Astronomy:Lunar eclipse

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Short description: Astronomical event
Latter phases of the partial lunar eclipse on 17 July 2019 taken from Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

A lunar eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow, causing the Moon to be darkened.[1] Such an alignment occurs during an eclipse season, approximately every six months, during the full moon phase, when the Moon's orbital plane is closest to the plane of the Earth's orbit.

This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are exactly or very closely aligned (in syzygy) with Earth between the other two, which can happen only on the night of a full moon when the Moon is near either lunar node. The type and length of a lunar eclipse depend on the Moon's proximity to the lunar node.[citation needed]

When the Moon is totally eclipsed by the Earth (a "deep eclipse"),[2][3] it takes on a reddish color that is caused by the planet when it completely blocks direct sunlight from reaching the Moon's surface, as only the light reflected from the lunar surface has been refracted by the Earth's atmosphere. This light appears reddish due to the Rayleigh scattering of blue light, the same reason sunrises and sunsets are more orange than during the day.

Unlike a solar eclipse, which can only be viewed from a relatively small area of the world, a lunar eclipse may be viewed from anywhere on the night side of Earth. A total lunar eclipse can last up to nearly two hours, while a total solar eclipse lasts only a few minutes at any given place, because the Moon's shadow is smaller. Also, unlike solar eclipses, lunar eclipses are safe to view without any eye protection or special precautions.

The symbol for a lunar eclipse (or indeed, any body in the shadow of another) is 🝶 (U+1F776 🝶).

Types of lunar eclipse

A schematic diagram of the shadow cast by Earth. Within the umbra, the central region, the planet totally shields direct sunlight. In contrast, within the penumbra, the outer portion, the sunlight is only partially blocked. (Neither the Sun, Moon, and Earth sizes nor the distances between the bodies are to scale.)

Earth's shadow can be divided into two distinctive parts: the umbra and penumbra.[4] Earth totally occludes direct solar radiation within the umbra, the central region of the shadow. However, since the Sun's diameter appears to be about one-quarter of Earth's in the lunar sky, the planet only partially blocks direct sunlight within the penumbra, the outer portion of the shadow.

Penumbral lunar eclipse

A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when part or all of the Moon passes into the Earth's penumbra.[5] No part of the moon is in the Earth's umbra during this event. The penumbra causes a subtle dimming of the lunar surface, which is only visible to the naked eye when about 70% of the Moon's diameter has immersed into Earth's penumbra.[6] A special type of penumbral eclipse is a total penumbral lunar eclipse, during which the entire Moon lies exclusively within Earth's penumbra. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, the portion of the Moon closest to the umbra may appear slightly darker than the rest of the lunar disk.

Partial lunar eclipse

When the Moon penetrates partially into the Earth's umbra, it is known as a partial lunar eclipse,[5] while a total lunar eclipse occurs when the entire Moon enters the Earth's umbra. During this event, one part of the moon is in the Earth's umbra, while the other part is in the Earth's penumbra. The Moon's average orbital speed is about 1.03 km/s (2,300 mph), or a little more than its diameter per hour, so totality may last up to nearly 107 minutes. Nevertheless, the total time between the first and last contacts of the Moon's limb with Earth's shadow is much longer and could last up to 236 minutes.[7]

Total lunar eclipse

Timelapse of a total lunar eclipse

If the Moon entirely passes into the Earth's umbra, a total lunar eclipse occurs.[5] Just prior to complete entry, the brightness of the lunar limb—the curved edge of the Moon still being hit by direct sunlight—will cause the rest of the Moon to appear comparatively dim. The moment the Moon enters a complete eclipse, the entire surface will become more or less uniformly bright. Later, as the Moon's opposite limb is struck by sunlight, the overall disk will again become obscured. This is because, as viewed from the Earth, the brightness of a lunar limb is generally greater than that of the rest of the surface due to reflections from the many surface irregularities within the limb: sunlight striking these irregularities is always reflected back in greater quantities than that striking more central parts, which is why the edges of full moons generally appear brighter than the rest of the lunar surface. This is similar to the effect of velvet fabric over a convex curved surface, which, to an observer, will appear darkest at the center of the curve. It will be true of any planetary body with little or no atmosphere and an irregular cratered surface (e.g., Mercury) when viewed opposite the Sun.[8]

Central lunar eclipse

Central lunar eclipse is a total lunar eclipse during which the Moon passes through the centre of Earth's shadow, contacting the antisolar point.[9] This type of lunar eclipse is relatively rare.

