Organization:University of Michigan

From HandWiki
Short description: Public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan, US
University of Michigan
Seal of the University of Michigan.svg
Latin: Universitas Michigania
Former names
Catholepistemiad (1817–1821)
MottoLatin: Artes, Scientia, Veritas
Motto in English
"Arts, Knowledge, Truth"
TypePublic research university
EstablishedAugust 26, 1817; 206 years ago (1817-08-26)[1]
Academic affiliations
Endowment$19.3 billion (2023)[2]
Budget$13.1 billion (2023)[3]
PresidentSanta Ono
ProvostLaurie McCauley
Academic staff
7,954 (2022)[4]
Administrative staff
22,514 (2022)[4]
Students52,065 (2023)[5]
Undergraduates33,730 (2023)[5]
Postgraduates18,335 (2023)[5]
Ann Arbor
United States

[ ⚑ ] 42°16′37″N 83°44′17″W / 42.27694°N 83.73806°W / 42.27694; -83.73806
CampusMidsize city[6]
NewspaperThe Michigan Daily
|u}}rsMaize and blue[7]
Script error: No such module "College color".
Sporting affiliations
  • NCAA Division I FBS – Big Ten
  • CWPA
University of Michigan logo.svg

The University of Michigan (U-M, UMich, or simply Michigan) is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest institution of higher education in the state. Michigan is one of the earliest American research universities and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities.

The university is the largest by enrollment in the state of Michigan, with over 52,000 students as of 2023. It consists of nineteen colleges and offers 250 degree programs at the undergraduate and graduate level across various liberal arts and STEM disciplines.[9] The university is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity" according to the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2021, it ranked 3rd among American universities in research expenditures according to the National Science Foundation. The university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission.

The University of Michigan's athletic teams are collectively known as the Wolverines. They compete in NCAA Division I FBS as members of the Big Ten Conference. The university currently fields varsity teams across 29 NCAA-sanctioned sports. As of 2022, athletes from the university have won 188 medals at the Olympic Games.

Notable alumni from the university include eight domestic and foreign heads of state or heads of government; 47 U.S. senators; 218 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; 42 U.S. Cabinet secretaries; and 41 U.S. governors.



The University of Michigan was established on August 26, 1817,[1] as Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, under an act of the Michigan Territory. The corporate existence of the university had its rise in the Act of 1817, and has been continuous throughout all subsequent changes of its organic law.[10]:11Catholepistemiad, a neologism, translates roughly as "School of Universal Knowledge."[11]

Catholepistemiad was not a university in the contemporary sense but rather a centralized system of schools, libraries, and other cultural institutions borrowing its model from the Imperial University of France founded by Napoleon I a decade earlier.[12][10]:10 Besides carrying on the central institution, the president and didactorium of Catholepistemiad were also authorized to establish private colleges, academies, and libraries in the Michigan Territory.[10]:10 It was only after the State of Michigan entered the Union in 1837 that a new plan was adopted to focus the corporation on higher education.[12]

First Annual Report of the university, authored by John Monteith, November 16, 1818

Shortly after the passage of the Act of 1817, John Monteith became the first president of Catholepistemiad, and Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, was vice president. Monteith and Richard enacted that private schools should be established in Detroit, Monroe and Mackinaw, and before the end of September 1817, the three private schools were in operation.[10]:11 The cornerstone of the first school house, near the corner of Bates Street and Congress Street in Detroit, was laid on September 24, 1817. Subscriptions amounting to $5,000 payable in instalments running over several years were obtained to carry on the work.[10]:12 Of the total amount subscribed to start the work, two-thirds came from Zion Masonic Lodge and its members.[13] In August 1818, a private Lancasterian school taught by Lemuel Shattuck was opened in the building.[10]:12


Painting of a rolling green landscape with trees with a row of white buildings in the background
University of Michigan (1855) Jasper Francis Cropsey

After the state of Michigan entered the Union in 1837, its constitution granted the university an unusual degree of autonomy as a “coordinate branch of state government.” It delegated full powers over all university matters granted to its governing Board of Regents.[12] On June 3–5, the Board of Regents held its first meeting in Ann Arbor and formally accepted the proposal by the town to locate the university there.[1] The town of Ann Arbor had existed for only 13 years and had a population of about 2,000.[14] A grant of 40 acres (16 ha), obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs,[15] formed the basis of the present Central Campus.[16]

Since the founding period, the private sector has remained the primary provider of university financing to supplement tuition collected from students. Early benefactors of the university included businessman Dexter M. Ferry (donor of Ferry Field), Arthur Hill (regent, donor of Hill Auditorium), the Nichols family (regents, donors of the Nichols Arboretum), William E. Upjohn (donor of the Peony Garden), William P. Trowbridge, John S. Newberry, who funded the construction of Helen H. Newberry Residence, and Henry N. Walker, a politician who rallied Detroit businessmen to fund the Detroit Observatory. Clara Harrison Stranahan, a close friend of Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, donated $25,000 to the university in 1895. The Waterman Gymnasium was financed by donations from citizens and matched Joshua W. Waterman's pledge of $20,000.[10]:67

Alexander J. Davis's original University of Michigan designs featured the Gothic Revival style. Davis himself is generally credited with coining the term "Collegiate Gothic."

In 1838, the Regents contracted with Alexander Jackson Davis, who according to Superintendent John Davis Pierce provided truly "magnificent designs" in the Gothic Revival style; but unfortunately the completion of them at that day would, as Pierce said, involve an expenditure of half a million dollars.[10]:31 Although approving the designs, the tight budget of the fledgling university forced the Regents to ultimately abandon them and instead adopted a much less expensive plan.[17] The superintendent of construction on the first structure to be built for the university was Isaac Thompson, an associate of Davis.[18]

Andrew Dickson White, founder and first president of Cornell University and among the earliest benefactors of Michigan, joined the Michigan faculty in 1858.[19]

Asa Gray was the first professor appointed to Michigan on July 17, 1837.[20] His position was also the first one devoted solely to botany at any educational institution in America.[21][22][23][24]Douglass Houghton was named the university's first professor of geology, mineralogy, and chemistry in 1839.[24] Other notable faculty members appointed at the university during this period included Andrew Ten Brook, Samuel Denton, Alexander Winchell, Franz Brünnow, Henry Simmons Frieze, Thomas McIntyre Cooley, and De Volson Wood.[24] Andrew Dickson White filled the first permanent chair of history in the country at the university from 1857 to 1864.[24]

The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845.[25]

In the following years, the regents established branches of the university in various parts of the state.[26] These decentralized branches were designed to serve as preparatory schools for the primary university.[26] The first branch was located in Pontiac, and others followed in Kalamazoo, Detroit, Niles, Tecumseh, White Pigeon, and Romeo.[26] Despite its optimism, the branches floundered, finding it difficult to enroll students. Some of the branches would later merge with local colleges. Kalamazoo College, the oldest private college in the state, once operated as the Kalamazoo Branch of the University of Michigan from 1840 to 1850.[26]

The years 1837–1850 revealed weakness in the organization and working of the university. Regents of the university discovered that the organic act from which they derived their powers made them too dependent upon the legislature. The subject was brought to the attention of the legislature more than once but without securing the desired action in order to achieve increased independence. By the late 1840s, the Regents achieved a strong position relative to collective bargaining with the legislature as the opinion was becoming common among capitalists, clergymen and intellectual elites, since by then the state derived significant tax revenue through them. Such a situation ultimately led to a change in the organic act of the university. Remodeled, the act, which was approved April 8, 1851, emancipated the university from legislative control that would have been injudicious and harmful. The office of Regent was changed from an appointed one to an elected one, and the office of President was created, with the Regents directed to select one. As Hinsdale argued, "the independent position of the university has had much to do with its growth and prosperity. In fact, its larger growth may be dated from the time when the new sections began to take effect."[10]:40

Michigan establishing its medical school in 1850, engineering courses in 1854, and a law school in 1859.[12] The university was among the first to introduce instruction in fields as diverse as zoology and botany, modern languages, modern history, American literature, pharmacy, dentistry, speech, journalism, teacher education, forestry, bacteriology, naval architecture, aeronautical engineering, computer engineering, and nuclear engineering.[12] In 1856, Michigan built the nation's first chemical laboratory.[27] That laboratory was the first structure on the North American continent that was designed and equipped solely for instruction in chemistry.[27] James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, expanded the curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, architecture, engineering, government, and medicine.

The University of Michigan conferred the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1855, four years after the Lawrence Scientific School at Cambridge conferred the degree in 1851, for the first time in the United States, making Michigan the second institution in the country to confer the degree.[10]:48 The degree of Bachelor of Philosophy was conferred for the first time in the university's history upon six students in 1870.[10]:79 The degrees of Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy was first offered in 1875.[10]:88

Methods of instruction had also undergone important changes. The seminar method of study was first introduced into the university by Charles Kendall Adams in 1871–1872, making the university the first American institution to naturalize this product of the German soil.[28][10]:71

By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870,[29] although Alice Robinson Boise Wood was the first woman to attend classes (without matriculating) in 1866–7.[30] Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and was the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States. He returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and also served in high-ranking posts in the government.[31] Michigan was involved with the building of the Philippine education, legal, and public health systems during the era of the American colonization of the Philippines through the efforts of Michigan alumni that included Dean Conant Worcester and George A. Malcolm.[32]

Descendants of Massachusetts founding families made up a large portion of the university population in the 19th century; among them was Regent Charles Hebard, a lineal descendant of William Bradford, a founding father of Plymouth Colony.[10]:204 In the early 20th century, the university became a favored choice for high-achieving Jewish students seeking a quality education free of religious discrimination when the private colleges with protestant affiliation often imposed quotas on Jewish admissions. Since then, the university has served as a haven for the community of Jewish-American scholars.[33][34]

Throughout its history, Michigan has been one of the nation's largest universities, vying with the largest private universities such as Harvard University and Columbia University (then known as Columbia College) during the 19th and early 20th centuries, and then holding this position of national leadership until the emergence of the statewide public university systems in the post-WWII years.[12] By the turn of the 19th century, the university was the second largest in the United States after Harvard University.[35]

20th century

The Diag, ca. 1900

From 1900 to 1920, the growth of higher education led the university to build numerous new facilities. The Martha Cook Building was constructed as an all-female residence in 1915 as the result of a gift from William Wilson Cook in honor of his mother, Martha Walford Cook.[36] Cook planned to endow a professorship of law of corporations, but eventually made possible the development of the Law Quadrangle.[37] The five buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle were constructed during the decade of 1923–33 on two city blocks purchased by the university: Lawyers Club, Dormitory Wing, John P. Cook Dormitory, William W Cook Legal Research Library, and Hutchins Hall.[37] The buildings, in the Tudor Gothic style, recalled the quadrangles of the two English ancient universities Oxford and Cambridge.[37]

Physicists George Uhlenbeck, Hendrik Kramers, and Samuel Goudsmit circa 1928 at Michigan
West Engineering Building, 1905

From 1915 to 1941, the physics department was led by Harrison M. Randall, who established the importance of theoretical colleagues. Oskar Klein, Samuel Goudsmit, George Uhlenbeck, Otto Laporte and David Dennison joined the physics faculty during this time. Theoretical physicist Wolfgang Pauli, who became known as one of the pioneers of quantum physics, held a visiting professorship at the university in 1931.[38] Other physicists with ties to the university include the inventor of the Race Track Synchrotron H. Richard Crane and Hendrik Kramers. Stephen Timoshenko, who is considered to be the father of modern engineering mechanics, created the first U.S. bachelor's and doctoral programs in engineering mechanics when he was a faculty professor at the university. The Michigan Summer Symposia in Theoretical Physics occurred from 1927 to 1941 and provided lectures from theorists, including Niels Bohr, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, and others.[38] J. Robert Oppenheimer lectured on the "General Quantum Theory of Transitions" at the university in 1931.[38]

