|Part of||buccopharyngeal fascia|
|Origin||pterygoid hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate|
|Insertion||mylohyoid line of the mandible|
The pterygomandibular raphe (pterygomandibular ligament) is a ligamentous band of the buccopharyngeal fascia. It is attached superiorly to the pterygoid hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate, and inferiorly to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line of the mandible. It connects the buccinator muscle in front to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle behind.
The pterygomandibular raphe is a ligament that forms from the buccopharyngeal fascia. It is a paired structure, with one on each side of the mouth. Superiorly, it is attached to the pterygoid hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone. Inferiorly, it is attached to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line of the mandible.
- Its medial surface is covered by the mucous membrane of the mouth.
- Its lateral surface is separated from the ramus of the mandible by a quantity of adipose tissue.
- Its posterior border gives attachment to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle.
- Its anterior border attaches to the posterior edge of the buccinator muscle.
In foetuses, the pterygomandibular raphe is always very prominent. However, in adults, it may become less distinctive. It is very large and distinctive in around 36% adults. It is fairly small, and only an upper triangular portion visible, in around 36% of adults. It is not visible in around 28%, making the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the buccinator muscle continuous. This may vary by ethnic group.
The pterygomandibular ligament was first noted in 1784.
- Rao, D.; Sandhu, S.J.S.; Ormsby, C.; Natter, P.; Haymes, D.; Cohen, I.; Jenson, M. (2017-04-01). "Review of the Pterygomandibular Raphe". Neurographics 7 (2): 121–125. doi:10.3174/ng.2170196. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asnr/ng/2017/00000007/00000002/art00006#.
- Shimada, Kazuyuki; Gasser, Raymond F. (1989). "Morphology of the pterygomandibular raphe in human fetuses and adults" (in en). The Anatomical Record 224 (1): 117–122. doi:10.1002/ar.1092240115. ISSN 1097-0185. PMID 2729614. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ar.1092240115.
- Brown, Elizabeth C; Jugé, Lauriane; Knapman, Fiona L; Burke, Peter G R; Ngiam, Joachim; Sutherland, Kate; Butler, Jane E; Eckert, Danny J et al. (2021-04-01). "Mandibular advancement splint response is associated with the pterygomandibular raphe". Sleep 44 (4). doi:10.1093/sleep/zsaa222. ISSN 0161-8105. PMID 33146716.
- "Anatomy diagram: 05287.011-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2013-04-22. https://web.archive.org/web/20130422112902/http://www.tk.de/rochelexikon/pics/s05287.011-1.html.
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterygomandibular raphe. Read more