The relative distance of the Moon from Earth at the time of an eclipse can affect the eclipse's duration. In particular, when the Moon is near apogee, the farthest point from Earth in its orbit, its orbital speed is the slowest. The diameter of Earth's umbra does not decrease appreciably within the changes in the Moon's orbital distance. Thus, the concurrence of a totally eclipsed Moon near apogee will lengthen the duration of totality.

Selenelion

October 2014 lunar eclipse viewed from Minneapolis during sunrise. Both the Moon and Sun were visible at that time.[10]

A selenelion or selenehelion, also called a horizontal eclipse, occurs where and when both the Sun and an eclipsed Moon can be observed at the same time. The event can only be observed just before sunset or just after sunrise, when both bodies will appear just above opposite horizons at nearly opposite points in the sky. A selenelion occurs during every total lunar eclipse—it is an experience of the observer, not a planetary event separate from the lunar eclipse itself. Typically, observers on Earth located on high mountain ridges undergoing false sunrise or false sunset at the same moment of a total lunar eclipse will be able to experience it. Although during selenelion the Moon is completely within the Earth's umbra, both it and the Sun can be observed in the sky because atmospheric refraction causes each body to appear higher (i.e., more central) in the sky than its true geometric planetary position.[11]

Timing

Contact points relative to the Earth's umbral and penumbral shadows, here with the Moon near is descending node

The timing of total lunar eclipses is determined by what are known as its "contacts" (moments of contact with Earth's shadow):[12]

  • P1 (First contact): Beginning of the penumbral eclipse. Earth's penumbra touches the Moon's outer limb.
  • U1 (Second contact): Beginning of the partial eclipse. Earth's umbra touches the Moon's outer limb.
  • U2 (Third contact): Beginning of the total eclipse. The Moon's surface is entirely within Earth's umbra.
  • Greatest eclipse: The peak stage of the total eclipse. The Moon is at its closest to the center of Earth's umbra.
  • U3 (Fourth contact): End of the total eclipse. The Moon's outer limb exits Earth's umbra.
  • U4 (Fifth contact): End of the partial eclipse. Earth's umbra leaves the Moon's surface.
  • P4 (Sixth contact): End of the penumbral eclipse. Earth's penumbra no longer makes contact with the Moon.

Danjon scale

The Moon does not completely darken as it passes through the umbra because Earth's atmosphere refracts sunlight into the shadow cone.

The following scale (the Danjon scale) was devised by André Danjon for rating the overall darkness of lunar eclipses:[13]

  • L = 0: Very dark eclipse. Moon almost invisible, especially at mid-totality.
  • L = 1: Dark eclipse, gray or brownish in coloration. Details distinguishable only with difficulty.
  • L = 2: Deep red or rust-colored eclipse. Very dark central shadow, while outer edge of umbra is relatively bright.
  • L = 3: Brick-red eclipse. Umbral shadow usually has a bright or yellow rim.
  • L = 4: Very bright copper-red or orange eclipse. Umbral shadow is bluish and has a very bright rim.

Lunar versus solar eclipse

In a lunar eclipse, the Moon often passes through two regions of Earth's shadow: an outer penumbra, where direct sunlight is dimmed, and an inner umbra, where indirect and much dimmer sunlight refracted by Earth's atmosphere shines on the Moon, leaving a reddish color. This can be seen in different exposures of a partial lunar eclipse, for example here with exposures of 1/80, 2/5, and 2 seconds.

There is often confusion between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse. While both involve interactions between the Sun, Earth, and the Moon, they are very different in their interactions.

The Moon does not completely darken as it passes through the umbra because of the refraction of sunlight by Earth's atmosphere into the shadow cone; if Earth had no atmosphere, the Moon would be completely dark during the eclipse.[14] The reddish coloration arises because sunlight reaching the Moon must pass through a long and dense layer of Earth's atmosphere, where it is scattered. Shorter wavelengths are more likely to be scattered by the air molecules and small particles; thus, the longer wavelengths predominate by the time the light rays have penetrated the atmosphere. Human vision perceives this resulting light as red. This is the same effect that causes sunsets and sunrises to turn the sky a reddish color. An alternative way of conceiving this scenario is to realize that, as viewed from the Moon, the Sun would appear to be setting (or rising) behind Earth.

The amount of refracted light depends on the amount of dust or clouds in the atmosphere; this also controls how much light is scattered. In general, the dustier the atmosphere, the more that other wavelengths of light will be removed (compared to red light), leaving the resulting light a deeper red color. This causes the resulting coppery-red hue of the Moon to vary from one eclipse to the next. Volcanoes are notable for expelling large quantities of dust into the atmosphere, and a large eruption shortly before an eclipse can have a large effect on the resulting color.