John Dewey

The University of Michigan has been the birthplace of some important academic movements, establishing the Michigan schools of thought and developing the Michigan Models in various fields. John Dewey, Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, and Robert Ezra Park first met at Michigan. There, they would influence each other greatly.[39] In political science, Angus Campbell, Philip Converse, Warren Miller and Donald Stokes, proposed the Michigan model of voting.[40]

Shortly after the war, in 1947, the Regents appointed a War Memorial Committee to consider establishing a war memorial in honor of students and alumni who fell in World War II, and in 1948, approved a resolution to "create a war memorial center to explore the ways and means by which the potentialities of atomic energy may become a beneficent influence in the life of man, to be known as the Phoenix Project of the University of Michigan", leading to the world's first academic program in nuclear science and engineering.[41][12] The Memorial Phoenix Project was funded by over 25,000 private contributors by individuals and corporations, such as the Ford Motor Company.[42]

During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration. On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first-ever faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in Southeast Asia.[43][44] The university's Spectrum Center is the oldest collegiate LGBT student center in the U.S., pre-dating Penn's.[45]

Due to concerns over the university's financial situation there have been suggestions for the complete separation of the university and state through privatization.[46][47] Even though the university is a public institution de jure, it has embraced funding models of a private university that emphasize tuition funding and raising funds from private donors.[48] Considering that "the University of Michigan already has only minimal fiscal ties to the state," the legislature convened a panel in 2008 that recommended converting the University of Michigan from a public to a private institution.[49]

Historical links

Harry Burns Hutchins (left), James Burrill Angell (center), Andrew Dickson White (right) circa 1900s

The University of Michigan was the first attempt in the New World to build a modern university in the European sense. The institution was the clearest and strongest presentation that had yet been made of what, in this country, at once came to be called the "Prussian ideas." It was a radically different approach to higher education; a complete civil system of education, in contradistinction to the ecclesiastical system made out of the colonial colleges. Michigan alumni and faculty members carried this newer concept of the university with them as they founded other institutions including Andrew Dixon White, a cofounder of Cornell University.[12] Cornell alumni David Starr Jordan and John Casper Branner passed the concept to Stanford University in the late 19th century.[50] Clark Kerr, the first chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley, called Michigan the "mother of state universities" and credited the university for the first creation of the research university in America.[51]

  • University of California: had its early planning based upon the University of Michigan.[52][53]
  • University of Chicago: Michigan alumnus Robert Ezra Park played a leading role in the development of the Chicago School of sociology. The University of Chicago Laboratory School was founded in 1896 by John Dewey and Calvin Brainerd Cady, who were members of the Michigan faculty.
  • Cornell University: Andrew Dixon White and Charles Kendall Adams, the first and second presidents of Cornell, respectively, were members of the Michigan faculty. Cornell also had its Law School founded by Michigan alumni Charles Kendall Adams and Harry Burns Hutchins.
  • Harvard University: Michigan alumnus Edwin Francis Gay was the founding dean of the Harvard Business School from 1908 to 1919,[54] instrumental in the school's planning.
  • Johns Hopkins University: had its pharmacology department established by John Jacob Abel, an alumnus of Michigan.
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology: had its Media Lab, the world's leading research laboratory, cofounded by Michigan alumnus Jerome Wiesner. Nicholas Negroponte, cofounder and chairman Emeritus of Media Lab, has held a visiting professorship in Michigan.
  • Northwestern University: Michigan alumnus Henry Wade Rogers was instrumental in transforming Northwestern from a small cluster of colleges into a major, nationally recognized university. His wife, Emma Winner Rogers, founded the Northwestern University Settlement Association.[55]
  • Syracuse University: Alexander Winchell and Erastus O. Haven, the first and second chancellors of Syracuse University, respectively, were members of the Michigan faculty.
  • Wellesley College: Michigan alumna Alice Freeman Palmer, the President of Wellesley College from 1881 to 1887, "transformed the fledgling school from one devoted to Christian domesticity into one of the nation's premier colleges for women."[56]
  • Yale University: had its residential college system co-organized by James Rowland Angell, a graduate of Michigan.[57] Michigan alumnus Henry Wade Rogers introduced the "case system" and the college degree requirement into the Yale Law School.


William W. Cook Legal Research Library

The Ann Arbor campus is divided into four main areas: the North, Central, Medical, and South campuses. The physical infrastructure includes more than 500 major buildings,[58] with a combined area of more than 37.48 million square feet (860 acres; 3.482 km2).[59] The Central and South Campus areas are contiguous, while the North Campus area is separated from them, primarily by the Huron River.[60] There is also leased space in buildings scattered throughout the city, many occupied by organizations affiliated with the University of Michigan Health System. An East Medical Campus was developed on Plymouth Road, with several university-owned buildings for outpatient care, diagnostics, and outpatient surgery.[61]

In addition to the University of Michigan Golf Course on South Campus, the university operates a second golf course on Geddes Road called Radrick Farms Golf Course. The golf course is only open to faculty, staff and alumni.[62] Another off-campus facility is the Inglis House, which the university has owned since the 1950s. The Inglis House is a 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) mansion used to hold various social events, including meetings of the Board of Regents, and to host visiting dignitaries.[63] The university also operates a large office building called Wolverine Tower in southern Ann Arbor near Briarwood Mall. Another major facility is the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, which is located on the eastern outskirts of Ann Arbor.[64]

All four campus areas are connected by bus services, the majority of which connect the North and Central campuses. There is a shuttle service connecting the University Hospital, which lies between North and Central campuses, with other medical facilities throughout northeastern Ann Arbor.[65]

Central Campus

James Burrill Angell Hall

Central Campus was the original location of University of Michigan when it moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. It originally had a school and dormitory building (where Mason Hall now stands) and several houses for professors on 40 acres (16 ha) of land bounded by North University Avenue, South University Avenue, East University Avenue, and State Street. The President's House, located on South University Avenue, is the oldest building on campus as well as the only surviving building from the original 40-acre (16 ha) campus.[16] Because Ann Arbor and Central Campus developed simultaneously, there is no distinct boundary between the city and university, and some areas contain a mixture of private and university buildings.[66] Residence halls located on Central Campus are split up into two groups: the Hill Neighborhood and Central Campus.[67]

Central Campus is the location of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, and is immediately adjacent to the medical campus. Most of the graduate and professional schools, including the Ross School of Business, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the Law School and the School of Dentistry, are on Central Campus. Two prominent libraries, the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library and the Shapiro Undergraduate Library (which are connected by a skywalk), are also on Central Campus.[68] as well as museums housing collections in archaeology, anthropology, paleontology, zoology, dentistry and art. Ten of the buildings on Central Campus were designed by Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn between 1904 and 1936 including Burton Memorial Tower and Hill Auditorium.[69]

North Campus

Earl V. Moore Building on North Campus

North Campus is the most contiguous campus, built independently from the city on a large plot of farmland—approximately 800 acres (3.2 km2)—that the university bought in 1952.[70] It is newer than Central Campus, and thus has more modernist architecture, whereas most Central Campus buildings are classical or Collegiate Gothic in style. The architect Eero Saarinen, based in Birmingham, Michigan, created one of the early master plans for North Campus and designed several of its buildings in the 1950s, including the Earl V. Moore School of Music Building.[71] North and Central Campuses each have unique bell towers that reflect the predominant architectural styles of their surroundings. Each of the bell towers houses a grand carillon, 2 of only 57 globally. The North Campus tower is called Lurie Tower.[72] The University of Michigan's largest residence hall, Bursley Hall, is located on North Campus.[67]

North Campus houses the College of Engineering, the School of Music, Theatre & Dance, the Stamps School of Art & Design, the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, and an annex of the School of Information.[73] The campus is served by the Duderstadt Center, which houses the Art, Architecture and Engineering Library. The Duderstadt Center also contains multiple computer labs, video editing studios, electronic music studios, an audio studio, a video studio, multimedia workspaces, and a 3D virtual reality room.[74] Other libraries located on North Campus include the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the Bentley Historical Library.

South Campus

The University of Michigan Golf Course was designed by Scottish golf course architect Alister MacKenzie and opened in 1931

South Campus is the site for the athletic programs, including major sports facilities such as Michigan Stadium, Crisler Center, and Yost Ice Arena. South Campus is also the site of the Buhr library storage facility, Revelli Hall, home of the Michigan Marching Band, the Institute for Continuing Legal Education,[75] and the Student Theatre Arts Complex, which provides shop and rehearsal space for student theatre groups.[76] The university's departments of public safety and transportation services offices are located on South Campus.[75]

The University of Michigan Golf Course is located south of Michigan Stadium and Crisler Center. It was designed in the late 1920s by Alister MacKenzie, the designer of Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, home of the Masters Tournament.[77] The course opened to the public in the spring of 1931. The University of Michigan Golf Course was included in a listing of top holes designed by what Sports Illustrated calls "golf's greatest course architect". The University of Michigan Golf Course's signature No. 6 hole—a 310-yard (280 m) par 4, which plays from an elevated tee to a two-tiered, kidney-shaped green protected by four bunkers—is the second hole on the Alister MacKenzie Dream 18 as selected by a five-person panel that includes three-time Masters champion Nick Faldo and golf course architect Tom Doak. The listing of "the best holes ever designed by Augusta National architect Alister MacKenzie" is featured in SI's Golf Plus special edition previewing the Masters on April 4, 2006.[78]

Organization and administration

College/school Year founded[79]
Literature, Science, and the Arts 1841
Medicine 1850
Engineering 1854
Law 1859
Dentistry 1875
Pharmacy 1876
Music, Theatre & Dance 1880
Nursing 1893
Architecture & Urban Planning 1906
Graduate Studies 1912
Government 1914
Education 1921
Business 1924
Environment and Sustainability 1927
Public Health 1941
Social Work 1951
Information 1969
Art & Design 1974
Kinesiology 1984

The University of Michigan consists of a flagship campus in Ann Arbor, with two regional campuses in Dearborn and Flint. The Board of Regents, which governs the university and was established by the Organic Act of March 18, 1837, consists of eight members elected at large in biennial state elections[80] for overlapping eight-year terms.[81][82] Between the establishment of the University of Michigan in 1837 and 1850, the Board of Regents ran the university directly; although they were, by law, supposed to appoint a Chancellor to administer the university, they never did. Instead, a rotating roster of professors carried out the day-to-day administration duties.[83]

The President of the University of Michigan is the principal executive officer of the university. The office was created by the Michigan Constitution of 1850, which also specified that the president was to be appointed by the Regents of the University of Michigan and preside at their meetings, but without a vote.[84] Today, the president's office is at the Ann Arbor campus, and the president has the privilege of living in the President's House, the university's oldest building.[85] Mark Schlissel was president from July 2014 to January 2022, when he was fired by the board after an investigation determined he "may have been involved in an inappropriate relationship with an employee of the university".[86]

Samuel Trask Dana Building (West Medical Building) houses the School for Environment and Sustainability

There are thirteen undergraduate schools and colleges.[87] By enrollment, the three largest undergraduate units are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Engineering, and the Ross School of Business.[88] At the graduate level, the Rackham Graduate School serves as the central administrative unit of graduate education at the university.[89] There are 18 graduate schools and colleges. Professional degrees are conferred by the Schools of Architecture, Public Health, Dentistry, Law, Medicine, Urban Planning and Pharmacy.[88] The Medical School is partnered with the University of Michigan Health System, which comprises the university's three hospitals, dozens of outpatient clinics, and many centers for medical care, research, and education.[citation needed]

Student government

Housed in the Michigan Union, the Central Student Government (CSG) is the central student government of the university. With representatives from each of the university's colleges and schools, including graduate students, CSG represents students and manages student funds on the campus. CSG is a 501(c)(3) organization, independent from the University of Michigan.[90] In recent years CSG has organized Airbus, a transportation service between campus and the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, and has led the university's efforts to register its student population to vote, with its Voice Your Vote Commission (VYV) registering 10,000 students in 2004. VYV also works to improve access to non-partisan voting-related information and increase student voter turnout.[91] CSG was successful at reviving Homecoming activities, including a carnival and parade, for students after a roughly eleven-year absence in October 2007,[92] and during the 2013–14 school year, was instrumental in persuading the university to rescind an unpopular change in student football seating policy at Michigan Stadium.[93] In 2017, CSG successfully petitioned the Ann Arbor City Council to create a Student Advisory Council to give student input into Ann Arbor city affairs.[94]

The William W. Cook Legal Research Library and other buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle were built during 1923–33 and then donated to the university by William Wilson Cook. It was the university's most significant private gift at the time.

There are student governance bodies in each college and school, independent of Central Student Government. Undergraduate students in the LS&A are represented by the LS&A Student Government (LSA SG).[95] Engineering Student Government (ESG) manages undergraduate student government affairs for the College of Engineering. Graduate students enrolled in the Rackham Graduate School are represented by the Rackham Student Government (RSG), and law students are represented by the Law School Student Senate (LSSS) as is each other college with its own respective government. In addition, the students who live in the residence halls are represented by the University of Michigan Residence Halls Association (RHA), which contains the third most constituents after CSG and LSA SG.[96]

A longstanding goal of the student government is to create a student-designated seat on the Board of Regents, the university's governing body.[97] Such a designation would achieve parity with other Big Ten schools that have student regents. In 2000, students Nick Waun and Scott Trudeau ran for the board on the statewide ballot as third-party nominees. Waun ran for a second time in 2002, along with Matt Petering and Susan Fawcett.[98] Although none of these campaigns has been successful, a poll conducted by the State of Michigan in 1998 concluded that a majority of Michigan voters would approve of such a position if the measure were put before them.[97] A change to the board's makeup would require amending the Michigan Constitution.[99]


(As of 2023), U-M's financial endowment (the "University Endowment Fund") was valued at $17.9 billion.[100]

In the 1980s, the university received increased grants for research in the social and physical sciences. During the 1980s and 1990s, the university devoted substantial resources to renovating its massive hospital complex and improving the academic facilities on the North Campus. In the early 2000s, Michigan faced declining state funding due to state budget shortfalls. In fact, the university did not receive direct state appropriations until 1867, and for most of its history, state support has been limited.[12] The state's annual contribution to the school's operating budget was less than 6%. In 2011 less than 5% of its support comes from state appropriations, a number continued to drop.[12]



First-time fall freshman statistics
  2022[101] 2021[102] 2020[103] 2019[104] 2018[105]
Applicants 84,289 79,743 65,021 64,972 64,917
Admits 14,914 16,071 16,974 14,883 14,818
Admit rate 17.69% 20.15% 26.11% 22.91% 22.83%
Enrolled 7,050 7,290 6,879 6,830 6,695
Yield 47.27% 45.36% 40.53% 45.89% 45.18%
SAT range 1350–1530 1360–1530 1340–1520 1340–1530  –
ACT range 31–34 31–35 31–34 31–34 30–34

U.S. News & World Report rates Michigan "Most Selective"[106] and The Princeton Review rates its admissions selectivity of 96 out of 99.[107] Admissions are characterized as "more selective, lower transfer-in" according to the Carnegie Classification.[108][109] Michigan received over 83,000 applications for a place in the 2021–22 freshman class, making it one of the most applied-to universities in the United States.[109][110] Half of the applicants accepted to Michigan have an SAT score between 1350 and 1530 or an ACT score between 31 and 34. Of those students accepted to Michigan's Class of 2027, 7,050 chose to attend.

Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities, and personal qualities. The university's admission process is need-blind for domestic applicants.[111] Admissions officials consider a student's standardized test scores, application essay and letters of recommendation to be important academic factors, with emphasis on an applicant's academic record and GPA, while ranking an applicant's high school class rank as 'not considered'.[101][102] In terms of non-academic materials as of 2022, Michigan ranks character/personal qualities and whether the applicant is a first-generation university applicant as 'important' in making first-time, first-year admission decisions, while ranking extracurricular activities, talent/ability, geographical residence, state residency, volunteer work, work experience and level of applicant’s interest as 'considered'.[101] Some applicants to Music, Theatre and Dance and some applicants to the College of Engineering may be interviewed.[101] A portfolio is required and considered for admission for Art, Architecture and the Ross School of Business.[101]


The requirements for admission to the freshman class were first published in August 1841, with fluency in ancient languages, such as Latin and Greek, being among the many requirements.[10]:33 Candidates for admission to the freshman class were examined in English grammar, geography, arithmetic, algebra, Virgil, Cicero's Select Orations, Jacob's or Felton's Greek Reader, Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and Sophocles's Greek Grammar. In 1851, the university dropped the requirement for students who did not wish to pursue the usual collegiate course embracing the ancient languages, permitting their admission without examination in such languages.[10]:44 This provision may be considered a prelude to scientific education.

The archway to the Law Quadrangle

Requirements for admission varied from department to department in the early days, and admissions were mostly given by referral. Candidates were required to do no more than satisfying professors on such inquiry as professors saw fit to make of their ability to do the work to obtain admission to the university. Such a practice was deemed flawed, eventually leading to corruption. In 1863, a rigid generalized entrance examination was imposed, creating one standard of qualifications for admission to all the departments, academical and professional.[10]:79 The early administration praised the then-new practice for its role in strengthening admission to the university.[10]:44 The entrance examination imposed in 1863 had played a significant role in the admission process during the 19th century until the emergence of the nationwide standardized tests, which were not offered until 1900.

Affirmative action

In 2003, two lawsuits involving U-M's affirmative action admissions policy reached the U.S. Supreme Court (Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger). President George W. Bush publicly opposed the policy before the court issued a ruling.[112] The court found that race may be considered as a factor in university admissions in all public universities and private universities that accept federal funding, but it ruled that a point system was unconstitutional. In the first case, the court upheld the Law School admissions policy, while in the second it ruled against the university's undergraduate admissions policy.[citation needed] The debate continued because in November 2006, Michigan voters passed Proposal 2, banning most affirmative action in university admissions. Under that law, race, gender, and national origin can no longer be considered in admissions.[113] U-M and other organizations were granted a stay from implementation of the law soon after that referendum. This allowed time for proponents of affirmative action to decide legal and constitutional options in response to the initiative results. In April 2014, the Supreme Court ruled in Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action that Proposal 2 did not violate the U.S. Constitution. The admissions office states that it will attempt to achieve a diverse student body by looking at other factors, such as whether the student attended a disadvantaged school, and the level of education of the student's parents.[113]

Teaching and learning

With over 200 undergraduate majors, and 100 doctoral and 90 master's programs,[114] U-M conferred 6,490 undergraduate degrees, 4,951 graduate degrees, and 709 first professional degrees in 2011–2012.[115] Its most popular undergraduate majors, by 2021 graduates, were:[116]

Computer and Information Sciences (874)
Business Administration and Management (610)
Economics (542)
Behavioral Neuroscience (319)
Mechanical Engineering (316)
Experimental Psychology (312)

Reputation and rankings

University rankings
ARWU[117] 18
Forbes[118] 23
THE/WSJ[119] 28
U.S. News & World Report[120] 21
Washington Monthly[121] 23
ARWU[122] 26
QS[123] 33
THE[124] 23
U.S. News & World Report[125] 19

The University of Michigan is a large, four-year, residential research university accredited by the Higher Learning Commission.[108][126][127] The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments and emphasizes instruction in the arts, sciences, and professions with a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate programs. The university has "very high" research activity and the comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees in medicine, law, and dentistry.[108] U-M has been included on Richard Moll's list of Public Ivies.[128]

The 2021 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges report ranked Michigan 3rd among public universities in the United States.[129] Michigan was ranked 6th in the 2021 U.S. News & World Report Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs Rankings.[130] Michigan was ranked 3rd in the 2021 U.S. News & World Report Best Undergraduate Business Programs Rankings.[131] The 2020 Princeton Review College Hopes & Worries Survey ranked Michigan as the No. 9 "Dream College" among students and the No. 7 "Dream College" among parents.[132] The 2022-23 edition of the CWUR rankings ranked Michigan 12th nationally and 15th globally.[133]

National rankings

National Institution Rankings
Institution U.S. Rank
University of Michigan—Ann Arbor Best National Universities 21 U.S. News
Dream College Among Students 9 Princeton Review
Dream College Among Parents 8 Princeton Review
Undergraduate Research/Creative Projects 5 U.S. News
Stephen M. Ross School of Business Business Programs 4 U.S. News
College of Engineering Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs 5 U.S. News
Computer Science  – U.S. News
School of Nursing Nursing 7 U.S. News
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts Psychology Programs 3 U.S. News
Economics 15 U.S. News
Stephen M. Ross School of Business Best Business Schools 8 U.S. News
Part-time MBA 7 U.S. News
Marsal Family School of Education Best Education Schools 1 U.S. News
College of Engineering Best Engineering Schools 7 U.S. News
Computer Science 11 U.S. News
Law School Best Law Schools 8 U.S. News
Medical School Best Medical Schools: Research 13 U.S. News
Best Medical Schools: Primary Care 26 U.S. News
School of Nursing Best Nursing Schools: Master's 8 U.S. News
Best Nursing Schools: Doctor of Nursing Practice 6 U.S. News
Nursing-Midwifery 2 U.S. News
School of Social Work Social Work 1 U.S. News
College of Pharmacy Pharmacy 3 U.S. News
Stamps School of Art & Design Best Fine Arts Programs 8 U.S. News
Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy Best Public Affairs Programs 4 U.S. News
Political Science 4 U.S. News
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts Biological Sciences 23 U.S. News
Chemistry 14 U.S. News
Clinical Psychology 10 U.S. News
Earth Sciences 9 U.S. News
Economics 12 U.S. News
English 8 U.S. News
History 2 U.S. News
Mathematics 11 U.S. News
Physics 13 U.S. News
Psychology 3 U.S. News
Sociology 2 U.S. News
Statistics 7 U.S. News
School of Public Health Public Health 5 U.S. News
Biostatistics 4 U.S. News
Health Care Management 3 U.S. News
School of Information Best Library and Information Studies Programs 6 U.S. News
University of Michigan—Ann Arbor Top Public Schools 3 U.S. News
Public Universities 1 QS
Public Universities 1 THE
Public Universities 4 Forbes

