From HandWiki
Short description
Class of fungi

Temporal range: Barremian–present
AD2009Sep20 Amanita muscaria 02.jpg
Amanita muscaria (Agaricales)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Subdivision: Agaricomycotina
Class: Agaricomycetes
Doweld (2001)[1]


Agaricales (32 fam., 410+ gen.)
Amylocorticiales (1 fam., 14 gen.)
Atheliales (1 fam., 22 gen.)
Boletales (16 fam., 95+ gen.)
Jaapiales (1 fam., 1 gen.)
Lepidostromatales (1 fam., 3 gen.)


Geastrales (1 fam., 8 gen.)
Gomphales (3 fam., 18 gen.)
Hysterangiales (5 fam., 18 gen.)
Phallales (2 fam., 26 gen.)

incertae sedis (no subclass)

Auriculariales (6–7 fam., 30+ gen.)
Cantharellales (7 fam., 39 gen.)
Corticiales (3 fam., 30+ gen.)
Gloeophyllales (1 fam., 7 gen.)
Hymenochaetales (3 fam., 50+ gen.)
Polyporales (9 fam., ~200 gen.)
Russulales (12 fam., 80+ gen.)
Sebacinales (1 fam., 8 gen.)
Stereopsidales (1 fam., 2 gen.)
Thelephorales (2 fam., 18 gen.)
Trechisporales (1 fam., 15 gen.)

The Agaricomycetes are a class of fungi in the division Basidiomycota. The taxon is roughly identical to that defined for the Homobasidiomycetes (alternatively called holobasidiomycetes) by Hibbett & Thorn,[2] with the inclusion of Auriculariales and Sebacinales. It includes not only mushroom-forming fungi, but also most species placed in the deprecated taxa Gasteromycetes and Homobasidiomycetes.[3] Within the subdivision Agaricomycotina, which already excludes the smut and rust fungi, the Agaricomycetes can be further defined by the exclusion of the classes Tremellomycetes and Dacrymycetes, which are generally considered to be jelly fungi. However, a few former "jelly fungi", such as Auricularia, are classified in the Agaricomycetes. According to a 2008 estimate, Agaricomycetes include 17 orders, 100 families, 1147 genera, and about 21000 species.[4] Modern molecular phylogenetic analyses have been since used to help define several new orders in the Agaricomycetes: Amylocorticiales, Jaapiales,[5] Stereopsidales,[6] and Lepidostromatales.[7]


Although morphology of the mushroom or fruit body (basidiocarp) was the basis of early classification of the Agaricomycetes,[8] this is no longer the case. As an example, the distinction between the Gasteromycetes (including puffballs) and Agaricomycetes (most other agaric mushrooms) is no longer recognized as a natural one—various puffball species have apparently evolved independently from agaricomycete fungi. However, most mushroom guide books still group the puffballs or gasteroid forms separate from other mushrooms because the older Friesian classification is still convenient for categorizing fruit body forms. Similarly, modern classifications divide the gasteroid order Lycoperdales between Agaricales and Phallales.


All members of the class produce basidiocarps which range in size from tiny cups a few millimeters across to a giant polypore (Phellinus ellipsoideus) greater than several meters across and weigh up to 500 kilograms (1,100 lb).[9] The group also includes what are arguably the largest and oldest individual organisms on earth: the mycelium of one individual Armillaria gallica has been estimated to extend over 150,000 square metres (37 acres) with a mass of 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) and an age of 1,500 years.[10]


Nearly all species are terrestrial (a few are aquatic), occurring in a wide range of environments where most function as decayers, especially of wood. However, some species are pathogenic or parasitic, and yet others are symbiotic (i.e., mutualistic), these including the important ectomycorrhizal symbionts of forest trees. General discussions on the forms and life cycles of these fungi are developed in the article on mushrooms, in the treatments of the various orders (links in table at right), and in individual species accounts.


A study of 5,284 species with a backbone phylogeny based on 104 genomes[11] has suggested the following dates of evolution:

Agaricomycetidae ~185 million years ago (174 million years ago192 million years ago)
Cantharellales 184 million years ago  (144 million years ago261 million years ago)
Agaricales 173 million years ago  (160 million years ago-182 million years ago)
Hymenochaetales 167 million years ago (130 million years ago180 million years ago)
Boletales 142 million years ago (133 million years ago153 million years ago)

Fossil record

The fruit bodies of Agaricomycetes are extremely rare in the fossil record, and the class does not yet pre-date the Early Cretaceous (146–100 Ma).[12] The oldest Agaricomycetes fossil, dating from the lower Cretaceous (130–125 Ma) is Quatsinoporites. It is a fragment of a poroid fruit body with features that suggest it could be a member of the family Hymenochaetaceae.[13] Based on molecular clock analysis, the Agaricomycetes are estimated to be about 290 million years old.[14]


Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[15]

Basidiomycetes (outgroup)

























Genera incertae sedis

There are many genera in the Agaricomycetes that have not been classified in any order or family. These include:

  • Akenomyces
  • Aldridgea
  • Anixia
  • Arrasia[16]
  • Arthrodochium
  • Arualis
  • Atraporiella
  • Cenangiomyces
  • Ceraceopsis
  • Corticomyces
  • Cruciger
  • Dendrosporomyces
  • Ellula
  • Fibulochlamys
  • Fibulocoela
  • Fibulotaeniella
  • Geotrichopsis[17]
  • Gloeoradulum
  • Gloeosynnema
  • Glomerulomyces
  • Glutinoagger
  • Grandinia
  • Granulocystis
  • Hallenbergia
  • Hyphobasidiofera
  • Hypolyssus
  • Intextomyces
  • Korupella
  • Minostroscyta[18]
  • Mylittopsis
  • Odonticium
  • Pagidospora
  • Peniophorella
  • Phlyctibasidium
  • Pseudasterodon
  • Purpureocorticium S.H.Wu (2017)[19]
  • Pycnovellomyces
  • Resinicium
  • Riessia
  • Riessiella
  • Skvortzovia
  • Taiwanoporia[20]
  • Timgrovea
  • Titaeella
  • Trechinothus
  • Tricladiomyces
  • Trimitiella
  • Tubulicrinopsis
  • Xanthoporus
  • Xenosoma


