Religion:Doctor of the Church

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Short description: Title given by the Catholic Church to saints
Isidore of Seville, a seventh-century Doctor of the Church, depicted by Murillo (c. 1628) with a book, which is a common iconographical attribute for a doctor
Hildegard von Bingen was an eleventh-century Doctor of the Church, depicted by Marshall with a book, the common iconographical attribute for a doctor

Doctor of the Church (Latin: doctor "teacher"), also referred to as Doctor of the Universal Church (Latin: Doctor Ecclesiae Universalis), is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints recognized as having made a significant contribution to theology or doctrine through their research, study, or writing.[1]

(As of 2023), the Catholic Church has named 37 Doctors of the Church. Of these, the 18 who died before the Great Schism of 1054 are also held in high esteem by the Eastern Orthodox Church, although it does not use the formal title "Doctor of the Church".

Among the 37 recognised Doctors, 28 are from the West and nine from the East; four are women and thirty-three are men; one abbess, three nuns, one tertiary associated with a religious order; 19 bishops, twelve priests, one deacon; 27 from Europe, three from Africa, and seven from Asia. More Doctors (twelve) lived in the fourth century than any other; eminent Christian writers of the first, second, and third centuries are usually referred to as the Ante-Nicene Fathers. The shortest period between death and nomination was that of Alphonsus Liguori, who died in 1787 and was named a Doctor in 1871 – a period of 84 years; the longest was that of Irenaeus, which took more than eighteen centuries.

Some other churches have similar categories with various names.

Before the 16th century

In the Western church four outstanding "Fathers of the Church" attained this honour in the early Middle Ages: Gregory the Great, Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, and Jerome. The "four Doctors" became a commonplace notion among scholastic theologians, and a decree of Boniface VIII (1298) ordering their feasts to be kept as doubles throughout the Latin Church is contained in his sixth book of Decretals (cap. "Gloriosus", de relique. et vener. sanctorum, in Sexto, III, 22).[2]

In the Byzantine Church, three Doctors were pre-eminent: John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nazianzus. The feasts of these three saints were made obligatory throughout the Eastern Empire by Leo VI the Wise. A common feast was later instituted in their honour on 30 January, called "the feast of the three Hierarchs". In the Menaea for that day it is related that the three Doctors appeared in a dream to John Mauropous, Bishop of Euchaita, and commanded him to institute a festival in their honour, in order to put a stop to the rivalries of their votaries and panegyrists.[2]

This was under Alexius Comnenus (1081–1118; see "Acta SS.", 14 June, under St. Basil, c. xxxviii). But sermons for the feast are attributed in manuscripts to Cosmas Vestitor, who flourished in the tenth century. The three are as common in Eastern art as the four are in Western. Durandus (i, 3) remarks that Doctors should be represented with books in their hands. In the West analogy led to the veneration of four Eastern Doctors, Athanasius of Alexandria being added to the three hierarchs.[2]

Catholic Church

The Four Great Doctors of the Western Church were often depicted in art, here by Pier Francesco Sacchi, c. 1516. From the left: Saint Augustine, Pope Gregory I, Saint Jerome, and Saint Ambrose, with their attributes.

The details of the title, Doctor of the Church, vary from one autonomous ritual church to another.

Latin Church

In the Latin Church, the four Latin Doctors "had already long been recognized" in the liturgy when the four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Athanasius of Alexandria were recognized in 1568 by Pope Pius V.

To these names others have subsequently been added. The requisite conditions are enumerated as three: eminens doctrina, insignis vitae sanctitas, Ecclesiae declaratio (i.e. eminent learning, a high degree of sanctity, and proclamation by the church). Benedict XIV explains the third as a declaration by the supreme pontiff or by a general council.[citation needed] But though general councils have acclaimed the writings of certain Doctors, no council has actually conferred the title of Doctor of the Church. The procedure involved extending to the Catholic Church the use of the Divine Office and Mass of the saint in which the title of doctor is applied to him.

The decree is issued by the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints and approved by the pope, after a careful examination, if necessary, of the saint's writings. It is not in any way an ex cathedra decision, nor does it even amount to a declaration that no error is to be found in the teaching of the Doctor. It is, indeed, well known that the very greatest of them are not wholly immune from error. Formally no martyrs were on the list, since the Office and the Mass had been for Confessors. Hence, as Benedict XIV pointed out during his pontificate, Ignatius of Antioch, Irenaeus of Lyons, and Cyprian of Carthage were not called Doctors of the Church.[citation needed] This changed in 2022 when Pope Francis declared Irenaeus of Lyons the first martyred Doctor.