World rankings

Global Rankings

Institution World Rank
University of Michigan—Ann Arbor Best Global Universities 19 U.S. News
World University Rankings 23 THE
World Reputation Rankings 18 THE
Academic Ranking of World Universities 26 ARWU
Top Global Universities 33 QS
World University Rankings 15 CWUR
By Subject
Stephen M. Ross School of Business Economics & Business 12 U.S. News
School of Public Health Social Sciences & Public Health 6 U.S. News
Public, Environmental and Occupational Health 22 U.S. News
Medical School Surgery 11 U.S. News
Clinical Medicine 12 U.S. News
Infectious Diseases 12 U.S. News
Oncology 15 U.S. News
Molecular Biology & Genetics 15 U.S. News
Biology & Biochemistry 17 U.S. News
Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems 18 U.S. News
Gastroenterology and Hepatology 22 U.S. News
Endocrinology and Metabolism 23 U.S. News
Cell Biology 26 U.S. News
Immunology 31 U.S. News
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging 37 U.S. News
Neuroscience & Behavior 40 U.S. News
Microbiology 43 U.S. News
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts Arts & Humanities 10 U.S. News
Psychiatry/Psychology 13 U.S. News
Mathematics 21 U.S. News
Physics 25 U.S. News
Chemistry 46 U.S. News
Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology 56 U.S. News
Geosciences 67 U.S. News
Physical Chemistry 84 U.S. News
Condensed Matter Physics 85 U.S. News
Plant and Animal Science 93 U.S. News
College of Engineering Computer Science 18 U.S. News
Engineering 21 U.S. News
Space Science 25 U.S. News
Mechanical Engineering 36 U.S. News
Materials Science 44 U.S. News
Civil Engineering 46 U.S. News
Optics 57 U.S. News
Energy and Fuels 76 U.S. News
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 87 U.S. News
Chemical Engineering 94 U.S. News
Electrical and Electronic Engineering 105 U.S. News
College of Pharmacy Pharmacology & Toxicology 27 U.S. News
School for Environment and Sustainability Environment/Ecology 35 U.S. News


Science research output, by year[137][138][139][140][141][142]
Share National Rank Global Rank
2022 365.97 Increase 6 18
2021 337.95 Decrease 6 19
2020 398.64 Increase 4 11
2019 343.84 Decrease 5 14
2018 344.48 Increase 6 14
2017 336.06 Increase 5 11

Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. The university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.639 billion on research and development in 2021, ranking it 3rd in the nation.[143] This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009.[144] The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million.[144] U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

The Thomas Henry Simpson Memorial Institute for Medical Research was constructed in 1924 as the result of a donation from the widow of iron magnate Thomas H. Simpson, in memory of her late husband, who had died of pernicious anemia

In 2009, U-M signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university's intentions for the space were not fully articulated, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.[145]

The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG[146] and the gastroscope.[147] The university's 13,000-acre (53 km2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.[148]

In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model[149] that model became part of IBM's Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the "M" stood for Michigan).[150] The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67's virtual memory features.[151]

x $1000
x $1000
2019  –  –  –  – 120 10
2018 1,493,353 3 841,158 3 118 9
2017 1,434,535 2 822,436 3 113 12
2016 1,357,228 2 780,080 3 108 13
2015 1,300,340 2 728,712 3 106 13
2014 1,279,603 2 733,779 3  –  –

U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation's longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences,[152] is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.[153]

The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes as of 2012.[154] U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google.[155] The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks.[156] The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second.[157] In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state's three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan's economy.[158] The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced 'MY-lar'), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.[159]

In May 2021, the university announced plans to cut carbon emissions from its campuses. The plan covers all of its operations and goals include removing emissions from direct, on-campus sources by 2040.[160]

Student life

Student body

Undergraduate student body composition as of October 10, 2023
Race and ethnicity[161] Total
White 53% 53
Asian 17% 17
Hispanic 7% 7
Black 4% 4
Other[lower-alpha 1] 10% 10
Foreign national 8% 8
Economic diversity[citation needed]
Low-income[lower-alpha 2] 18% 18
Affluent[lower-alpha 3] 82% 82

As of October 2023, the university had an enrollment of 52,065 students: 33,730 undergraduate students and 18,335 graduate students[162] in a total of 600 academic programs.[citation needed] This makes it the largest university in the state of Michigan.[163] The largest college at the university was the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts with 21,973 students (42.2% of the total student body), followed by the College of Engineering (11,113; 21.3%) and Ross School of Business (4,433; 8.1%). All other colleges each hosted less than 5% of the total student population.[164]

Students come from all 50 U.S. states and nearly 100 countries.[109] As of 2022, 52% of undergraduate students were Michigan residents, while 43% came from other states. The remainder of the undergraduate student body was composed of international students.[165] Of the total student body, 43,253 (83.1%) were U.S. citizens or permanent residents and 8,812 (16.9%) were international students as of November 2023.[166]

In terms of race, as of October 2023 the undergraduate student body was approximately 53% White, 17% Asian, 7% Hispanic, 4% Black, 5% from two or more races, and 5% from an unknown racial composition. The remaining 8% of undergraduates were international students.[161]

According to a 2017 report by the New York Times, the median family income of a student at Michigan was $154,000. 66% of students came from families within the top 20% in terms of income.[167] As of 2022, approximately 23% of in-state undergradute students and 14% of out-of-state students received a Pell Grant.[165]

Residential life

Law Quadrangle
Law Quadrangle, constructed during the decade of 1923–33, was designed by York and Sawyer in the Tudor style and recalled the quadrangles of two ancient English universities, Oxford and Cambridge

The University of Michigan's campus housing system can accommodate approximately 10,000 students, or nearly 25 percent of the total student population at the university.[168] The residence halls are located in three distinct geographic areas on campus: Central Campus, Hill Area (between Central Campus and the University of Michigan Medical Center) and North Campus. Family housing is located on North Campus and mainly serves graduate students. The largest residence hall has a capacity of 1,270 students,[169] while the smallest accommodates 25 residents.[170] A majority of upper-division and graduate students live in off-campus apartments, houses, and cooperatives, with the largest concentrations in the Central and South Campus areas.

Lawyers Club Dining Hall

The residential system has a number of "living-learning communities" where academic activities and residential life are combined. These communities focus on areas such as research through the Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars, medical sciences, community service and the German language.[171] The Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars and the Women in Science and Engineering Residence Program are housed in Mosher-Jordan Hall. The Residential College (RC), a living-learning community that is a division of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, also has its principal instructional space in East Quad. The Michigan Community Scholars Program, dedicated to civic engagement, community service learning and intercultural understanding and dialogue, is located in West Quad.[172] The Lloyd Hall Scholars Program (LHSP) is located in Alice Lloyd Hall. The Health Sciences Scholars Program (HSSP) is located in Couzens Hall. The North Quad complex houses two additional living-learning communities: the Global Scholars Program[173] and the Max Kade German Program.[174] It is "technology-rich", and houses communication-related programs, including the School of Information, the Department of Communication Studies, and the Department of Screen Arts and Cultures.[175][176] North Quad is also home to services such as the Language Resource Center and the Sweetland Center for Writing.[177]

The residential system also has a number of "theme communities" where students have the opportunity to be surrounded by students in a residential hall who share similar interests. These communities focus on global leadership, the college transition experience, and internationalism.[178] The Adelia Cheever Program is housed in the Helen Newberry House.[179] The First Year Experience is housed in the Baits II Houses and Markley Hall along with portions of all other buildings with the exception of North Quad, Northwood, and Stockwell Hall.[180] The Sophomore Experience is housed in Stockwell Hall and the Transfer Year Experience is housed in Northwood III.[181][182] The newly organized International Impact program is housed in North Quad.[183]

Stockwell Residence Hall

Groups and activities

The university lists 1,438 student organizations, including Omega Omega Omega (OOO), the nation's first mental health fraternity.[184][185] The student body is politically engaged, though, with 96% stating they intended to vote in the 2020 election. It is largely progressive, with 43% identifying as very liberal, 33% as somewhat liberal, and 13% moderate. 11% identified as conservative or very conservative.[186] With a history of student activism, some of the most visible groups include those dedicated to causes such as civil rights and labor rights, such as local chapters of Students for a Democratic Society and United Students Against Sweatshops. Conservative groups also organize, such as the Young Americans for Freedom.[187]

Michigan Union, an Art Deco building constructed on land wholly owned by the student society in 1917, was designed by Michigan alumni Irving Kane Pond and Allen Bartlit Pond.

There are also several engineering projects teams, including the University of Michigan Solar Car Team, which has placed first in the North American Solar Challenge six times and third in the World Solar Challenge four times.[188] Michigan Interactive Investments,[189] the TAMID Israel Investment Group, and the Michigan Economics Society[190] are also affiliated with the university.

The university also showcases many community service organizations and charitable projects, including Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children, Dance Marathon at the University of Michigan,[191] The Detroit Partnership, Relay For Life, U-M Stars for the Make-A-Wish Foundation, InnoWorks at the University of Michigan, SERVE, Letters to Success, PROVIDES, Circle K, Habitat for Humanity,[192] and Ann Arbor Reaching Out. Intramural sports are popular, and there are recreation facilities for each of the three campuses.[193]

Fraternities and sororities play a role in the university's social life; approximately seven percent of undergraduate men and 16% of undergraduate women are active in the Greek system.[194] Four different Greek councils—the Interfraternity Council, Multicultural Greek Council, National Pan-Hellenic Council, and Panhellenic Association—represent most Greek organizations. Each council has a different recruitment process.[195]

The Michigan Union and Michigan League are student activity centers located on Central Campus; Pierpont Commons is on North Campus. The Michigan Union houses a majority of student groups, including the student government. The William Monroe Trotter House, located east of Central Campus, is a multicultural student center operated by the university's Office of Multi-Ethnic Student Affairs.[196] The University Activities Center (UAC) is a student-run programming organization and is composed of 14 committees.[197] Each group involves students in the planning and execution of a variety of events both on and off campus.

Delta Sigma Delta, the first dental fraternity in the world

The Michigan Marching Band, composed of more than 350 students from almost all of U-M's schools,[198] is the university's marching band. Over 125 years old (with a first performance in 1897),[199] the band performs at every home football game and travels to at least one away game a year. The student-run and led University of Michigan Pops Orchestra is another musical ensemble that attracts students from all academic backgrounds. It performs regularly in the Michigan Theater. The University of Michigan Men's Glee Club, founded in 1859 and the second oldest such group in the country, is a men's chorus with over 100 members.[200] Its eight-member subset a cappella group, the University of Michigan Friars, which was founded in 1955, is the oldest currently running a cappella group on campus.[201] The University of Michigan is also home to over twenty other a cappella groups, including Amazin' Blue, The Michigan G-Men, and Compulsive Lyres, all of which have competed at the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella (ICCA) finals in New York City. Compulsive Lyres are the first and only group from Michigan to claim an ICCA title, having won in 2002.[202] The Michigan G-Men are one of only six groups in the country to compete at ICCA finals four times, one of only two TTBB ensembles to do so, and placed third at the competition in 2015.[203] Amazin' Blue placed fourth at ICCA finals in 2017. In 2020, The A Cappella Archive ranked The Michigan G-Men and Amazin' Blue at #7 and #13, respectively, out of all groups that have ever competed in ICCA.[204]

Phi Delta Phi, the oldest legal organization in continuous existence in the United States

National honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Tau Beta Pi have chapters at U-M.[205] Degrees "with Highest Distinction" are recommended to students who rank in the top 3% of their class, "with High Distinction" to the next 7%, and "with Distinction" to the next 15%. Students earning a minimum overall GPA of 3.4 who have demonstrated high academic achievement and capacity for independent work may be recommended for a degree "with Highest Honors", "with High Honors", or "with Honors."[205] Those students who earn all A's for two or more consecutive terms in a calendar year are recognized as James B. Angell Scholars and are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation, an event which recognizes undergraduate students with distinguished academic achievements.[205]

The University of Michigan has over 380 cultural and ethnic student organizations on campus.[206] There are organizations for almost every culture from the Arab Student Association to Persian Student Association[207] to African Students Association[208] to even the Egyptian Student Association.[209] These organizations hope to promote various aspects of their culture along with raising political and social awareness around campus by hosting an assortment of events throughout the school year. These clubs also help students make this large University into a smaller community to help find people with similar interests and backgrounds.

