Earth:Unitary state

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Short description: State governed as a single unit with a supreme central government
  Unitary states

A unitary state is a state governed as a single entity in which the central government is the supreme authority. The central government may create (or abolish) administrative divisions (sub-national units).[1] Such units exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to regional or local governments by statute, the central government may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail (or expand) their powers.

Unitary states stand in contrast with federations, also known as federal states. A large majority of the world's sovereign states (166 of the 193 UN member states) have a unitary system of government.[2]

Devolution compared with federalism

A unitary system of government can be considered the opposite of federalism. In federations, the provincial/regional governments share powers with the central government as equal actors through a written constitution, to which the consent of both is required to make amendments. This means that the sub-national units have a right of existence and powers that cannot be unilaterally changed by the central government.[3]

There are, however, similarities between federalism and devolution. Devolution within a unitary state, like federalism, may be symmetrical, with all sub-national units having the same powers and status, or asymmetric, with sub-national units varying in their powers and status. Many unitary states have no areas possessing a degree of autonomy.[4] In such countries, sub-national regions cannot decide their own laws. Examples are Romania, Ireland and Norway . Svalbard has even less autonomy than the mainland. It is directly controlled by the government and has no local rule.

The pathway of regional integration or separation

List of unitary republics and unitary kingdoms

Italics: States with limited recognition from other sovereign states or intergovernmental organizations.

Unitary republics

  •  Albania
  •  Algeria[1]
  •  Angola
  •  Armenia
  •  Azerbaijan
  •  Bangladesh[1]
  •  Barbados[5]
  •  Belarus
  •  Benin
  •  Bolivia
  •  Botswana
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Burkina Faso
  •  Burundi
  •  Cameroon
  •  People's Republic of China
  • Template:Country data Republic of China (Taiwan)[6]
  •  Cape Verde
  •  Central African Republic
  •  Chad
  •  Chile
  •  Colombia
  •  Democratic Republic of the Congo[1]
  •  Republic of the Congo
  •  Costa Rica
  •  Croatia
  •  Cuba
  •  Cyprus
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Djibouti
  •  Dominica
  •  Dominican Republic
  •  East Timor
  •  Ecuador
  •  Egypt
  •  El Salvador
  •  Equatorial Guinea
  •  Eritrea
  •  Estonia
  •  Fiji
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Gabon
  •  Gambia
  •  Georgia
  •  Ghana
  •  Greece
  •  Guatemala[1]
  •  Guinea
  •  Guinea-Bissau
  •  Guyana
  •  Haiti[1]
  •  Honduras
  •  Hungary
  •  Iceland[1]
  •  Indonesia[1]
  •  Iran
  •  Ireland
  •  Israel
  •  Italy[1]
  •  Ivory Coast
  •  Kazakhstan[1]
  •  Kenya[1]
  •  Kiribati
  •  South Korea
  •  Sri Lanka
  •  Kosovo (limited recognition)
  •  Kyrgyzstan
  •  Laos
  •  Latvia
  •  Lebanon
  •  Liberia
  •  Libya
  •  Lithuania
  •  Madagascar
  •  Malawi
  •  Maldives
  •  Mali
  •  Malta
  •  Marshall Islands
  •  Mauritania
  •  Mauritius
  •  Moldova
  •  Mongolia
  •  Montenegro
  •  Mozambique
  •  Myanmar
  •  Namibia
  •  Nauru
  •  Nicaragua
  •  Niger
  •  North Korea
  •  North Macedonia
  •  Palau
  •  Palestine
  •  Panama
  •  Paraguay
  •  Peru
  •  Philippines[1]
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania
  •  Rwanda
  •  Samoa
  •  San Marino
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe
  •  Senegal
  •  Serbia
  •  Seychelles
  •  Sierra Leone
  •  Singapore
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Somaliland (not recognised)
  •  South Africa
  •  Suriname
  •  Syria
  •  Tajikistan
  •  Tanzania
  •  Togo
  •  Transnistria
  •  Trinidad and Tobago
  •  Tunisia
  •  Turkey
  •  Turkmenistan
  •  Uganda[1]
  •  Ukraine
  •  Uruguay
  •  Uzbekistan
  •  Vanuatu
  •  Vietnam
  •  Yemen
  •  Zambia
  •  Zimbabwe


Unitary monarchies

The United Kingdom is an example of a unitary state. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have a degree of autonomous devolved power, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution. Similarly in Spain , the devolved powers are delegated through the central government.

  • Template:Country data Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (non-monarchical emirate, not recognized)
  •  Andorra
  •  Antigua and Barbuda
  •  Bahrain
  • Template:Country data British Ceylon
  •  The Bahamas
  •  Belize
  •  Bhutan
  •  Brunei
  •  Cambodia
  •  Denmark[1]
  •  Eswatini
  •  Grenada
  •  Jamaica
  •  Japan[1]
  •  Jordan
  •  Kuwait
  •  Lesotho
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Monaco
  •  Morocco[1]
  •  Netherlands
  •  New Zealand[7]
  •  Norway
  •  Oman
  •  Papua New Guinea[3]
  •  Qatar
  •  Saint Lucia
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  •  Saudi Arabia
  •  Solomon Islands
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden
  •  Thailand
  •  Tonga
  •  Tuvalu
  •  United Kingdom[8][1]
  •   Vatican City


See also

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 "What is a Unitary State?". August 2017. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-a-unitary-state.html. 
  2. "Democracy". 2015-11-20. http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/democracy/index.html. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ghai, Yash; Regan, Anthony J. (September 2006). "Unitary state, devolution, autonomy, secession: State building and nation building in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea". The Round Table 95 (386): 589–608. doi:10.1080/00358530600931178. ISSN 0035-8533. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar//handle/123456789/21028. 
  4. "unitary system | government". Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/unitary-system. Retrieved 2017-08-11. 
  5. Faulconbridge, Guy; Ellsworth, Brian (2021-11-30). "Barbados ditches Britain's Queen Elizabeth to become a republic" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/prince-charles-travels-barbados-celebrate-creation-republic-2021-11-29/. 
  6. See also Political status of Taiwan, Chinese Taipei, One China and Taiwan, China.
  7. "Story: Nation and government – From colony to nation". The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 29 August 2013. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/nation-and-government/page-2. Retrieved 19 April 2014. 
  8. "Social policy in the UK". An introduction to Social Policy. Robert Gordon University – Aberdeen Business School. http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm.