]

    An overview of the "Indigenist position" can be obtained from
    * Bryant, Edwin F.; Patton, Laurie L., eds. (2005), The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and inference in Indian history, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1463-4 

    See also Indigenous Aryans
  8. See Kuzʹmina (2007), The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, p.339, for an overview of publications up to 1997 on this subject.
  9. Up to the late 19th century, the Nuristanis of Afghanistan observed a primitive form of Hinduism until they were forcibly converted to Islam under the rule of Abdur Rahman Khan.[60][61][62] However, aspects of the historical Vedic religion survived in other corners of the Indian subcontinent, such as Kerala, where the Nambudiri Brahmins continue the ancient Śrauta rituals. The Kalash people residing in northwest Pakistan also continue to practice a form of ancient Hinduism.[63][64]
  10. Cromwell: "Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic culture with its roots going back to prehistoric times."[97]
  11. Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN:81-208-0815-0 Page 18. "There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to Vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to [sic] the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times."
  12. P.S. Jaini, (1979), The Jaina Path to Purification, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, p. 169 "Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions, moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-Vedic character of Jaina cosmology, soul theory, karmic doctrine and atheism"


  1. 1.0 1.1 Brahmanism, Encyclopedia Britannica
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Vedic religion, Encyclopedia Britannica
  3. Bruce M. Sullivan (2001). The A to Z of Hinduism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8108-4070-6. 
  4. Samuel 2010, pp. 97-99, 113-118.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Stietencron 2005, pp. 231-237 with footnotes.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Jamison, Stephanie; Witzel, Michael (1992). "Vedic Hinduism". Harvard University. pp. 2–4. 
  7. Jamison, Stephanie; Witzel, Michael (1992). "Vedic Hinduism". Harvard University. pp. 1–5, 47–52, 74–77 with footnotes. 
  8. Geoffrey Samuel. The Origins of Yoga and Tantra: Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge University. p. 113. 
  9. Knipe 2015, p. 1-50.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Anthony 2007, p. 462.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Beckwith 2009, p. 32.
  12. 12.0 12.1 White, David Gordon (2003). Kiss of the Yogini. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 28. ISBN 0-226-89483-5. 
  13. Jacques Maritain (2005). An Introduction to Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 6–7 with footnote 1. ISBN 978-0-7425-5053-7. , Quote: "This [the primitive religion of the Vedas] resulted, after a period of confusion, in the formation of a new system, Brahmanism (or Hinduism), which is essentially a philosophy, a metaphysic, a work of human speculation, [...]; footnote 1: "[...] the neuter, Brahman, as the one impersonal substance."
  14. Oliver Leaman (2002). Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings. Routledge. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-1-134-68918-7. , Quote: "The early Upanishads are primarily metaphysical treatises concerned with identifying the Brahman, the ground of the universe. [...] The essence of early Brahmanism is the search for the Absolute and its natural development is in Vedantin monism which claims that the soul is identical with the Absolute."
  15. Madeleine Biardeau (1994). Hinduism, the anthropology of a civilization. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–22. 
  16. Monier Monier-Williams (1891). Brāhmanism and Hindūism: Or, Religious Thought and Life in India, as Based on the Veda and Other Sacred Books of the Hindūs. J. Murray. pp. 2–3. 
  17. For the metaphysical concept of Brahman, see: Julius Lipner (2012). Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Routledge. pp. 251–252, 283, 366–369. ISBN 978-1-135-24061-5. ;
    Roy W. Perrett (1998). Hindu Ethics: A Philosophical Study. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-0-8248-2085-5. ;
    Bruce M. Sullivan (2001). The A to Z of Hinduism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 137. ISBN 978-0-8108-4070-6. 
  18. James Lochtefeld, Brahman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN:978-0823931798, page 122
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Jan Heesterman (2005). Lindsay Jones. ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd Edition. 14. Macmillan Reference. pp. 9552–9553. ISBN 0-02-865733-0. 