  1. Doweld A. (2001). Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum, Tentamen systematis plantarum vascularium (Tracheophyta). Moscow, Russia: GEOS. pp. 1–111. ISBN 978-5-89118-283-7. 
  2. McLaughlin DJ, ed (2001). The Mycota, Vol. VII. Part B., Systematics and Evolution. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. pp. 121–168. 
  3. Hibbett DS (2007). "A higher level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi". Mycological Research 111 (5): 509–547. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334. 
  4. Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 2008. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. 
  5. "Amylocorticiales ord. nov. and Jaapiales ord. nov.: Early diverging clades of Agaricomycetidae dominated by corticioid forms". Mycologia 102 (4): 865–880. 2010. doi:10.3852/09-288. PMID 20648753. 
  6. "Stereopsidales – a new order of mushroom-forming fungi". PLOS ONE 9 (8): e106204. 2014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095227. PMID 24777067. Bibcode2014PLoSO...995227S.  open access
  7. "Lepidostromatales, a new order of lichenized fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes), with two new genera, Ertzia and Sulzbacheromyces, and one new species, Lepidostroma winklerianum". Fungal Diversity 64 (1): 165–179. 2014. doi:10.1007/s13225-013-0267-0. 
  8. Fries EM (1874) (in Latin). Hymenomycetes Europaei. Uppsala: Typis Descripsit Ed. Berling.. p. 1. 
  9. "Fomitiporia ellipsoidea has the largest fruiting body among the fungi". Fungal Biology 115 (9): 813–814. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2011.06.008. PMID 21872178. 
  10. "The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms". Nature 356 (6368): 428–431. 1992. doi:10.1038/356428a0. Bibcode1992Natur.356..428S. 
  11. Varga T, Krizsán K, Földi C, Dima B, Sánchez-García M, Sánchez-Ramírez S, Szöllősi GJ, Szarkándi JG, Papp V, Albert L, Andreopoulos W, Angelini C, Antonín V, Barry KW, Bougher NL, Buchanan P, Buyck B, Bense V, Catcheside P, Chovatia M, Cooper J, Dämon W, Desjardin D, Finy P, Geml J, Haridas S, Hughes K, Justo A, Karasiński D, Kautmanova I, Kiss B, Kocsubé S6, Kotiranta H, LaButti KM, Lechner BE, Liimatainen K, Lipzen A, Lukács Z, Mihaltcheva S, Morgado LN, Niskanen T, Noordeloos ME, Ohm RA, Ortiz-Santana B, Ovrebo C, Rácz N, Riley R, Savchenko A, Shiryaev A, Soop K, Spirin V, Szebenyi C, Tomšovský M, Tulloss RE, Uehling J, Grigoriev IV, Vágvölgyi C, Papp T, Martin FM, Miettinen O, Hibbett DS, Nagy LG (2019) Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution. Nat Ecol Evol
  12. Kiecksee, Anna Philie; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Heinrichs, Jochen; Süß, Herbert; Schmidt, Alexander R. (2012). "Pre-Cretaceous Agaricomycetes yet to be discovered: Reinvestigation of a putative Triassic bracket fungus from southern Germany". Fossil Record 15 (2): 85–89. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200006. 
  13. Smith, S.Y.; Currah, R.S.; Stockey, R.A. (2004). "Cretaceous and Eocene poroid hymenophores from Vancouver Island, British Columbia". Mycologia 96 (1): 180–186. doi:10.2307/3762001. PMID 21148842. 
  14. Floudas D.; Binder, M.; Riley, R.; Barry, K.; Blanchette, R.A.; Henrissat, B.; Martínez, AT.; Otillar, R. et al. (2012). "The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes". Science 336 (6089): 1715–1719. doi:10.1126/science.1221748. PMID 22745431. Bibcode2012Sci...336.1715F. 
  15. "Agaricomycetes". Systematics and Evolution. The Mycota: A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research. 7A (2nd ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 2014. pp. 373–429. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-55318-9_14. ISBN 978-3-642-55317-2. 
  16. Berniccia, Annarosa; Gorjón, Sergio P.; Nakasone, Karen K. (2011). "Arrasia rostrata (Basidiomycota), a new corticioid genus and species from Italy". Mycotaxon 118: 257–264. doi:10.5248/118.257. 
  17. Tzean, S.S.; Estey, R.H. (1991). "Geotrichopsis mycoparasitica gen. et sp. nov. (Hyphomycetes), a new mycoparasite". Mycological Research 95 (12): 1350–1354. doi:10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80383-3. 
  18. Hjortstam, Kurt; Ryvarden, Leif (2001). "Corticioid species (Basidiomycotina, Aphyllophorales) from Colombia III". Mycotaxon 79: 189–200. 
  19. Wu, Sheng-Hua; Wang, Dong-Me; Chen, Yu-Ping (2018). "Purpureocorticium microsporum (Basidiomycota) gen. et sp. nov. from East Asia". Mycological Progress 17 (3): 357–364. doi:10.1007/s11557-017-1362-5. 
  20. Chang, TunTschu; Chou, Wen Neng (2003). "Taiwanoporia, a new aphyllophoralean genus". Mycologia 95 (6): 1215–1218. doi:10.1080/15572536.2004.11833029. PMID 21149022. 

External links

See also Wikidata entry Q27720.