The Doctors' works vary greatly in subject and form. Augustine of Hippo was one of the most prolific writers in Christian antiquity and wrote in almost every genre. Some, such as Pope Gregory the Great and Ambrose of Milan, were prominent writers of letters. Pope Leo the Great, Pope Gregory the Great, Peter Chrysologus, Bernard of Clairvaux, Anthony of Padua and Lawrence of Brindisi left many homilies. Catherine of Siena, Teresa of Ávila, John of the Cross and Thérèse de Lisieux wrote works of mystical theology. Athanasius of Alexandria and Robert Bellarmine defended the church against heresy. Bede the Venerable wrote biblical commentaries and theological treatises. Systematic theologians include the Scholastic philosophers Anselm of Canterbury, Albert the Great, and Thomas Aquinas.

In the 1920 encyclical Spiritus Paraclitus, Pope Benedict XV refers to Jerome as the church's "Greatest Doctor".[3]

Until 1970, no woman had been named a Doctor of the Church. Since then four additions to the list have been women: Teresa of Ávila (also known as Saint Teresa of Jesus) and Catherine of Siena by Pope Paul VI; Thérèse de Lisieux[4] (also known as Saint Therese of the Child Jesus and of the Holy Face), "the Little Flower" by Pope John Paul II; and Hildegard of Bingen by Benedict XVI. Teresa and Thérèse were both Discalced Carmelites, Catherine was a Dominican, and Hildegard was a Benedictine nun.

Traditionally, in the Liturgy, the Office of Doctors was distinguished from that of Confessors by two changes: the Gospel reading Vos estis sal terrae ("You are the salt of the earth"), Matthew 5:13–19, and the eighth Respond at Matins, from Ecclesiasticus 15:5, In medio Ecclesiae aperuit os ejus, * Et implevit eum Deus spiritu sapientiae et intellectus. * Jucunditatem et exsultationem thesaurizavit super eum. ("In the midst of the Church he opened his mouth, * And God filled him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding. * He heaped upon him a treasure of joy and gladness.") The Nicene Creed was also recited at Mass, which is normally not said except on Sundays and the highest-ranking feast days. The 1962 revisions to the Missal dropped the Creed from feasts of Doctors and abolished the title and the Common of Confessors, instituting a distinct Common of Doctors.

On 20 August 2011, Pope Benedict XVI announced that he would soon declare John of Ávila a Doctor of the Church.[5] Although no official announcement was given, it was reported in December 2011 that Pope Benedict intended to declare Hildegard of Bingen as a Doctor of the Church despite her not yet having been formally canonized by the papacy.[6] Hildegard of Bingen was officially declared to be a saint of the Catholic Church by Pope Benedict XVI on 10 May 2012, clearing the way for her to be named a Doctor of the Church.[7] Pope Benedict formally declared John of Ávila and Hildegard of Bingen to be Doctors of the Church on 7 October 2012.[8]

Pope Francis declared the 10th century Armenian monk Gregory of Narek to be the 36th Doctor of the Church on 21 February 2015.[9] The decision was somewhat controversial. According to critics of Pope Francis' decision, Gregory was a monk of the Armenian Apostolic Church, which, like other Oriental Orthodox Churches, split off from the rest of Christendom over the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD. Therefore, Gregory is seen by some as a Monophysite who was in union with neither Catholic nor Eastern Orthodox Christians at the time of his death in 1003.

The Oriental Orthodox churches, among which the Armenian Apostolic Church is numbered, are Miaphysites; however, defenders of the decision have cited historical evidence that Narek Monastery, where Gregory lived and died, was a center of opposition to Monophysitism from inside the Armenian Church[dubious ]. It is also cited that Gregory of Narek was prior to the move by Pope Francis listed in the Roman Martyrology with a feast day of February 27 and that members of the Armenian Catholic Church have always had a strong devotion to him and his writings.

It was not until 25 January 2021 that the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments decreed the insertion into the Roman Rite liturgical books of the three Doctors declared by Benedict XVI, along with Gregory of Narek, more recently declared by Pope Francis.