Collegiate secret societies

The University of Michigan hosts three secret societies: Michigauma, Adara, and the Vulcans. Michigauma and Adara were once under the umbrella group "The Tower Society", the name referring to their historical locations in the Michigan Union tower. Michigauma was all-male while Adara was all-female, although both later became co-ed.

  • Michigauma, more recently known as the Order of Angell, was formed in 1902 by a group of seniors in coordination with University president James Burrill Angell. The group disbanded itself in 2021 due to public concerns about elitism and the society's history. The group was granted a lease for the top floor of the Michigan Union tower in 1932, which they referred to as the "tomb," but the society vacated the space in 2000. Until more recent reforms, the group's rituals were inspired by the culture of Native Americans.[210] Some factions on campus identified Michigauma as a secret society, but many disputed that characterization, as its member list has been published some years in The Michigan Daily and the Michiganensian, and online since 2006 reforms.
  • Adara, known as Phoenix, was formed in the late 1970s by women leaders on campus and disbanded itself in 2021 amid campus criticisms of secret societies.[211] In the early 1980s they joined the tower society and occupied the sixth floor of the tower just below Michigamua.
  • Vulcans, occupied the fifth floor of the Union tower though were not formally a part of the tower society. They draw their heritage from the Roman god Vulcan. The group which used to do its tapping publicly is known for its long black robes and for its financial contributions of the College of Engineering.

Media and publications

Stanford Lipsey Student Publications Building

Several academic journals are published at the university:

  • The Law School publishes Michigan Law Review and six other law journals: The Michigan Journal of Environmental and Administrative Law, University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, Michigan Journal of Race & Law, Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review, Michigan Journal of International Law, and Michigan Journal of Gender and Law.[212]
  • The Ross School of Business publishes the Michigan Journal of Business.
  • Several undergraduate journals are also published at the university, including the Michigan Journal of Political Science, Michigan Journal of History, University of Michigan Undergraduate Research Journal, the Michigan Journal of International Affairs, and the Michigan Journal of Asian Studies.

The student newspaper is The Michigan Daily, founded in 1890 and editorially and financially independent of the university. The Daily is published five days a week during academic year, and weekly from May to August. The yearbook is the Michiganensian, founded in 1896. Other student publications at the university include the conservative The Michigan Review and the progressive Michigan Independent. The humor publication Gargoyle Humor Magazine is also published by Michigan students.

WCBN-FM (88.3 FM) is the student-run college radio station which plays in freeform format. WOLV-TV is the student-run television station that is primarily shown on the university's cable television system. WJJX was previously the school's student-run radio station. A carrier current station, it was launched in 1953.[213]


Violent crime is rare on the campus though a few of the cases have been notorious including Theodore Kaczynski's attempted murder of professor James V. McConnell and research assistant Nicklaus Suino in 1985. Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, graduated from Michigan with his PhD in 1967.

A radical left-wing militant organization Weather Underground was founded at the university in 1969.[214] It was later designated a domestic terrorist group by the FBI.[215]

In 2014, the University of Michigan was named one of 55 higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints." President Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault was organized for such investigations.[216] Seven years later, in 2021, the university attracted national attention when a report commissioned by the university was released that detailed an investigation into sexual assault allegations against doctor Robert Anderson who reportedly abused at least 950 university students, many of whom were athletes, from 1966 to 2003.[217] Several football players from that time say football coach Bo Schembechler ignored and enabled the abuse and told players to "toughen up" after being molested.[218] Schembechler reportedly punched his then 10-year-old son Matthew after he reported abuse by Anderson.[219] Following the exposure of a similar history of abuse at Ohio State University, male survivors of both Anderson at Michigan and Strauss at Ohio State spoke out to combat sexual abuse.[220] The University of Michigan settled with the survivors for $490 million.[221]


Burgee of University of Michigan

The University of Michigan's sports teams are called the Wolverines. They participate in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision and in the Big Ten Conference in all sports except women's water polo, which is a member of the Collegiate Water Polo Association. U-M boasts 27 varsity sports, including 13 men's teams and 14 women's teams.[222] In 10 of the past 14 years concluding in 2009, U-M has finished in the top five of the NACDA Director's Cup, a ranking compiled by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics to tabulate the success of universities in competitive sports. U-M has finished in the top 10 of the Directors' Cup standings in 21 of the award's 29 seasons between 1993-2021 and has placed in the top six in nine of the last 10 seasons.[223]

More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events,[224] and as of 2021 its students and alumni have won 155 Olympic medals.[225]

Michigan Stadium is the largest college football stadium in the nation and one of the largest football-only stadiums in the world, with an official capacity of 107,601[226] (the extra seat is said to be "reserved" for Fritz Crisler[227]) though attendance—frequently over 111,000 spectators—regularly exceeds the official capacity.[228] The NCAA's record-breaking attendance has become commonplace at Michigan Stadium.

U-M is also home to 29 men's and women's club sports teams, such as rugby, hockey, volleyball, boxing, soccer, and tennis.

National championships

The Michigan football program ranks first in NCAA history in total wins (989 through the end of the 2022 season) and third among FBS schools in winning percentage (.731).[229][230] The team won the first Rose Bowl game in 1902. U-M had 40 consecutive winning seasons from 1968 to 2007, including consecutive bowl game appearances from 1975 to 2007.[231] The Wolverines have won a record 44 Big Ten championships. The program has 12 national championships, most recently the 2023 National Championship,[232] and has produced three Heisman Trophy winners: Tom Harmon, Desmond Howard and Charles Woodson.[233]

The men's ice hockey team, which plays at Yost Ice Arena, has won nine national championships.[234]

The men's basketball team, which plays at the Crisler Center, has appeared in five Final Fours and won the national championship in 1989. The program also voluntarily vacated victories from its 1992–1993 and 1995–1999 seasons in which illicit payments to players took place, as well as its 1992 and 1993 Final Four appearances.[235] The men's basketball team has most recently won back-to-back Big Ten Tournament Championships.

In the Olympics

Through the 2012 Summer Olympics, 275 U-M students and coaches had participated in the Olympics, winning medals in each Summer Olympic Games except 1896, and winning gold medals in all but four Olympiads. U-M students/student-coaches (e.g., notably, Michael Phelps) have won a total of 185 Olympic medals: 85 golds, 48 silvers, and 52 bronzes.[236]

Fight songs and chants

Singing The Yellow and the Blue between halves of the Penn Game, November 1916

The University of Michigan's fight song, "The Victors", was written by student Louis Elbel in 1898 following the last-minute football victory over the University of Chicago that won a league championship. The song was declared by John Philip Sousa to be "the greatest college fight song ever written."[237] The song refers to the university as being "the Champions of the West." At the time, U-M was part of the Western Conference, which would later become the Big Ten Conference. Michigan was considered to be on the Western Frontier when it was founded in the old Northwest Territory.

Although mainly used at sporting events, the Michigan fight song is often heard at other events as well. President Gerald Ford had it played by the United States Marine Band as his entrance anthem during his term as president from 1974 to 1977, in preference over the more traditional "Hail to the Chief",[238] and the Michigan Marching Band performed a slow-tempo variation of the fight song at his funeral.[239] The fight song is also sung during graduation commencement ceremonies. The university's alma mater song is "The Yellow and Blue." A common rally cry is "Let's Go Blue!" which has a complementary short musical arrangement written by former students Joseph Carl, a sousaphonist, and Albert Ahronheim, a drum major.[240]

Before "The Victors" was officially the university's fight song, the song "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight" was considered to be the school song.[241] After Michigan temporarily withdrew from the Western Conference in 1907, a new Michigan fight song "Varsity" was written in 1911 because the line "champions of the West" was no longer appropriate.[242]


Newberry Hall (Kelsey Museum of Archeology)

The university is also home to several public and research museums including but not limited to the University Museum of Art, University of Michigan Museum of Natural History, Detroit Observatory, Sindecuse Museum of Dentistry, and the LSA Museum of Anthropological Archaeology.

Kelsey Museum of Archeology has a collection of Roman, Greek, Egyptian, and Middle Eastern artifacts.[243] Between 1972 and 1974, the museum was involved in the excavation of the archaeological site of Dibsi Faraj in northern Syria.[244] The Kelsey Museum re-opened November 1, 2009, after a renovation and expansion.[245]

The collection of the University of Michigan Museum of Art include nearly 19,000 objects that span cultures, eras, and media and include European, American, Middle Eastern, Asian, and African art, as well as changing exhibits. The Museum of Art re-opened in 2009 after a three-year renovation and expansion.[246] UMMA presents special exhibitions and diverse educational programs featuring the visual, performing, film and literary arts that contextualize the gallery experience.[247]

The University of Michigan Museum of Natural History began in the mid-19th century and expanded greatly with the donation of 60,000 specimens by Joseph Beal Steere in the 1870s. The building also houses three research museums: the Museum of Anthropology, Museum of Paleontology. Today, the collections are primarily housed and displayed in the Ruthven Museums Building which was completed in 1928.[248]

Notable people

Faculty and staff

Faculty memberships (2023)
National Academies
National Academy of Engineering[249] 30
National Academy of Medicine[250] 62
National Academy of Sciences[251] 37
American Academy of Arts and Sciences[252] 99
American Philosophical Society[253] 17

As of fall 2022, Michigan had 7,954 faculty members and the full-time-equivalent (FTE) total was 6,752. Tenured and tenure-track faculty comprise 2,787 FTEs, lecturers comprise 830 FTEs and another 3,135 FTEs are individuals with clinical, research and other titles who are primarily involved in health care, research, and related scholarly activities.[254]

Michigan's current faculty includes 30 members of National Academy of Engineering; 62 members of National Academy of Medicine; 37 members of the National Academy of Sciences; 99 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 17 members of American Philosophical Society.[255]

The university's current and former faculty includes thirteen Nobel laureates, eight Pulitzer Prize winners, 41 MacArthur Fellows, as well as eighteen AAAS fellows.


As of 2013, nine Michigan alumni have won the Nobel Prize.[256] As of 2022, 35 of Michigan's matriculants have been awarded a Pulitzer Prize winners. By alumni count, Michigan ranks fifth (As of 2018) among all schools whose alumni have won Pulitzers. The university is, (As of 2020) associated one Mitchell Scholar.[257] As of 2021, 30 Michigan students or alumni have been named Rhodes Scholars.[258]

Government and law

U.S. President Gerald Ford at the University of Michigan in 1976

Michigan graduates have held a range of high-level U.S. government positions, including United States President (Gerald Ford); United States Secretary of State (William Rufus Day); United States Supreme Court justice (Frank Murphy, George Sutherland); United States Secretary of the Treasury (George M. Humphrey); United States Attorney General (Harry Micajah Daugherty); United States Secretary of the Interior (Kenneth Lee Salazar); United States Secretary of Agriculture (Clinton Anderson, Julius Sterling Morton, Arthur M. Hyde, and Dan Glickman); United States Secretary of Commerce (Roy D. Chapin and Robert P. Lamont); United States Secretary of Health and Human Services (Tom Price); United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (Ben Carson); Director of the United States Office of Management and Budget (Rob Portman); United States Trade Representative (Rob Portman); Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers (Harvey S. Rosen).

