Global Arrays

From HandWiki
Global Arrays (GA)
Paradigmparallel, one-sided message passing, imperative (procedural), structured
First appeared1994
Stable release
5.5/August 2016 (2016-08)
Typing disciplinestatic, weak

Global Arrays, or GA, is the library developed by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for parallel computing. GA provides a friendly API for shared-memory programming on distributed-memory computers for multidimensional arrays. The GA library is a predecessor to the GAS (global address space) languages currently being developed for high-performance computing.[1][2][3][4]

The GA toolkit has additional libraries including a Memory Allocator (MA), Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI), and functionality for out-of-core storage of arrays (ChemIO). Although GA was initially developed to run with TCGMSG, a message passing library that came before the MPI standard (Message Passing Interface), it is now fully compatible with MPI. GA includes simple matrix computations (matrix-matrix multiplication, LU solve) and works with ScaLAPACK. Sparse matrices are available but the implementation is not optimal yet.

GA was developed by Jarek Nieplocha, Robert Harrison, R. J. Littlefield, Manoj Krishnan, and Vinod Tipparaju. The ChemIO library for out-of-core storage was developed by Jarek Nieplocha, Robert Harrison and Ian Foster.

The GA library is incorporated into many quantum chemistry packages, including NWChem, MOLPRO, UTChem, MOLCAS, and TURBOMOLE. The GA library is also incorporated into sub-surface code STOMP[5]

The GA toolkit is free software, licensed under a self-made license.


  1. Nieplocha, Jarek; Harrison, Robert (1997). "Shared Memory Programming in Metacomputing Environments: The Global Array Approach". The Journal of Supercomputing 11 (2): 119–136. doi:10.1023/A:1007955822788. 
  2. Nieplocha, Jarek (2006). "Advances, Applications and Performance of the Global Arrays Shared Memory Programming Toolkit". International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 20 (2): 203–231. doi:10.1177/1094342006064503. 
  3. Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Harrison, Robert J.; Littlefield, Richard J. (1996). "Global arrays: A nonuniform memory access programming model for high-performance computers". The Journal of Supercomputing 10 (2): 169–189. doi:10.1007/BF00130708. 
  4. Tipparaju, Vinod; Krishnan, Manoj; Palmer, Bruce; Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek (2008). "Towards Fault Resilient Global Arrays". in Bischof, Christian; Bücker, Martin; Gibbon, Paul et al.. Parallel Computing: Architectures, Algorithms and Applications. Advances in Parallel Computing. 15. Amsterdam: IOS Press. pp. 339–345. ISBN 978-1-58603-796-3. OCLC 226966397. 
  5. "Gordon Bell Finalist at SC09 - GA Crosses the Petaflop Barrier". PNNL. 2009. 

See also