Christopher Columbus predicting a lunar eclipse.

Lunar eclipse in culture

Several cultures have myths related to lunar eclipses or allude to the lunar eclipse as being a good or bad omen. The Egyptians saw the eclipse as a sow swallowing the Moon for a short time; other cultures view the eclipse as the Moon being swallowed by other animals, such as a jaguar in Mayan tradition, or a mythical three-legged toad known as Chan Chu in China.[citation needed] Some societies thought it was a demon swallowing the Moon, and that they could chase it away by throwing stones and curses at it.[15] The Ancient Greece correctly believed the Earth was round and used the shadow from the lunar eclipse as evidence.[16] Some Hindus believe in the importance of bathing in the Ganges River following an eclipse because it will help to achieve salvation.[17]

Inca

Similarly to the Mayans, the Incans believed that lunar eclipses occurred when a jaguar ate the Moon, which is why a blood moon looks red. The Incans also believed that once the jaguar finished eating the Moon, it could come down and devour all the animals on Earth, so they would take spears and shout at the Moon to keep it away.[18]

Mesopotamians

The ancient Mesopotamians believed that a lunar eclipse was when the Moon was being attacked by seven demons. This attack was more than just one on the Moon, however, for the Mesopotamians linked what happened in the sky with what happened on the land, and because the king of Mesopotamia represented the land, the seven demons were thought to be also attacking the king. In order to prevent this attack on the king, the Mesopotamians made someone pretend to be the king so they would be attacked instead of the true king. After the lunar eclipse was over, the substitute king was made to disappear (possibly by poisoning).[18]

Chinese

In some Chinese cultures, people would ring bells to prevent a dragon or other wild animals from biting the Moon.[19] In the 19th century, during a lunar eclipse, the Chinese navy fired its artillery because of this belief.[20] During the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046–256 BC) in the Book of Songs, the sight of a Red Moon engulfed in darkness was believed to foreshadow famine or disease.[21]

Blood moon

Totality during the lunar eclipse of 15 May 2022. Direct sunlight is being blocked by the Earth, and the only light reaching it is sunlight refracted by Earth's atmosphere, producing a reddish color.

Certain lunar eclipses have been referred to as "blood moons" in popular articles but this is not a scientifically recognized term.[22] This term has been given two separate, but overlapping, meanings.

The meaning usually relates to the reddish color a totally eclipsed Moon takes on to observers on Earth.[23] As sunlight penetrates the atmosphere of Earth, the gaseous layer filters and refracts the rays in such a way that the green to violet wavelengths on the visible spectrum scatter more strongly than the red, thus giving the Moon a reddish cast.[24] This is possible because the rays from the Sun are able to wrap around the Earth and reflect off the Moon.[25]

Occurrence

As the Earth revolves around the Sun, approximate axial parallelism of the Moon's orbital plane (tilted five degrees to the Earth's orbital plane) results in the revolution of the lunar nodes relative to the Earth. This causes an eclipse season approximately every six months, in which a solar eclipse can occur at the new moon phase and a lunar eclipse can occur at the full moon phase.

At least two lunar eclipses and as many as five occur every year, although total lunar eclipses are significantly less common than partial lunar eclipses. If the date and time of an eclipse is known, the occurrences of upcoming eclipses are predictable using an eclipse cycle, like the saros. Eclipses occur only during an eclipse season, when the Sun appears to pass near either node of the Moon's orbit.

View from the Moon

Main page: Astronomy:Solar eclipses on the Moon
A painting by Lucien Rudaux showing how a solar eclipse might appear when viewed from the lunar surface. The Moon's surface appears red because the only sunlight available is refracted through Earth's atmosphere on the edges of Earth, as shown in the sky in this painting.

A lunar eclipse is on the Moon a solar eclipse. The occurrence makes Earth's atmosphere appear as a red ring around the dark Earth. During full moon, the phase when lunar eclipses take place, the dark side of the Earth is illuminated by the Moon and its moon light.

