Turned A

From HandWiki
Short description: Letter of the Latin Alphabet and an IPA sample

Turned A (capital: , lowercase: ɐ, math symbol ) is a letter and symbol based upon the letter A.

Modern usage

Historical usage

It was used in the 18th century by Edward Lhuyd and William Pryce as a phonetic character for the Cornish language. In their books, both and ɐ have been used.[3] It was used in the 19th century by Charles Sanders Peirce as a logical symbol for 'un-American' ("unamerican").[4]

According to the principle of acrophony, the letter A originated from the Proto-Sinatic alphabet as a symbol representing the head of an ox or cow (aleph), its orientation and original meaning having been lost over time. The turned A symbol restores the letter to a more easily recognizable logographic representation of an ox's head.[5]

U+1D44 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL TURNED A is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet.[6]


Character information
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Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 11375 0 0 0 U+2C6F 592 0 0 0 U+0250 8704 0 0 0 U+2200
UTF-8 226 177 175 0 0 0 E2 B1 AF 00 00 00 201 144 0 0 0 C9 90 00 00 00 226 136 128 0 0 0 E2 88 80 00 00 00
Numeric character reference Ɐ��� Ɐ��� ɐ��� ɐ��� ∀��� ∀���
Named character reference ∀
Symbol font 34 22
TeX \forall

See also


  1. Gibbon, Dafydd; Richard Winski, Roger Moore (1997). "Table A.19: IPA Table (ordered by number) (continued)". Handbook of Standards and Resources for Spoken Language Systems. Walter de Gruyter. p. 679. ISBN 9783110153668. https://books.google.com/books?id=0ElXJGBO79YC&pg=PA679. 
  2. Miller, Jeff. "Earliest Uses of Symbols of Set Theory and Logic". Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. http://jeff560.tripod.com/set.html. 
  3. Michael Everson, Proposal to add Latin letters and a Greek symbol to the UCS, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3122 L2/06-266 (2006)
  4. Page 320 in Randall Dipert, "Peirce's deductive logic". In Cheryl Misak, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Peirce. 2004
  5. Jensen, Hans (1969). Sign, Symbol, and Script. New York: G.P. Putman's Sons. p. 262. ISBN 9780044000211. 
  6. Everson, Michael (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS". https://www.unicode.org/L2/L2002/02141-n2419-uralic-phonetic.pdf.