From HandWiki
Brooklyn, New York
United States

scite is a citation database designed to assist students and researchers in discovering and understanding research.[1][2][3] It is a subscription-based service that aims to allow users to see how and why a research article, researcher, or key topic has been cited by showing the citation's context from citing articles. scite contains over 1.1 billion citation statements extracted and analyzed from over 31 million full-text research articles.[4] It is similar in approach to Shepard's Citations, but works on research articles and preprints.


scite was conceived in 2014 by Josh Nicholson and Yuri Lazebnik as a response to growing concerns around the reproducibility of scientific research.[5] They sought to make it easier to see if a research article has been supported or contrasted in the literature by subsequent studies. Nicholson, with a PhD in cell biology from Virginia Tech,[6] previously founded The Winnower and briefly served as CEO of Authorea, two companies aimed at helping researchers publish and collaborate, and Lazebnik had been a professor at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.[7]

The concept behind scite was previously discussed by Eugene Garfield in 1964, where he discussed "citation markers," suggesting linguistic markers like "critique" or "data spurious" could appear in the citation index along with the usual citation data.[8] Other groups have also previously built tools to look at such citation context,[9] and various groups have performed smaller scale citation classifications.[10]


scite was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant from the US National Science Foundation in 2019 for $225,000.[11]


scite won the ALPSP Award for Innovation in Publishing in 2019, [12] the ISMTE People's choice award for most innovative idea in 2019, [13] and was runner up for the Vesalius Innovation Award in 2020.[14]



scite works with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, University of Hong Kong, and Toulouse School of Management, to provide students and researchers with the citation tool.


scite works with publishers and societies, including Wiley, the American Chemical Society, the Royal Society, the National Academy of Sciences, SAGE Publishing, ArXiv, and many others to extract and analyze citation statements from research articles and display "Smart Citations" directly on the article page.[15][16][17][18][19] scite also runs an automated Twitter bot that notifies users when an article cites a retracted study, post-retraction.[20][21]


  1. "scite: A smart citation index that displays the context of citations and classifies their intent using deep learning" (in en). Quantitative Science Studies 2 (3): 882–898. 2021-11-05. doi:10.1162/qss_a_00146. ISSN 2641-3337. 
  2. "scite: The next generation of citations" (in en). Learned Publishing 34 (3): 454–456. July 2021. doi:10.1002/leap.1379. ISSN 0953-1513. 
  3. "Smart(er) Citations" (in en). Matter 4 (3): 756–758. March 2021. doi:10.1016/j.matt.2021.02.007. 
  4. Brody, Stacy (2021-11-22). "Scite". Journal of the Medical Library Association 109 (4): 707–710. doi:10.5195/jmla.2021.1331. ISSN 1558-9439. PMID 34858110. PMC 8608186. 
  5. "The R-Factor: A Measure of Scientific Veracity" (in en). The Winnower. 2014. doi:10.15200/winn.140832.20404. ISSN 2373-146X. 
  6. Nicholson, Joshua Miles (2015-06-17) (in en). The effects of chromosome number changes on mitotic fidelity and karyotype stability. 
  7. "Prof. Yuri Lazebnik" (in en). 
  8. "Can Citation Indexing Be Automated?". Statistical Association Methods for Mechanized Documentation, Symposium Proceedings, Washington 1964. 1964. 
  9. "Colil: a database and search service for citation contexts in the life sciences domain". Journal of Biomedical Semantics 6 (1): 38. December 2015. doi:10.1186/s13326-015-0037-x. PMID 26500753. 
  10. "A survey on sentiment analysis of scientific citations" (in en). Artificial Intelligence Review 52 (3): 1805–1838. October 2019. doi:10.1007/s10462-017-9597-8. ISSN 0269-2821. 
  11. "NSF Award Search: Award # 1913619 - SBIR Phase I: scite: A deep learning platform to identify confirming and refuting citations" (in en). 
  12. "ALPSP Awards Past Winners". 
  13. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in en). 
  14. "Vesalius Innovation Award - Karger Publishers". 
  15. "Utilizing Smart Citations to Improve Scholarly Publishing" (in en-US). 
  16. "The American Chemical Society and scite Partner on the development of Smart Citations" (in en). 
  17. (in en) The Royal Society and scite Sign Indexing Agreement and Launch Smart Citations on Royal Society…. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173908.s001. Retrieved 2022-09-28. 
  18. "scite and SAGE Publishing Sign Indexing Agreement to Increase Discoverability and Reproducibility Through Smart Citations" (in en-US). 
  19. Null (May 5, 2022). The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and scite Partner to Launch Smart Citations. 
  20. "New bot flags scientific studies that cite retracted papers" (in en). 2 February 2021. 
  21. "Great citations: how to avoid referencing questionable evidence". 2022-07-21.