In October 2019, the Polish Catholic Bishops Conference formally petitioned Pope Francis to consider making Pope John Paul II a Doctor of the Church in an official proclamation, in recognition of his contributions to theology, philosophy, and Catholic literature, as well as the formal documents (encyclicals, apostolic letters, bulls, motu proprio documents, homilies, and speeches) that he issued.[10] The Archbishop of San Salvador, El Salvador has petitioned Pope Francis to name St Oscar Romero, martyred in 1980 while he was archbishop there, who held a doctorate and was a reliably orthodox figure even as he grew to advocate for the plight of his people during the civil war there, as a Doctor of the Church.[11]

List of Doctors

(For earlier authorities on Christian doctrine, see Church Fathers and Ante-Nicene Fathers) * indicates a saint who is also held in high esteem by the Eastern Orthodox Church.

No. Image Name Titles Born Died Promoted Activity Notable writings
1. Gregorythegreat.jpg Gregory the Great* One of the four Great Latin Fathers 540 (c.) 604 1298 Pope, O.S.B. Dialogues, Libellus responsionum, Pastoral Care, Moralia in Job
2. Claude Vignon - Saint Ambrose - 68.43 - Minneapolis Institute of Arts.jpg Ambrose* One of the four Great Latin Fathers 340 (c.) 397 1298 Bishop of Milan Ambrosian hymns, Exameron, De obitu Theodosii
3. Saint Augustine Portrait.jpg Augustine of Hippo* One of the four Great Latin Fathers; Doctor gratiae
(Doctor of Grace)
354 430 1298 Bishop of Hippo (now Annaba) De doctrina Christiana, Confessions, The City of God, On the Trinity
4. File:Jusepe de Ribera - Saint Jerome - 1961.219 - Cleveland Museum of Art.tiff Jerome* One of the four Great Latin Fathers 347 (c.) 420 1298 Priest, monk Vulgate, De Viris Illustribus
5. Polittico del 1476, s. tommaso d'aquino.jpg Thomas Aquinas Doctor angelicus
(Angelic Doctor);
Doctor communis
(Common Doctor)
1225 1274 1567 Priest, Theologian, O.P. Summa Theologiae, Summa contra Gentiles
6. Hosios Loukas (nave, south east conch) - John Chrysostom - detail.jpg John Chrysostom* One of the four Great Greek Fathers 347 407 1568 Archbishop of Constantinople Paschal Homily, Adversus Judaeos
7. Basil of Caesarea.jpg Basil the Great* One of the four Great Greek Fathers 330 379 1568 Bishop of Caesarea Address to Young Men on Greek Literature, On the Holy Spirit
8. Gregory of Nazianzus.jpg Gregory of Nazianzus* One of the four Great Greek Fathers 329 389 1568 Archbishop of Constantinople On God and Christ: The Five Theological Orations and Two Letters to Cledonius
9. Ikone Athanasius von Alexandria.jpg Athanasius* One of the four Great Greek Fathers 298 373 1568 Archbishop of Alexandria Letters to Serapion
10. François, Claude (dit Frère Luc) - Saint Bonaventure.jpg Bonaventure Doctor seraphicus
(Seraphic Doctor)
1221 1274 1588 Cardinal Bishop of Albano, Theologian, Minister General, O.F.M. Commentary on the Sentences of Lombard, The Mind's Road to God, Collationes in Hexaemeron
11. Littlemore.jpg Anselm of Canterbury Doctor magnificus
(Magnificent Doctor);
Doctor Marianus
(Marian Doctor)
1033 or 1034 1109 1720 Archbishop of Canterbury, O.S.B. Proslogion, Cur Deus Homo
12. Isidor von Sevilla.jpeg Isidore of Seville* 560 636 1722 Archbishop of Seville Etymologiae, On the Catholic Faith against the Jews
13. Saint Peter Chrysologus.jpg Peter Chrysologus* 406 450 1729 Bishop of Ravenna Homilies
14. Herrera mozo San León magno Lienzo. Óvalo. 164 x 105 cm. Museo del Prado.png Leo the Great*[12] Doctor unitatis Ecclesiae
(Doctor of the Church's Unity)
400 461 1754 Pope Leo's Tome
15. Pierodamiani2.JPG Peter Damian 1007 1072 1828 Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, monk, O.S.B. De Divina Omnipotentia, Liber Gomorrhianus
16. Saint Bernard Philippe de Champaigne (d'après) Saint Etienne du Mont.jpg Bernard of Clairvaux Doctor mellifluus
(Mellifluous Doctor)
