Asymmetric graph

From HandWiki
Short description: Undirected graph with no non-trivial symmetries
The eight 6-vertex asymmetric graphs
The Frucht graph, one of the five smallest asymmetric cubic graphs.
Graph families defined by their automorphisms
distance-transitive distance-regular strongly regular
symmetric (arc-transitive) t-transitive, t ≥ 2 skew-symmetric
(if connected)
vertex- and edge-transitive
edge-transitive and regular edge-transitive
vertex-transitive regular (if bipartite)
Cayley graph zero-symmetric asymmetric

In graph theory, a branch of mathematics, an undirected graph is called an asymmetric graph if it has no nontrivial symmetries.

Formally, an automorphism of a graph is a permutation p of its vertices with the property that any two vertices u and v are adjacent if and only if p(u) and p(v) are adjacent. The identity mapping of a graph onto itself is always an automorphism, and is called the trivial automorphism of the graph. An asymmetric graph is a graph for which there are no other automorphisms.


The smallest asymmetric non-trivial graphs have 6 vertices.[1] The smallest asymmetric regular graphs have ten vertices; there exist ten-vertex asymmetric graphs that are 4-regular and 5-regular.[2]Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag


The smallest asymmetric tree has seven vertices: it consists of three paths of lengths 1, 2, and 3, linked at a common endpoint.[3] In contrast to the situation for graphs, almost all trees are symmetric. In particular, if a tree is chosen uniformly at random among all trees on n labeled nodes, then with probability tending to 1 as n increases, the tree will contain some two leaves adjacent to the same node and will have symmetries exchanging these two leaves.[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named er63
  2. Baron, G.; Imrich, W. (1969), "Asymmetrische reguläre Graphen", Acta Mathematica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 20: 135–142, doi:10.1007/BF01894574 .
  3. Quintas, Louis V. (1967), "Extrema concerning asymmetric graphs", Journal of Combinatorial Theory 3 (1): 57–82, doi:10.1016/S0021-9800(67)80018-8 .