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Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, as well as to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks." It was founded in 1971 by American writer Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of books or individual stories in the public domain. All files can be accessed for free under an open format layout, available on almost any computer. (As of October 2015), Project Gutenberg had reached 50,000 items in its collection of free eBooks.
The releases are available in plain text as well as other formats, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, and Plucker wherever possible. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that provide additional content, including region- and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts.
Project Gutenberg is named after Johannes Gutenberg, who introduced book printing with movable type in Europe.
Michael S. Hart began Project Gutenberg in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence. Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a virtually unlimited amount of computer time; its value at that time has since been variously estimated at $100,000 or $100,000,000. Hart explained he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something one could consider to be of great value. His initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge by the end of the 20th century.
On July 4, 1971, after being inspired by a free printed copy of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, he decided to type the text into a computer, and to transmit it to other users on the computer network.
- — Gregory B. Newby
This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed one day the general public would be able to access computers and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free. He used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, and this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project for Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution.
By the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort. He manually entered all of the text until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more available, making book scanning more feasible. Hart later came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenberg's finances. As the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the project's day-to-day operations that Hart had run.
Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role (1994–2004), the Project web pages won a number of awards, often being featured in "best of the Web" listings, contributing to the project's popularity.
Starting in 2004, an improved online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse, access and hyperlink. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois, at the age of 64.
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In December 2003, a DVD was created containing nearly 10,000 items. At the time, this represented almost the entire collection. In early 2004, the DVD also became available by mail.
In July 2007, a new edition of the DVD was released containing over 17,000 books, and in April 2010, a dual-layer DVD was released, containing nearly 30,000 items.
The majority of the DVDs, and all of the CDs mailed by the project, were recorded on recordable media by volunteers. However, the new dual layer DVDs were manufactured, as it proved more economical than having volunteers burn them. (As of October 2010), the project has mailed approximately 40,000 discs. As of 2017, the delivery of free CDs has been discontinued, though the ISO image is still available for download.
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(As of August 2015), Project Gutenberg claimed over Template:Num PG books items in its collection, with an average of over 50 new e-books being added each week. These are primarily works of literature from the Western cultural tradition. In addition to literature such as novels, poetry, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg also has cookbooks, reference works and issues of periodicals. The Project Gutenberg collection also has a few non-text items such as audio files and music-notation files.
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The selection of works (and editions) available has been determined by popularity, ease of scanning, being out of copyright, and other factors; this would be difficult to avoid in any crowd-sourced project.
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Hart, Michael S.. United States Declaration of Independence by United States. Project Gutenberg. https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
"The Declaration of Independence of the United States of America by Thomas Jefferson" is the bold heading of the linked webpage twelve years later (6 June 2019). No author but Jefferson is identified, nor is Hart otherwise named. Officially this is Project Gutenberg Ebook #1 (assigned December 1993?), or the current index to multiple formats of the same.
What Ebook #1 actually contains is heavily annotated re-release of the first two e-texts that were released in December 1971 (as by Michael S. Hart?). For more information, open the HTML format, for instance, and search for "December" or "Michael".
- Hart, Michael S. (23 October 2004). "Gutenberg Mission Statement by Michael Hart". Project Gutenberg. https://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:Project_Gutenberg_Mission_Statement_by_Michael_Hart.
- Thomas, Jeffrey (20 July 2007). "Project Gutenberg Digital Library Seeks To Spur Literacy". US Department of State, Bureau of International Information Programs. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2007/July/200707201511311CJsamohT0.6146356.html.
- "Project Gutenberg Releases eBook #50,000". Project Gutenberg News. 25 February 2017. http://www.gutenbergnews.org/20151003/project-gutenberg-releases-ebook-50000/.
- "Hobbes' Internet Timeline". http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/.
- Hart, Michael S. (August 1992). "Gutenberg:The History and Philosophy of Project Gutenberg". https://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:The_History_and_Philosophy_of_Project_Gutenberg_by_Michael_Hart.
- Day, B. H.; Wortman, W. A. (2000). Literature in English: A Guide for Librarians in the Digital Age. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. p. 170. ISBN 0-8389-8081-3. https://archive.org/details/literatureinengl00dayb/page/170.
- "Obituary for Michael Stern Hart". https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Obituary_for_Michael_Stern_Hart.
- Vara, Vauhini (5 December 2005). "Project Gutenberg Fears No Google". The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB113415403113218620.
- "Gutenberg:Credits". Project Gutenberg. 8 June 2006. https://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:Credits.
- "Michael_S._Hart". Project Gutenberg. 6 September 2011. https://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Michael_S._Hart.
- "The CD and DVD Project". Gutenberg. 24 July 2012. https://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:The_CD_and_DVD_Project.