1090 1153 1830 Priest, O.Cist. Sermones super Cantica Canticorum, Apologia ad Guillelmum, Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae
17. Saint-Romain (Côte-d’Or) Église Vitrail 738.jpg Hilary of Poitiers* Doctor divinitatem Christi
(Doctor of the Divinity of Christ)
300 367 1851 Bishop of Poitiers Commentarius in Evangelium Matthaei
18. St Alphonsus Liguori.jpg Alphonsus Liguori Doctor zelantissimus
(Most Zealous Doctor)
1696 1787 1871 Bishop of Sant'Agata de' Goti, C.Ss.R. (Founder) The Glories of Mary, Moral Theology
19. Giovanni Battista Lucini - St Francis de Sales.jpg Francis de Sales Doctor caritatis
(Doctor of Charity)
1567 1622 1877 Bishop of Geneva, C.O. Introduction to the Devout Life, Letters of Spiritual Direction
20. Icon St. Cyril of Alexandria.jpg Cyril of Alexandria* Doctor Incarnationis
(Doctor of the Incarnation)
376 444 1883 Archbishop of Alexandria Commentaries on the Old Testament, Thesaurus, Discourse Against Arians, Dialogues on the Trinity
21. Saint Cyril of Jerusalem.jpg Cyril of Jerusalem* 315 386 1883 Archbishop of Jerusalem Catechetical Lectures, Summa doctrinae christianae
22. Ioann Damaskin ikona.jpg John Damascene* 676 749 1890 Priest, monk Fountain of Knowledge, Octoechos
23. The Venerable Bede translates John 1902.jpg Bede the Venerable* Anglorum doctor
(Doctor of the English)[13]
672 735 1899 Priest, monk, O.S.B. Ecclesiastical History of the English People, The Reckoning of Time, Liber epigrammatum, Paenitentiale Bedae
24. Ephrem miniature 16c.jpg Ephrem*[14] 306 373 1920 Deacon Commentary on the Diatessaron, Prayer of Saint Ephrem, Hymns Against Heresies
25. Saint Petrus Canisius.jpg Peter Canisius 1521 1597 1925 Priest, S.J. A Summary of Christian Teachings
26. Zurbarán (atribuido)-John of the Cross-1656.jpg John of the Cross Doctor mysticus
(Mystical Doctor)
1542 1591 1926 Priest, mystic, O.C.D. (Reformer) Spiritual Canticle, Dark Night of the Soul, Ascent of Mount Carmel
27. Saint Robert Bellarmine.png Robert Bellarmine 1542 1621 1931 Archbishop of Capua, Cardinal, Theologian, S.J. Disputationes de Controversiis
28. Tommaso da modena, ritratti di domenicani (vescovo) 1352 150cm, treviso, ex convento di san niccolò, sala del capitolo.jpg Albertus Magnus[15] Doctor universalis
(Universal Doctor)
1193 1280 1931 Bishop of Regensburg, Theologian, O.P. On Cleaving to God, On Fate
29. Gaspar de Crayer - St Anthony of Padua with the Child Jesus.jpg Anthony of Padua Doctor evangelicus
(Evangelical Doctor)
1195 1231 1946 Priest, O.F.M. Sermons for Feast Days
30. San Lorenzo da Brindisi.jpg Lawrence of Brindisi Doctor apostolicus
(Apostolic Doctor)
1559 1619 1959 Priest, Diplomat, O.F.M. Cap. Mariale
31. Teresa de Jesús (cropped).jpg Teresa of Ávila[16] Doctor orationis
(Doctor of Prayer)
1515 1582 1970 Mystic, O.C.D. (Reformer) La Vida de la Santa Madre Teresa de Jesús, The Way of Perfection, The Interior Castle
32. Catherine of Siena.jpg Catherine of Siena 1347 1380 1970 Mystic, O.P. (Third Order Dominican) The Dialogue of Divine Providence
33. Teresa-de-Lisieux.jpg Thérèse of Lisieux Doctor Fiduciae
(Doctor of Confidence)
1873 1897 1997 O.C.D. (Nun) The Story of a Soul
34. Pierre Hubert Subleyras (1699-1749) - San Juan de Ávila (c.1499–1569) - 1959P43 - Birmingham Museums Trust.jpg John of Ávila 1500 1569 2012 Priest, Mystic Audi, filia; Spiritual Letters
35. Hildegard von Bingen. Line engraving by W. Marshall. Wellcome V0002761.jpg Hildegard of Bingen 1098 1179 2012 Visionary, theologian, polymath, composer, abbess O.S.B., physician, philosopher Scivias, Liber Vitae Meritorum, Liber Divinorum Operum, Ordo Virtutum,
36. Saint Gregory Of Narek.jpg Gregory of Narek[17] 951 1003 2015 Monk, poet, mystical philosopher, theologian Book of Lamentations
37. San Ireneo, vitral (cropped).jpg Irenaeus of Lyon*[18] Doctor unitatis
(Doctor of Unity)[19]
130 202 2022 Bishop, theologian, Martyr Proof of the Apostolic Preaching, Against Heresies

