International Phonetic Alphabet chart

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Short description: Phonetic symbol chart

The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association. This article is not a complete list of all possible speech sounds in the world's languages, but is used as a page for internal navigation within Wikipedia.

Official chart

The official IPA chart, revised to 2020

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded

Consonants

Pulmonic consonants

Non-pulmonic consonants

Co-articulated consonants

t͡p
d͡b
Labial–alveolar
Labial–velar
ɧ
Sj-sound (variable)
Labial–velar
Velarized alveolar
Nasal approximant
Palatal
Labial–velar
Glottal

Other consonants

  • Nasal palatal approximant [j̃]
  • Nasal labial–velar approximant [w̃]
  • Voiceless nasal glottal approximant [h̃]
  • Voiceless bilabially post-trilled dental stop [t̪ʙ̥]
  • Voiceless bidental fricative [h̪͆]

Tones

Tone registers
◌̋ ˥ Extra-high (top)
◌́ ˦ High
◌̄ ˧ Mid
◌̀ ˨ Low
◌̏ ˩ Extra-low (bottom)
ꜜ◌ Downstep
ꜛ◌ Upstep
Tone contours
◌̌ ˩˥ ꜖꜒ Rising (low to high)
◌̂ ˥˩ ꜒꜖ Falling (high to low)
◌᷄ ˧˥ ꜔꜒ High rising
˨˦ ꜕꜓ Mid rising
◌᷅ ˩˧ ꜖꜔ Low rising
◌᷇ ˥˧ ꜒꜔ High falling
˦˨ ꜓꜕ Mid falling
◌᷆ ˧˩ ꜔꜖ Low falling
◌᷈ ˧˥˨, ˨˦˨, ˩˧˩ ꜔꜒꜕, ꜕꜓꜕, ꜖꜔꜖ Rising–falling (Peaking)
◌᷉ ˥˧˥, ˦˨˦, ˧˩˧ ꜒꜔꜒, ꜓꜕꜓, ꜔꜖꜔ Falling–rising (Dipping)

Auxiliary symbols

Diacritics
◌̥ ◌̊ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ ◌͆ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
◌ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ ◌͗ ◌˒ More rounded ◌ʷ Labialized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ ◌͑ ◌˓ Less rounded ◌ʲ Palatalized ◌ⁿ Nasal release
◌̟ ◌˖ Advanced ◌ˠ Velarized ◌ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ ◌˗ Retracted ◌ˤ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ◌ᵊ Mid central vowel release
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ ◌˔ Raised ◌ᶿ Voiceless dental fricative release
◌̩ ◌̍ Syllabic ◌̞ ◌˕ Lowered ◌ˣ Voiceless velar fricative release
◌̯ ◌̑ Non-syllabic ◌̘ ◌꭪ Advanced tongue root ◌ʼ Ejective
◌˞ Rhoticity ◌̙ ◌꭫ Retracted tongue root ◌͡◌
◌͜◌
Affricate or double articulation
Suprasegmentals
ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra-short
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
↗︎ Global rise
↘︎ Global fall
Transcription
[ ] Phonetic transcription
/ / Phonemic transcription
{ } Prosodic notation
( ) Indistinguishable utterance
⸨ ⸩ Sound obscured

See also

  • IPA vowel chart with audio
  • IPA pulmonic consonant chart with audio
  • International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects
  • Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet

External links