- According to gutindex-2006 , there were 1,653 new Project Gutenberg items posted in the first 33 weeks of 2006. This averages out to 50.09 per week. This does not include additions to affiliated projects.
- For a listing of the categorized books, see: "Category:Bookshelf". Project Gutenberg. 28 April 2007. https://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Category:Bookshelf.
- "Project Gutenberg Sheet Music | Manchester-by-the-Sea Public Library". Manchesterpl.org. http://www.manchesterpl.org/music/project-gutenberg-sheet-music/.
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- "The Project Gutenberg Weekly Newsletter". Project Gutenberg. 10 December 2003. http://www.gutenbergnews.org/nl_archives/2003/pgweekly_2003_12_10_part_2.txt.
- Perry, Ruth (2007). "Postscript about the Public Libraries". Modern Language Association. http://www.mla.org/resources/documents/rep_primaryrecords/repview_records/primary_records10.
- Lorenzen, Michael (2002). "Deconstructing the Philanthropic Library: The Sociological Reasons Behind Andrew Carnegie's Millions to Libraries". Modern Language Association. http://www.michaellorenzen.com/carnegie.html.
- Walker, Joseph (30 November 2013). Information Technology and Collection Management for Library User Environments. ISBN 9781466647404. https://books.google.com/books?id=H-ZGAwAAQBAJ&q=information+technology+and+collection+management+for+library+user+environments&pg=PR15.
- Pegoraro, Rob (30 November 2010). "Amazon charges Kindle users for free Project Gutenberg e-books". The Washington Post. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/fasterforward/2010/11/amazon_charges_kindle_users_fo.html.
- "Court Order to Block Access in Germany". Project Gutenberg Library Archive Foundation. https://cand.pglaf.org/germany/index.html.
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- "Lawsuit is Settled". https://cand.pglaf.org/germany/index.html.
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- Boumphrey, Frank (July 2000). "European Literature and Project Gutenberg". Cultivate Interactive. http://www.cultivate-int.org/issue1/gutenberg/.
- Partick Lucas Austin (20 June 2017). "Standard eBooks is a Gutenberg Project You'll Actually Use". LifeHacker.com. https://lifehacker.com/standard-ebooks-is-a-gutenberg-project-you-ll-actually-1796273390.
- Michael Sperberg-McQueen, "Textual Criticism and the Text Encoding Initiative", 1994, "Textual Criticism and the Text Encoding Initiative". http://xml.coverpages.org/sperb-mla94.html. , retrieved 25 July 2015.
- Hoffmann, Sebastian (2005). Grammaticalization And English Complex Prepositions: A Corpus-based Study (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36049-8. OCLC 156424479.
- Executive director of the World eBook Library.
- Hane, Paula (2004). "Project Gutenberg Progresses". Information Today 21 (5). http://www.infotoday.com/it/may04/hane1.shtml. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation". https://www.pglaf.org/.
- "INDEX". http://gutenberg.net/.
- Schwencke, Ken; Tigas, Mike; Wei, Sisi; Glassford, Alec; Suozzo, Andrea; Roberts, Brandon (9 May 2013). "Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation Inc Tr" (in en). ProPublica. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/646221541.
- Stroube, Bryan (September 2003). "Literary freedom". XRDS: Crossroads, the ACM Magazine for Students 10 (1): 3. doi:10.1145/973381.973384. ISSN 1528-4972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/973381.973384.
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- Newby, Gregory B.. "Curriculum Vitae". https://petascale.org/vita.html. "Greg Newby’s Personal Pages www.supercomputing.guru & www.petascale.org"
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- Mölders, Nicole; Morton, Don; Newby, Greg; Stevens, Eric; Stuefer, Martin (2008). "Nowcasting and Forecasting Alaskan Weather". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89 (4): 515–519. doi:10.1175/BAMS-89-4-515. ISSN 0003-0007. Bibcode: 2008BAMS...89..515M. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26216803.
- "Penguin Computing Supplies PACMAN Supercomputer to University of Alaska Fairbanks". 25 May 2011. https://www.penguincomputing.com/company/press-releases/penguin-computing-supplies-pacman-supercomputer-to-university-of-alaska-fairbanks/.
- "Project Gutenberg Consortia Center". 2004. http://www.gutenberg.us/.
- "Partners, Sister Projects, Affiliates and Resources" (in en). https://www.gutenberg.org/about/partners_affiliates.html.
- "The Distributed Proofreaders Foundation". Distributed proofreaders. August 2007. http://www.pgdp.net/c/faq/dpf.php.
- "Gutenberg:Partners, Affiliates and Resources". Project Gutenberg. 17 July 2007. https://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:Partners,_Affiliates_and_Resources.
- "Project Gutenberg of Australia". 24 January 2007. http://gutenberg.net.au/.
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