  20. Kenneth Kramer (January 1986). World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religions. Paulist Press. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-8091-2781-8. 
  21. David Christian (1 September 2011). Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. University of California Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-520-95067-2. 
  22. Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. 
  23. Kuz'mina 2007, p. 319.
  24. Singh 2008, p. 185.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 Michaels 2004, p. 33.
  26. Michaels 2004, p. 32-36.
  27. Witzel 1995, p. 3-4.
  28. Flood 1996, p. 21.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Anthony 2007.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Witzel 1995.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Flood 1996, p. 30-35.
  32. Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 5.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Singh 2008, p. 186.
  34. Flood 1996, p. 33.
  35. Samuel 2010, p. 53-56.
  36. Flood 1996, p. 30.
  37. Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 5-7.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 Anthony 2007, p. 454.
  39. Anthony 2007, p. 410-411.
  40. Anthony 2007, p. 408.
  41. Anthony 2007, p. 375, 408-411.
  42. Kenoyer, M., 1998. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, p. 174. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  43. Bryant 2001.
  44. Bryant, Edwin. 2001. The Indo-Aryan Controversy, p. 342
  45. Bryant 2005.
  46. Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 460-461.
  47. Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The History of India. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 60. 
  48. Roger D. Woodard (18 August 2006). Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult. University of Illinois Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-252-09295-4. 
  49. Kus'mina 2007, p. 319.
  50. Anthony 2007, p. 454-455.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Anthony 2007, p. 49.
  52. Anthony 2007, p. 50.
  53. Flood 2008, p. 68.
  54. Melton & Baumann 2010, p. 1412.
  55. 55.0 55.1 Samuel 2010.
  56. Basham 1989, p. 74-75.
  57. White 2006, p. 28.
  58. Samuel 2010, p. 48-51, 61-93.
  59. Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 8-10.
  60. Minahan, James B. (2014) (in English). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 205. ISBN 9781610690188. "Living in the high mountain valleys, the Nuristani retained their ancient culture and their religion, a form of ancient Hinduism with many customs and rituals developed locally. Certain deities were revered only by one tribe or community, but one deity was universally worshipped by all Nuristani as the Creator, the Hindu god Yama Raja, called imr'o or imra by the Nuristani tribes." 
  61. Barrington, Nicholas; Kendrick, Joseph T.; Schlagintweit, Reinhard (18 April 2006) (in English). A Passage to Nuristan: Exploring the Mysterious Afghan Hinterland. I.B. Tauris. p. 111. ISBN 9781845111755. "Prominent sites include Hadda, near Jalalabad, but Buddhism never seems to have penetrated the remote valleys of Nuristan, where the people continued to practice an early form of polytheistic Hinduism." 
  62. Weiss, Mitch; Maurer, Kevin (31 December 2012) (in English). No Way Out: A Story of Valor in the Mountains of Afghanistan. Berkley Caliber. p. 299. ISBN 9780425253403. "Up until the late nineteenth century, many Nuristanis practiced a primitive form of Hinduism. It was the last area in Afghanistan to convert to Islam—and the conversion was accomplished by the sword." 
  63. West, Barbara A. (19 May 2010) (in English). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 357. ISBN 9781438119137. "The Kalasha are a unique people living in just three valleys near Chitral, Pakistan, the capital of North-West Frontier Province, which borders Afghanistan. Unlike their neighbors in the Hindu Kush Mountains on both the Afghani and Pakistani sides of the border the Kalasha have not converted to Islam. During the mid-20th century a few Kalasha villages in Pakistan were forcibly converted to this dominant religion, but the people fought the conversion and once official pressure was removed the vast majority continued to practice their own religion. Their religion is a form of Hinduism that recognizes many gods and spirits ... given their Indo-Aryan language, ... the religion of the Kalasha is much more closely aligned to the Hinduism of their Indian neighbors that to the religion of Alexander the Great and his armies." 
  64. Bezhan, Frud (19 April 2017). "Pakistan's Forgotten Pagans Get Their Due" (in English). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 31 July 2017. "About half of the Kalash practice a form of ancient Hinduism infused with old pagan and animist beliefs." 
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