More than 250 Michigan graduates have served as legislators as either a United States Senator (47 graduates) or as a Congressional representative (over 215 graduates), including former House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt,[259] U.S. Representative Justin Amash.[260] As of 2021, Michigan has matriculated 63 U.S. governors or lieutenant governors, including former Governor of Michigan Rick Snyder and former Governor of New York Thomas E. Dewey. Former Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot and Detroit Mayor Mike Duggan are also Michigan graduates. As of 2019, Michigan has placed onto various State Supreme Courts over 125 graduates, 40 of whom served as Chief Justice. As of 2022, Michigan has matriculated 64 Ambassadors who served as Ambassador in more than 72 countries.

Foreign alumni include the Prime Minister of Italy 1995–1996 (Lamberto Dini); the 47th President of Costa Rica (Luis Guillermo Solís); the 13th President of Pakistan (Arif Alvi); the Prime Minister of Jordan 2012–2016 (Abdullah Ensour); the current ruler of the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah (Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi); the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda 1994–2004 (Lester Bird); the Prime Minister of Peru 1993–1994 (Alfonso Bustamante); the Chief Minister of Punjab 1952–1964 (Pratap Singh Kairon); Chief Secretary of Hong Kong 2007–2011 (Henry Tang Ying-yen); Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (Lawrence Wong); Deputy Prime Minister of South Korea 2017–2018 (Kim Dong-yeon); Deputy Prime Minister of Bulgaria in the government of Boyko Borisov (Simeon Djankov).


Numerous U-M graduates contributed to the field of computer science, including Claude Shannon (who made major contributions to the mathematics of information theory),[261] and Turing Award winners Edgar Codd, Stephen Cook, Frances E. Allen, and Michael Stonebraker.

U-M's contributions to aeronautics include aircraft designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson of Lockheed Skunk Works fame.[262]


Michigan alumni have founded or cofounded companies such as Alphabet Inc. (Larry Page[263]), General Motors Company (Frederic Latta Smith), The Boeing Company (Edgar Gott), Stryker Corporation (Homer Stryker), Domino's Pizza, Inc. (Tom Monaghan), Merrill Lynch (Charles Edward Merrill), Saba Capital, EQ Office (Samuel Zell), Related Group (Stephen M. Ross), Science Applications International Corporation (J. Robert Beyster[264]), H&R Block, Groupon (Brad Keywell), Five Guys, Haworth, Inc., Uptake Technologies, Skype (Niklas Zennström), Redbox (Gregg Kaplan), DoubleClick, Graphiq, Leo Burnett Company (Leo Burnett), C-SPAN and Taubman Company (A. Alfred Taubman).

Alumni have also led several companies, including Berkshire Hathaway (Charlie Munger), Allstate Insurance (Thomas J. Wilson), Tencent (Martin Lau), Twitter (Dick Costolo), Meijer (Doug Meijer and Hank Meijer), Walgreens (Charles Rudolph Walgreen Jr.), Craigslist (Jim Buckmaster), Chrysler Group LLC (C. Robert Kidder), BorgWarner (Timothy M. Manganello), American Motors Corporation (Robert Beverley Evans), Activision Blizzard (Bobby Kotick), (Ralph Bahna), Turkish Airlines (Temel Kotil), JetBlue (Dave Barger), and Coinstar (Gregg Kaplan).

Authors and journalists

Notable writers who attended U-M include playwright Arthur Miller,[259] essayists Susan Orlean,[259] Jia Tolentino,[265] Sven Birkerts, journalists and editors Mike Wallace,[259] Jonathan Chait of The New Republic, Indian author and columnist Anees Jung, Daniel Okrent,[259] and Sandra Steingraber, food critics Ruth Reichl and Gael Greene, novelists Brett Ellen Block, Elizabeth Kostova, Marge Piercy,[259] Brad Meltzer,[259] Betty Smith,[259] and Charles Major, screenwriter Judith Guest,[259] Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Theodore Roethke, National Book Award winners Keith Waldrop and Jesmyn Ward, composer/author/puppeteer Forman Brown, Alireza Jafarzadeh (a Middle East analyst, author, and TV commentator), and memoirist and self-help book author Jerry Newport.

Music and entertainment

Musical graduates include operatic soprano Jessye Norman,[259] singer Joe Dassin, multiple members of the band Tally Hall, jazz guitarist Randy Napoleon, and Mannheim Steamroller founder Chip Davis.[259] Well-known composers who are alumni include Frank Ticheli, Andrew Lippa, and the Oscar and Tony Award-winning duo Benj Pasek and Justin Paul. Pop superstar Madonna[259] and rock legend Iggy Pop[259] attended but did not graduate.

Film and television

In Hollywood, famous alumni include actors Michael Dunn,[259] Darren Criss, James Earl Jones,[259] and David Alan Grier;[259] actresses Lucy Liu,[259] Gilda Radner,[259] and Selma Blair[259] as well as television director Mark Cendrowski and filmmaker Lawrence Kasdan.[259] Many Broadway and musical theatre actors, including Gavin Creel,[259] Andrew Keenan-Bolger, his sister Celia Keenan-Bolger, and Taylor Louderman attended U-M for musical theatre. Emmy Award winner Sanjay Gupta attended both college and medical school at the university.[266] Conservative pundit Ann Coulter is another U-M law school graduate (J.D. 1988).[259]


U-M athletes have starred in Major League Baseball, the National Football League and National Basketball Association as well as in other professional sports. Notable among recent players is Tom Brady of the New England Patriots and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.[259] Three players have won college football's Heisman Trophy, awarded to the player considered the best in the nation: Tom Harmon (1940), Desmond Howard (1991), and Charles Woodson (1997).[233] Professional golfer John Schroeder and Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps also attended the University of Michigan; the latter studied Sports Marketing and Management. Phelps also swam competitively for Club Wolverine, a swimming club associated with the university.[267] The Canada national team's Shelina Zadorsky played soccer at the University of Michigan.[268]

National Hockey League players Marty Turco, Luke Hughes, Chris Summers, Max Pacioretty, Carl Hagelin, Dylan Larkin, Zach Hyman, Brendan Morrison,[259] Jack Johnson, and Michael Cammalleri[259] all played for U-M's ice hockey team. MLB Hall of Famers George Sisler and Barry Larkin also played baseball at the university.[259] Several team owners have been alumni, including multiple-team owner Bill Davidson (NBA Detroit Pistons, NHL Tampa Bay Lightning, WNBA Detroit Shock, among others) and NFL owners Stephen M. Ross (Miami Dolphins), Preston Robert Tisch (New York Giants), and Ralph Wilson (Buffalo Bills).

Activists and humanitarians

Activists associated with the university include Weather Underground radical activist Bill Ayers,[269] activist Tom Hayden,[259] architect Charles Moore,[270] Swedish hero of the Holocaust Raoul Wallenberg,[271] Civil War General Benjamin D. Pritchard,[272] and assisted-suicide advocate Jack Kevorkian.


Several astronauts attended Michigan including the all-U-M crews of both Gemini 4[273] and Apollo 15.[274] The university claims the only alumni association with a chapter on the Moon, established in 1971 when the crew of Apollo 15 placed a charter plaque for a new U-M Alumni Association on the lunar surface.[259][274]