Other recognised Doctors

In addition, parts of the Catholic Church have recognised other individuals with this title. In Spain , Fulgentius of Cartagena,[20] Ildephonsus of Toledo[21] and Leander of Seville have been recognized with this title.[22][self-published source?] In 2007 Pope Benedict XVI, in his encyclical Spe Salvi, called Maximus the Confessor "the great Greek Doctor of the Church",[23] though the Congregation for the Causes of Saints considers this declaration an informal one.[24]

Scholastic epithets

Though not named Doctors of the Church or even canonized, many of the more celebrated doctors of theology and law of the Middle Ages were given an epithet which expressed the nature of their expertise. Among these are Bl. John Duns Scotus, Doctor subtilis (Subtle Doctor); Bl. Ramon Llull, Doctor illuminatus (Illuminated Doctor); Bl. John of Ruysbroeck, Doctor divinus ecstaticus (Ecstatic Doctor); Alexander of Hales, Doctor irrefragabilis (Unanswerable Doctor); Roger Bacon, "Doctor Mirabilis" (Wondrous Doctor); Gregory of Rimini, Doctor authenticus (Authentic Doctor); Jean Gerson, Doctor christianissimus (Most Christian Doctor); Nicholas of Cusa, Doctor christianus (Christian Doctor); and the priest and professor Francisco Suárez, Doctor eximius (Exceptional Doctor). In this same line are the Latin epithets assigned to various Doctors of the Church from the Middle Ages onwards, some displaying more enthusiasm than clarity.[citation needed]

Syro-Malabar Catholic Church

The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church recognises Ambrose, Jerome, Gregory, Augustine, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus and John Chrysostom, as well as Ephrem the Syrian, Isaac the Elder, Pope Leo I, John of Damascus, Cyril of Alexandria, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius of Salamis and Gregory of Nyssa.[25][26][27]

Chaldean Catholic Church

The Chaldean Catholic Church honours as doctor Polycarp, Eustathius of Antioch, Meletius, Alexander of Jerusalem, Athanasius, Basil, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom, Fravitta of Constantinople, Ephrem the Syrian, Jacob of Nisibis, Jacob of Serugh, Isaac of Armenia, Isaac of Nineveh, and Maruthas of Martyropolis.[28][29][30][31]

Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church honors many of the pre-schism saints as well, but the term "Doctor of the Church" is not applied in the same way. One consistent use of the category is the trio of Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus and John Chrysostom, recognized as universal teachers and known as the Three Holy Hierarchs.[32] The church also recognizes three saints with the title Theologos (Theologian): John the Evangelist, Gregory of Nazianzus and Symeon the New Theologian.[33]

Russian Orthodox Church

Russian Orthodox Church commemorates on 19 July feast of Three Holy Russian Hierarchs: Demetrius of Rostov, Mitrophan of Voronezh and Tikhon of Zadonsk.[34]

Armenian Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church recognizes the Twelve Holy Teachers (Vardapets) of the Church

They also recognize their own saints Mesrob, Yeghishe, Movses Khorenatsi, David the Invincible, Gregory of Narek,[37] Nerses III the Builder, and Nerses of Lambron as "Doctors of the Armenian Church" or the "Armenian Doctors."[38][39]

Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East recognizes Yeghishe, Diodorus of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Nestorius as Doctors of the Church.[40]


The churches of the Anglican Communion tend not to use the term "Doctor of the Church" in their calendars of saints, preferring expressions such as Teacher of the Faith. Those thus recognized include figures from before and after the Reformation, most of whom are chosen among those already recognized as in the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. Those designated as Teachers of the Faith in the Church of England's calendar of saints are as follows:

Since all of the above appear in the calendar at the level of Lesser Festival or Commemoration, their celebration is optional. Similarly, because "In the Calendar of the Saints, diocesan and other local provision may be made to supplement the national Calendar",[41] those Doctors of the Church recognized by the Catholic Church may also be celebrated in the Church of England.


The Lutheran calendar of saints does not use the term "Doctor of the Church." The calendar of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod refers to Martin Luther by the title of "Doctor" in recognition of his academic degree, Doctor of Theology from the University of Wittenberg in 1512.