See also

References

  1. McClure, Bruce (27 July 2018). "Century's Longest Lunar Eclipse July 27". http://earthsky.org/tonight/centurys-longest-lunar-eclipse-july-27. 
  2. Staff (2023). "PHYS 1350 Astronomy Exam 3 (TXST-Olson)". Quizlet. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. https://archive.today/20231109125204/https://quizlet.com/341047631/phys-1350-astronomy-exam-3-txst-olson-flash-cards/. Retrieved 9 November 2023.  "What is a deep eclipse? The smaller star is behind the bigger star"
  3. Miller, A.M. (7 November 2023). "ATel #16328 - ASASSN-23ht: A Deep Eclipse Event". The Astronomer's Telegram. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. https://archive.today/20231109132351/https://www.astronomerstelegram.org/?read=16328. Retrieved 9 November 2023. 
  4. Link 1969, p. 1.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Link 1969, p. 2.
  6. H. Mucke, J. Meeus (1992). Canon of Lunar Eclipses -2002 to +2526 (3rd ed.). Astronomisches Büro Wien. p. V. 
  7. Karttunen, Hannu (2007). Fundamental Astronomy. Springer. p. 139. ISBN 9783540341444. https://books.google.com/books?id=DjeVdb0sLEAC&pg=PA139. 
  8. "Lunar Limb Magic". Astronomy.com. 27 November 2018. https://astronomy.com/magazine/stephen-omeara/2018/11/copy-of-lunar-limb-magic. 
  9. Westfall, John; Sheehan, William (2014). Celestial Shadows: Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations. Springer. pp. 50. ISBN 978-1493915354. 
  10. "Day and Night World Map" (in en). https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/sunearth.html?day=8&month=10&year=2014&hour=7&min=25&sec=0&n=159&ntxt=Minneapolis&earth=0. 
  11. Kelly Beatty (2010-06-26). "In Search of Selenelion". http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/observingblog/97224024.html. 
  12. Clarke, Kevin. "On the nature of eclipses". Inconstant Moon. Cyclopedia Selenica. http://www.inconstantmoon.com/cyc_ecl1.htm. 
  13. Deans, Paul; MacRobert, Alan M. (16 July 2006). "Observing and Photographing Lunar Eclipses". F+W. http://skytonight.com/observing/objects/eclipses/3304036.html. 
  14. Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean. "Visual Appearance of Lunar Eclipses". NASA. http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/LEcat5/appearance.html. "The troposphere and stratosphere act together as a ring-shaped lens that refracts heavily reddened sunlight into Earth's umbral shadow." 
  15. Littmann, Mark; Espenak, Fred; Willcox, Ken (2008). "Chapter 4: Eclipses in Mythology". Totality Eclipses of the Sun (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953209-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=UOnH01tv078C. 
  16. Pollack, Rebecca. "Ancient Myths Revised with Lunar Eclipse". University of Maryland. https://www.astro.umd.edu/openhouse/3about-the-obs/news/2003-11-10.html. 
  17. Ani. "Hindus take a dip in the Ganges during Lunar Eclipse". https://in.news.yahoo.com/hindus-dip-ganges-during-lunar-eclipse-105428179.html. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Lee, Jane (14 April 2014). "Lunar Eclipse Myths From Around the World". http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/04/140413-total-lunar-eclipse-myths-space-culture-science/. 
  19. Quilas, Ma Evelyn. "Interesting Facts and Myths about Lunar Eclipse". LA Times. http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/548133/20140415/lunar-eclipse-facts-myths-superstition-nasa.htm#.VC2MJyldXmU. 
  20. "Mythology of the Lunar Eclipse". https://www.lifeasmyth.com/journal_planet_Eclipse.html. 
  21. Kaul, Gayatri (15 June 2011). "What Lunar Eclipse Means in Different Parts of the World". http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-what-lunar-eclipse-means-in-different-parts-of-world-1555136. 
  22. Sappenfield, Mark (13 April 2014). "Blood Moon to arrive Monday night. What is a Blood Moon?". The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2014/0413/Blood-Moon-to-arrive-Monday-night.-What-is-a-Blood-Moon. 
  23. Nigro, Nicholas (2010). Knack Night Sky: Decoding the Solar System, from Constellations to Black Holes. Globe Pequot. pp. 214–5. ISBN 978-0-7627-6604-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=iwim2lHciHAC&pg=PA214. 
  24. "All you need to know about the 'blood moon'". theguardian. 28 September 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/sep/28/all-you-need-to-know-about-the-blood-moon. 
  25. Jeanna, Bryner (2022-05-13). "Why does the moon turn red during a total lunar eclipse?" (in en). https://www.space.com/why-moon-turns-red-total-lunar-eclipse. 

Works cited

Further reading

  • Bao-Lin Liu, Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1500 B.C.-A.D. 3000. Willmann-Bell, Richmond VA, 1992
  • Jean Meeus and Hermann Mucke Canon of Lunar Eclipses -2002 to +2526 (3rd edition). Astronomisches Büro, Vienna, 1992
  • Espenak, F., Fifty Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses: 1986–2035. NASA Reference Publication 1216, 1989
  • Espenak, F. Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500, Astropixels Publishing, Portal AZ, 2014

External links