  1. Other consists of Multiracial Americans & those who prefer to not say.
  2. The percentage of students who received an income-based federal Pell grant intended for low-income students.
  3. The percentage of students who are a part of the American middle class at the bare minimum.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "U-M's Foundings in Detroit and Ann Arbor: Key Dates". University of Michigan. 
  2. "Endowment generated 5.2% return in FY '23". University of Michigan. October 19, 2023. 
  3. "FY 2022–2023 U-M Budget". Office of Budget and Planning. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Ann Arbor Campus Snapshot – Fall 2022". U-M Office of Budget and Planning. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 (in en) ENROLLMENT REPORT FALL 2023. Michigan Association of State Universities. 2023. pp. 3. 
  6. "College Navigator - University of Michigan-Ann Arbor". 
  7. "Style Guide: Colors". Office of Global Communications, University of Michigan. July 7, 2015. 
  8. "Environmental Stewardship at the University of Michigan". University of Michigan Occupational Safety and Environmental Health. 2006. 
  9. "Academics" (in en). 
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 Hinsdale 1906
  11. "SNAPSHOTS OF U-M HISTORY: Rising from the Ashes". 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 "The University of Michigan's Heritage – Two Centuries of Leadership". 
  13. Berry, Wesley. "Mysterious Freemason Celebrates 250th Anniversary in Michigan" (Press release). prnewswire. Archived from the original on October 9, 2021. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  14. "002 1817-1871 PH.indd". 
  15. "AIUM: About". 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "The Central Forty and The Diag (1837)". University of Michigan History and Traditions Committee. 
  17. Truettner, Julia M. (2003). Aspirations for Excellence. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 9780472112777. Retrieved December 24, 2021. 
  18. Donnelly, Walter A.; Shaw, Wilfred B.; Gjelsness, Ruth W. (1958). "President's House". University of Michigan Press. 
  19. "Professor White's trees". 
  20. "New General Library". UMHistory. 
  21. University of Michigan 2015.
  22. Pitcher 1856, p. 79.
  23. Dupree 1988, pp. 67–68.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Duderstadt, Anne. (January 1, 2006). The University of Michigan: A Photographic Saga (Millenium Project). University of Michigan Press. 
  25. "University of Michigan Timelines: General University Timeline". Bentley Historical Library. July 5, 2007. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 "University of Michigan Branch 1838-1843". Kalamazoo Public Library. May 2023. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Chemical Laboratory". UMHistory. 
  28. Brubacher, John Seiler (July 1, 1997). Higher Education in Transition. Transaction Publishers. p. 187. ISBN 1-56000-917-9. 
  29. "Suggested Research Topics – Gender and Social Space on the University Campus, 1870–1970". Bentley Historical Library. September 26, 2008. 
  30. Brennan, T. Corey (n.d.). "WOOD, Alice Robinson Boise". Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. "When the question first came up in 1854 of admitting women to the University of Michigan, James Robinson Boise is the only professor on record to vote in its favor. A dozen years later, when his daughter Alice had graduated Ann Arbor High School, he is said to have been enraged that she could not continue at Michigan, and in September 1866 informally invited his daughter to join his Greek recitations at the university. Some of his colleagues followed suit." 
  31. Guzmán, W. (May 22, 2020). "José Barbosa (1857–1921)". 
  32. Calata, Alexander A. (2002). "The Role of Education in Americanizing Filipinos". in McFerson, Hazel M.. Mixed Blessing: The Impact of the American Colonial Experience on Politics and Society in the Philippines. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 9780313307911. OCLC 756515246. 
  33. "University to launch institute to address antisemitism". U-M Office of the Vice President for Communications. December 28, 2023. 
  34. "Buss: Once a haven, Jews now fearful on UM campus". The Detroit News. November 29, 2023. 
  35. "The First 150 Years". 
  36. "Martha Cook Residence Hall". 
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 "The Law Quadrangle". 
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 Burton, Marion Le Roy. "Department of Physics (University of Michigan) records, 1873-[ongoing."]. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN LIBRARY. 
  39. Miller, David (2009). George Herbert Mead: Self, Language, and the World. University of Texas Press. pp. xii-xix. ISBN 978-0-292-72700-7. 
  40. Pace, Eric (February 3, 1999). "Warren E. Miller, 74, Expert On American Voting Patterns". The New York Times. 
  41. "MMPEI–History". Michigan Memorial Phoenix Energy Institute. 
  42. Martin, Joseph D. (February 2016). "The Peaceful Atom Comes to Campus". Physics Today 69 (2): 40–46. doi:10.1063/pt.3.3081. Bibcode2016PhT....69b..40M. 
  43. Newman, Matthew (October 1995). "U-M faculty's historic teach-in of 30 years ago: 'A Vital Service To Their Country'". Michigan Today. Retrieved August 28, 2010. 
  44. "A Decade of Dissent:Teach-Ins". Bentley Historical Library. December 22, 2008. 
  45. "AADL Talks To Jim Toy and Jackie Simpson". Ann Arbor District Library. November 11, 2011. 
  46. Sullivan, Amy (April 23, 2009). "Cash-Strapped State Schools Being Forced to Privatize". Time (magazine).,8599,1893286,00.html. Retrieved October 10, 2021. 
  47. Weislak, Lance J.; LaFaive, Michael D. (March 1, 2004). "Privatize the University of Michigan (Viewpoint on Public Issues)". The Mackinac Center for Public Policy. 
  48. Fain, P. (November 1, 2009). "At public universities: Less for more.". 
  49. Kelderman, E. (May 1, 2009). "Public Colleges Consider Privatization as a Cure for the Common Recession". Chronicle of Higher Education 55 (34). Retrieved May 8, 2022. 
  50. Peckham, Howard Henry (September 26, 1994). The Making of The University of Michigan 1817-1992. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN BENTLEY LIBRARY. ISBN 9780472065943. 
  51. Kerr, Clark (December 16, 1973). "Clark Kerr 1973 Winter Commencement: THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY - END OF ITS GOLDEN AGE?". University of Michigan. 
  52. Stadtman, Verne A. (1970). The University of California, 1868–1968. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 7–34. 
  53. Marsden, George M. (1994). The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 134–140. ISBN 9780195106503. Retrieved November 9, 2021.  Page 138 of this source incorrectly states that the date of the final negotiations in which Governor Low participated was October 8, 1869, but it is clear from the context and the endnotes to that page (which cite documents from 1867) that the reference to 1869 is a typo.
  54. "Our History". 
  55. "Henry and Emma Rogers Society". Northwestern University. 
  56. Massachusetts Moments.
  57. Bergin 1983.
  58. "Environmental Protection Management Practices: Flood Control". University of Michigan Occupational Safety and Environmental Health. 
  59. Office of Campus Sustainability. "University of Michigan-FY2018 Annual Environmental Metrics Report". p. 3. 
  60. "Ann Arbor Map". University of Michigan, MM&D. 
  61. "Street Map to Rachel Upjohn Building". University of Michigan Health System. —The linked map shows the entire East Medical Campus.
  62. "Welcome to Radrick Farms Golf Course". University of Michigan. 
  63. Duderstadt, Anne. "The Inglis House Estate at the University of Michigan". University of Michigan. 
  64. "Campus Planning – Overview Report 1998 (Introduction and Summary)". University of Michigan – Architecture, Engineering and Construction. April 22, 1998. p. 3. 
  65. "Buses". University of Michigan. 
  66. "2008 Annual Environmental Report". The Regents of the University of Michigan. 2008. p. 9. 
  67. 67.0 67.1 "Undergraduate Housing Overviews". University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs. 
  68. "The University of Michigan Campus". University of Michigan School of Information. 
  69. "A Chronology of University of Michigan Buildings, 1840–1999". Bentley Historical Library. July 5, 2007. 
  70. Migliore, Greg (January 31, 2008). "Contest seeks U-M North Campus hub designs". Ann Arbor Business Review. 
  71. Carter, Brian (2000). "Eero Saarinen-Operational Thoroughness A Way of Working". Dimensions Volume Fourteen: 32–39. 
  72. Duderstadt, Anne (2003). The University of Michigan College of Engineering. Millennium Project, University of Michigan. p. 83. Retrieved March 8, 2013. 
  73. "North Campus Map". University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs. August 16, 2012. 
  74. "Welcome to the James and Anne Duderstadt Center". The Regents of the University of Michigan. February 1, 2006. 
  75. 75.0 75.1 "South Campus Map". University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs. 
  76. "Student Theatre Arts Complex". University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs. August 16, 2012. 
  77. "University of Michigan Golf Course". University of Michigan Athletic Department. 
  78. "U-M Golf Course Hole Listed Among MacKenzie's Best". MGoBlue (University of Michigan Athletic Department). April 5, 2006. 
  79. "University of Michigan Timelines: Departmental History". Bentley Historical Library. November 4, 2008. 
  80. Hebel 2004
  81. "About the Board of Regents". University of Michigan Board of Regents. 
  82. "Regents of the University of Michigan: Historical Background". Bentley Historical Library. October 3, 2007. 
  83. Hinsdale 1906, p. 37
  84. State of Michigan, 1850, Article 13, section 8
  85. "President's House". Bentley Historical Library. October 3, 2007. 
  86. "University of Michigan President Mark Schlissel fired by board after investigation". 
  87. "Undergraduate Studies". University of Michigan. 
  88. 88.0 88.1 "Enrollment by Degree Type & School/College". UM News Service. October 2014. 
  89. "What is Rackham?". University of Michigan Rackham Graduate School. 
  90. "IRS Form 990, FY 2012". 
  91. "About Voice Your Vote". University of Michigan CSG. 2006. 
  92. Shubert, Cathe (September 19, 2007). "Homecoming parade, carnival to return". The Michigan Daily. 
  93. Woodhouse, Kellie (March 12, 2014). "How a Persistent Student Government Got Michigan to Scrap General Admission Football Seating". MLive. 
  94. "Ann Arbor City Council Unanimously Approves Student Advisory Council". 
  95. "Who We Are". 
  96. "Residence Hall Government". University of Michigan. 
  97. 97.0 97.1 "Denied again: University should have a student regent". The Michigan Daily. June 29, 1998. 
  98. "Regent candidates discuss tuition, health care issues at forum". The University Record Online. October 21, 2002. 
  99. Holmes, Erin (September 8, 1998). "Board of regents says no to MSA student regent campaign fee". The Michigan Daily. 
  100. Don Jordan (October 19, 2023). "Endowment generated 5.2% return in FY '23". 
  101. 101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.4 "University of Michigan Common Data Set 2022–2023". University of Michigan Office of Budget and Planning. "For common datasets from 1998–present, see" 
  102. 102.0 102.1 "University of Michigan Common Data Set 2021–2022". University of Michigan Office of Budget and Planning. "For common datasets from 1998–present, see" 
  103. "University of Michigan Common Data Set 2020–2021". University of Michigan Office of Budget and Planning. "For common datasets from 1998–present, see" 
  104. "University of Michigan Common Data Set 2019–2020". University of Michigan Office of Budget and Planning. "For common datasets from 1998–present, see" 
  105. "University of Michigan Common Data Set 2018–2019". University of Michigan Office of Budget and Planning. "For common datasets from 1998–present, see" 
  106. "University of Michigan—Ann Arbor". 
  107. "University of Michigan—Ann Arbor". The Princeton Review. 
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 "Carnegie Classifications – University of Michigan". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 
  109. 109.0 109.1 109.2 "Student Profile". University of Michigan. 
  110. "Colleges With the Most Applications" (in en). 
  111. Williams, Kaitlin (September 29, 2011). "University admissions still need-blind despite funding cuts". The Michigan Daily. 
  112. "President Bush Discusses Michigan Affirmative Action Case". Office of the Press Secretary, White House. January 15, 2003. 
  113. 113.0 113.1 Goodman, David N. (January 11, 2007). "University of Michigan Drops Affirmative Action for Now". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 
  114. "The University of Michigan – Degrees and Areas of Study". U-M Provost's Office. 2009. 
  115. "Degrees Conferred by Degree Level & School/College". University of Michigan Office of Budget & Planning. October 16, 2012. pp. 1–2. 
  116. "University of Michigan-Ann Arbor". U.S. Dept of Education. 
  117. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020: National/Regional Rank". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 
  118. "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. 
  119. "U.S. College Rankings 2020". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education.!/page/0/length/25/sort_by/rank/sort_order/asc/cols/stats. 
  120. "2021 Best National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 
  121. "2020 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. 
  122. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2020. 
  123. "QS World University Rankings® 2021". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2020. 
  124. "World University Rankings 2021". THE Education Ltd..!/page/0/length/25/sort_by/rank/sort_order/asc/cols/stats. 
  125. "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2020". U.S. News & World Report LP. 
  126. "U-M Accreditation 2010". University of Michigan. 
  127. "Directory of HLC Institutions – University of Michigan". The Higher Learning Commission, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.,com_directory/Action,ShowBasic/Itemid,184/instid,1368/lang,en/. 
  128. Moll, Richard (1985). The Public Ivys: America's Flagship Undergraduate Colleges. New York: Viking Adult. p. 61. ISBN 0-670-58205-0. 
  129. "Top Public Universities". 
  130. "2021 Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs Rankings". 
  131. "2021 Best Undergraduate Business Programs Rankings". 
  132. "2020 College Hopes & Worries Press Release | The Princeton Review". 