See also

  • Fathers of the Church


  1. Rice, Fr. Larry (2015). "Doctors of the Church?". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Doctors of the Church". 
  3. "Spiritus Paraclitus (September 15, 1920) | BENEDICT XV". 
  4. "St. Therese, Doctor of the Universal Church – Saint Therese of Lisieux". 
  5. "Pope to proclaim St John of Avila Doctor of the Universal Church". Holy See. 20 August 2011.Ávila-doctor-of-the-univ. 
  6. "Pope to Canonize and Name Hildegard of Bingen as Doctor of the Church". 
  7. "ROME REPORTS TV News Agency". 
  8. "Pope : Two new Doctors of the Church". 
  9. "San Gregorio di Narek Dottore della Chiesa Universale, 23.02.2015" (in it). Holy See Press Office. 23 February 2015. 
  10. "Polish bishops call for John Paul II to be named a doctor of the Church". 
  11. "Salvadoran archbishop asks pope to make Romero 'doctor of the church'". 20 March 2019. 
  12. St. Leo the Great, pope and doctor of the church
  13. William of Malmesbury, Gesta pontificum Anglorum 1.29 Hamilton, N.E.S.A. (1870) (in la). Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum libri quinque. London: Longman. p. 44. 
  14. "Encyclical of Pope Benedict XV on St. Ephrem the Syrian". October 5, 1920. 
  15. Führer, Markus (March 20, 2006). "Albert the Great (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". 
  16. "Proclamation of Saint Teresa of Avila Doctor of the Church". September 27, 1970. 
  17. McCarthy, Emer. "Pope Francis declares Armenian saint Doctor of the Church". Vatican Radio. 
  18. CNA. "Pope Francis to declare St. Irenaeus a Doctor of the Church" (in en). 
  19. Francis, Pope (21 January 2022). "Decree of the Holy Father for the conferral of the title of Doctor of the Church on Saint Irenaeus of Lyon". The Vatican Press Agency. 
  21. Bennett, Janice (1 June 2005). Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo : New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin. Ignatius Press. ISBN 9781586171117. 
  22. Starr, Brian (24 May 2014). Daily Devotional Saint or Trivia. ISBN 9781312220249. [self-published source]
  23. Benedict XVI (2007). "Spe Salvi". 
  24. Prot. Num. VAR. 7479/14.
  25. Major, Tom (12 May 2012). "Major's Saint of the Day: May 12 -- Feast of Saints Epiphanius and Dominic de la Calzada". 
  26. Stramara, Daniel F. (1 April 2012). Praying--with the Saints--to God Our Mother. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 9781610974912. 
  27. "THE 33 DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH, by Fr Christopher Rengers". 
  28. "Marutha of Maypherqat - ܡܪܘܬܐ ܕܡܝܦܪܩܛ (d. 420 or 421)". 
  29. Stramara, Daniel F. (1 April 2012). Praying—with the Saints—to God Our Mother. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 9781621893653. 
  30. Filoni, Fernando (7 June 2019). The Church in Iraq. CUA Press. ISBN 9780813229652. 
  31. Pudichery, A. Sylvester (7 June 1972). "Ramsa: An Analysis and Interpretation of the Chaldean Vespers". Dharmaram College. 
  32. "Feast of the Three Holy Fathers, Great Hierarchs and Ecumenical Teachers, Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom". 
  33. Casiday, Augustine (2012). The Orthodox Christian world. New York: Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-203-11938-9. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  34. "СОБОР ТРЕХ РУССКИХ СВЯТИТЕЛЕЙ - Древо" (in ru). 
  35. "Saints and Feasts". 
  36. "E-Sunday Bulletin of St. Sarkis Armenian Apostolic Church". 
  37. Watkins, Basil (19 November 2015). The Book of Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9780567664150. 
  38. "Movses Dasxurants'i, History of the Aghuans, Armenian History, Caucasus History, Aghuan History, Iranian History, Atrpatakan, Azerbaijan, Dasxurantsi, Caucasian Albania, Ancient, Medieval, Armenia, Persia, Iran". 
  39. Visit to the Armenian Apostolic Patriarchate and meeting with His Beatitude Patriarch Mesrob II, Greeting of the Holy Father Address of Pope Benedict XVI.,30 November 2006, on the website (pdf). Access date 18 March 2021.
  40. Baumer, Christoph (5 September 2016). The Church of the East: An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781838609344. 
  41. Common Worship (Main Volume), p. 530.

Further reading

  • Holweck, F. G., A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co., 1924.

External links