  133. "World University Rankings 2022-23 | Global 2000 List | CWUR" (in en). 
  134. "University of Michigan – Ann Arbor – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 28, 2020. 
  135. "University of Michigan—Ann Arbor Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved May 1, 2021. 
  136. "University of Michigan—Ann Arbor – U.S. News Best Global University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved May 3, 2021. 
  137. "2018 tables: Institutions - academic". Nature Index. 
  138. "2019 tables: Institutions - academic". Nature Index. 
  139. "2020 tables: Institutions - academic". Nature Index. 
  140. "2021 tables: Institutions - academic". Nature Index. 
  141. "2022 tables: Institutions - academic". Nature Index. 
  142. "2023 tables: Institutions - academic". Nature Index. 
  143. "Table 21. Higher education R&D expenditures, ranked by FY 2021 R&D expenditures: FYs 2010–21". National Science Foundation. 
  144. 144.0 144.1 Forrest, Stephen R. (January 21, 2010). Annual Report on Research and Scholarship FY2009 Financial Summary. Ann Arbor: Office of the Vice President for Research. Retrieved March 12, 2020. "University of Michigan expenditures in support of research, scholarship and creative activity reached a special milestone in Fiscal Year 2009—total expenditures for the year surpassed $1 billion, reaching $1,016,565,913.... The total is an increase of 9.4% over FY2008. Overall, the University's research portfolio remains one of the largest in the country...." 
  145. Lessnau, Laura (December 20, 2008). "U-M to buy Pfizer's former Ann Arbor property". Michigan News (Office of the Vice President for Communications). 
  146. "History". University of Michigan Health System. 2010. 
  147. Inventors and Inventions. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 2008. p. 928. ISBN 9780761477617. 
  148. "United States of America – Focal point for biosphere reserves". UNESCO. November 1, 2000. 
  149. Arden, B. W.; Galler, B. A.; O'Brien, T. C.; Westervelt, F. H. (January 1966). "Program and Addressing Structure in a Time-Sharing Environment". Journal of the ACM (New York: Association for Computing Machinery) 13 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1145/321312.321313. ISSN 0004-5411. 
  150. Topol, Susan (May 13, 1996). "A History of MTS — 30 Years of Computing Service". University of Michigan Information Technology Digest. 
  151. Mills, David (January 23, 2005). "Michigan Terminal System". 
  152. Frantilla, Anne (September 1998). "Social Science in the Public Interest: A Fiftieth-Year History of the Institute for Social Research". Bentley Historical Library. 
  153. "About UROP". University of Michigan Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program. 
  154. "Statistical Highlights 2011–2012". Regents of the University of Michigan. 
  155. "Michigan Digitization Project". University of Michigan Library. 
  156. "Merit's History". Merit Network. —A university press release called a demonstration of the network (with a connection between U-M and Wayne State University) on December 14, 1971, as "a milestone in higher education" and an "historic event."
  157. "Merit Network: History". Merit Network. 
  158. Serwach, Joe (September 22, 2008). "URC fuels new industries". University of Michigan News Service. 
  159. "What is Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR)?". MiLR, Michigan LambdaRail. 
  160. "University of Michigan pledges steep carbon emission cuts at all three campuses" (in en). 
  161. 161.0 161.1 "University of Michigan-Ann Arbor | College Scorecard" (in en). 
  162. (in en) ENROLLMENT REPORT FALL 2023. Michigan Association of State Universities. 2023. pp. 3. 
  163. Lauren Love (October 2, 2023). "U-M's fall enrollment makes it state's largest university". 
  164. "Enrollment Reports | Office of the Registrar". 
  165. 165.0 165.1 (in en) ANN ARBOR CAMPUS SNAPSHOT - FALL 2022. University of Michigan Office of Budget & Planning. 2022. pp. 1. 
  166. Morkin, Tyler (November 13, 2023) (in en). 2023 Statistical Report: International Students, Scholars, Faculty, Staff, and Education Abroad. University of Michigan International Center. pp. 4. 
  167. AISCH, GREGOR; BUCHANAN, LARRY; COX, AMANDA; QUEALY, KEVIN (January 18, 2017). "Economic diversity and student outcomes at Michigan" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  168. "About University Housing". University of Michigan Housing. 
  169. "Residence Hall Overviews Bursley Hall". University of Michigan Housing. 
  170. "Residence Hall Overviews Henderson House". University of Michigan Housing. 
  171. "Michigan Learning Communities". UM Undergraduate Housing. 
  172. "Michigan Community Scholars Program". 
  173. "North Quad to feature study of media, information technology". University of Michigan News Service. January 26, 2005. 
  174. "Max Kade Residence". Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures. 
  175. Huston, Caitlin (July 25, 2010). "North Quad to showcase state-of-the-art technology, international programs". The Michigan Daily. 
  176. Maughan, Linsey (September 3, 2009). "New North Quad residence hall complex on track for opening in fall 2010". 
  177. "North Quadrangle". University of Michigan Housing. 
  178. Theme Communities . UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  179. Adelia Cheever Program . UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  180. First Year Experience . UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  181. "Second Year Experience – University Housing". 
  182. Transfer Experience . UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  183. International Impact . UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  184. "University of Michigan Directory of Student Organizations Profile of Omega Omega Omega - Maize Pages". University of Michigan Student Assembly. 
  185. "University of Michigan Directory of Student Organizations – Maize Pages". University of Michigan Student Assembly. 
  186. "How are U-M students voting this election? A survey of issues most important to students". 
  187. "Young Americans for Freedom at the University of Michigan". 
  188. "About Us – Past Teams". UM Solar Car Teams. 
  189. "Michigan Interactive Investments". 
  190. "About Us". Michigan Economic Society. 
  191. "Meet DMUM". Dance Marathon, Inc.. 
  192. "UM Habitat for Humanity". UM Habitat for Humanity. 
  193. "About Our Facilities". UM Department of Recreational Sports. January 22, 2007. 
  194. "University of Michigan--Ann Arbor Student Life". 
  195. "Welcome to Greek Life". Division of Student Affairs – Greek Life at the University of Michigan. 
  196. "About the Trotter Multicultural Center". University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs. 
  197. "About UAC". University Activities Center. 
  198. "Sections". The Michigan Marching Band. 
  199. "History". The Michigan Marching Band. 
  200. Shattuck, Kathryn (April 7, 2011). "Yale Glee Club at 150, at Carnegie Hall". The New York Times. 
  201. "Our History". The University of Michigan Friars. 
  202. "A cappella group wins international championship" (in en). May 5, 2002. 
  203. "Results" (in en-US). August 12, 2015. 
  204. "The A Cappella Archive – Rankings & Records" (in en-US). 
  205. 205.0 205.1 205.2 "Honors And Awards For Superior Academic Achievement". University of Michigan College of LS&A. 
  206. "University of Michigan Maize Pages – Organizations". 
  207. "Arab Student Association – Home". 
  208. "African Students Association – Home". 
  209. "Egyptian Student Association – Home". 
  210. "Michigamua Image Gallery". 
  211. Horne, Brooke Van (January 1, 1970). "Phoenix, a secret society at U-M, votes to disband permanently" (in en-US). 
  212. "Journals and Student Organizations". The University of Michigan Law School. 
  213. Smith, Patti F.; Woodman, Britain (2019). Vanishing Ann Arbor. Chicago Arcadia Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 9781439666975. Retrieved March 9, 2020. 
  214. Wakin, Daniel J. (August 24, 2003). "Quieter Lives for 60's Militants, but Intensity of Beliefs Hasn't Faded". 
  215. "Weather Underground Bombings". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
  216. "U.S. Department of Education Releases List of Higher Education Institutions with Open Title IX Sexual Violence Investigations". U.S. Department of Education. May 1, 2014. 
  217. Breiler, Christopher. "Horrific Details Of Sexual Abuse at Michigan Largely Ignored Amid Debates Over Legacies". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 12, 2021. 
  218. "Bo Schembechler's son, others say iconic coach knew about Michigan doctor's sexual abuse". June 10, 2021. 
  219. Blinder, Alan (June 10, 2021). "Son of Bo Schembechler Says He Was Abused by Team Doctor at Michigan". 
  220. Heinrichs, Audra (November 30, 2021). "Male survivors unite to expose sexual abuse at college football's biggest rivals". 
  221. Jesse, David. "University of Michigan reaches $490M settlement with Dr. Anderson sexual assault survivors" (in en-US). 
  222. "University of Michigan Athletics Varsity Sports". University of Michigan Athletic Department. 
  223. "Learfield Sports Directors' Cup Previous Scoring". National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics. 
  224. Kinney, Greg (February 4, 2020). "Michigan in the Olympics – Michigan Olympians by Sport". Bentley Historical Library. 
  225. Kinney, Greg (August 21, 2016). "Michigan in the Olympics – University of Michigan Medalists". Bentley Historical Library. 
  226. "U-M Announces New Seating Capacity for Michigan Stadium". University of Michigan Department of Athletics. August 7, 2015. 
  227. "Michigan Stadium". University of Michigan Athletic Department. 
  228. "The Michigan Stadium Story – Once Again the Biggest House, 1998". Bentley Historical Library. 
  229. Crawford, Brad (December 26, 2021). "College football's all-time winningest programs, ranked". 
  230. "Football Bowl Subdivision Records: All-Time Won-Loss Records". National Collegiate Athletics Association. p. 98. 
  231. "University of Michigan Athletics History: All-Time University of Michigan Football Record 1879–2007". Bentley Historical Library. May 31, 2008. 
  232. "University of Michigan Football – National Championships". 
  233. 233.0 233.1 "Heisman Winners". Heisman Trophy at 2010. 
  234. "Men's Ice Hockey (Division I): Championship History". NCAA. 
  235. Cnockaert, Jim (March 22, 2002). "Accident's effects still felt six years later: Roberson: It changed the athletic department". Ann Arbor News. 
  236. "Michigan in the Olympics". Bentley Historical Library. February 5, 2016. 
  237. Michael Hondorp, Fabrikant Alexis (January 1, 2005). University of Michigan College Prowler Off the Record. College Prowler, Inc. p. 118. ISBN 1-59658-163-8. 
  238. Rozell, Mark J. (October 15, 1992). The Press and the Ford Presidency. University of Michigan Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-472-10350-4. 
  239. Singer, Michelle (January 3, 2007). "Gerald Ford Returns Home For The Last Time". CBS News. 
  240. Stieg, Bill (May 21, 1984). "A Catchy Intro To A Cheer Became Music To The Ears Of Myriad Fans". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 25, 2008. 
  241. "The Michiganesian Yearbook". 1999. p. 186. 
  242. "The Eugene Fischer Years: 1906–1914". Regents of the University of Michigan. 
  243. "About Us". The Kelsey Museum of Archeology at the University of Michigan. 2008. 
  244. Harper, Richard P.; Wilkinson, Tony J. (1975), "Excavations at Dibsi Faraj, Northern Syria, 1972–1974: A Preliminary Note on the Site and Its Monuments with an Appendix", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29: 319–338, doi:10.2307/1291379 
  245. Imran Syed (November 1, 2009). "Hoarding history". The Michigan Daily. 
  246. Mallory, Jones (March 18, 2009). "Economy yields higher museum attendance". Michigan Daily. 
  247. "University of Michigan". Museum of Art (UMMA). 
  248. "History". University of Michigan Exhibit Museum of Natural History. 2008. 
  249. "National Academy of Engineering Member Directory". 
  250. "National Academy of Medicine General Directory". 
  251. "National Academy of Sciences Member directory". 
  252. "American Academy of Arts and Sciences Member Directory". 
  253. "American Philosophical Society Member Directory". 
  254. "Chapter 6 Faculty & Staff". 
  255. Lombardi, John V.; Capaldi, Elizabeth D.; Reeves, Kristy R.; Gater, Denise S. (December 2004). "The Top American Research Universities". The Lombardi Program on Measuring University Performance (Amherst and Gainesville: The Center for Measuring University Performance, UMass Amherst and University of Florida). Retrieved March 12, 2020. 
  256. "Alumni". University of Michigan. 
  257. "MSI student will study in Ireland as U-M's first George J. Mitchell Scholarship recipient". November 25, 2020. 
  258. Office of the American Secretary. "Number of Winners by Institution: U.S. Rhodes Scholars 1904–2020". The Rhodes Trust. p. 7. 
  259. 259.00 259.01 259.02 259.03 259.04 259.05 259.06 259.07 259.08 259.09 259.10 259.11 259.12 259.13 259.14 259.15 259.16 259.17 259.18 259.19 259.20 259.21 259.22 259.23 259.24 259.25 259.26 259.27 "Famous U-M Alumni". Alumni Association University of Michigan. 
  260. "About Justin Amash". 
  261. "Shannon Statue Dedicated at the University of Michigan". University of Michigan EECS. November 9, 2001. 
  262. "Biographical Memoirs-Clarence Leonard (kelly) Johnson". The National Academies Press. 
  263. "Corporate Information – Google Management: Larry Page". Google, Inc.. 
  264. Beyster, J. Robert; Economy, Peter (2007). The SAIC solution: How we built an $8 billion employee-owned technology company. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-0-470-09752-6. OCLC 76820653. 
  265. "Jia Tolentino" (in en). The New Yorker. Retrieved November 21, 2020. 
  266. "Sanjay Gupta". CNN. 
  267. Michaelis, Vicki (February 13, 2007). "Phelps' dominant pool dream still alive". USA Today. 
  268. "Shelina Zadorsky - Women's Soccer" (in en). 
  269. Ayers, Bill (2003). Fugitive Days: A Memoir. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-8070-7124-2. 
  270. "Who". Charles Moore Foundation. 
  271. Schreiber, Penny. "The Wallenberg Story". The Wallenberg Foundation (University of Michigan). 
  272. Greenm James J. (1979). The Life and Times of General B. D. Pritchard. Allegan: Allegan County Historical Society. p. 2. 
  273. Shayler, David (2001). Gemini. Springer. p. 103. ISBN 1-85233-405-3. 
  274. 274.0 274.1 Graboski, Leah (March 29, 2006). "Debunking the moon myth" (in en). The Michigan Daily. 


External links