Biography:Karl Barth

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Short description: Swiss Protestant theologian (1886–1968)
Karl Barth
Karl Barth Bundesarchiv Bild.png
Barth in 1956
Basel, Switzerland
Died10 December 1968(1968-12-10) (aged 82)
Basel, Switzerland
OccupationTheologian, Professor
Nelly Hoffmann (m. 1913)
Children5, including Markus
Theological work
Tradition or movementSwiss Reformed

Karl Barth (/bɑːrt, bɑːrθ/;[1] German: [bart]; (1886-05-10)10 May 1886 – (1968-12-10)10 December 1968) was a Swiss Reformed theologian. Barth is best known for his commentary The Epistle to the Romans, his involvement in the Confessing Church, including his authorship (except for a single phrase) of the Barmen Declaration,[2][3] and especially his unfinished multi-volume theological summa the Church Dogmatics[4] (published between 1932–1967).[5][6] Barth's influence expanded well beyond the academic realm to mainstream culture, leading him to be featured on the cover of Time (magazine) on 20 April 1962.[7]

Like many Protestant theologians of his generation, Barth was educated in a liberal theology influenced by Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich Schleiermacher and others.[8] His pastoral career began in the rural Swiss town of Safenwil, where he was known as the "Red Pastor from Safenwil".[9] There he became increasingly disillusioned with the liberal Christianity in which he had been trained. This led him to write the first edition of his The Epistle to the Romans (a.k.a. Romans I), published in 1919, in which he resolved to read the New Testament differently.

Barth began to gain substantial worldwide acclaim with the publication in 1921 of the second edition of his commentary, The Epistle to the Romans, in which he openly broke from liberal theology.[10]

He influenced many significant theologians such as Dietrich Bonhoeffer who supported the Confessing Church, and Jürgen Moltmann, Helmut Gollwitzer, James H. Cone, Wolfhart Pannenberg, Rudolf Bultmann, Thomas F. Torrance, Hans Küng, and also Reinhold Niebuhr, Jacques Ellul, and novelists such as Flannery O'Connor, John Updike, and Miklós Szentkuthy.

Among many other areas, Barth has also had a profound influence on modern Christian ethics,[11][12][13][14] influencing the work of ethicists such as Stanley Hauerwas, John Howard Yoder, Jacques Ellul and Oliver O'Donovan.[11][15][16]

Early life and education

Karl Barth was born on 10 May 1886, in Basel, Switzerland, to Johann Friedrich "Fritz" Barth (1852–1912) and Anna Katharina (Sartorius) Barth (1863–1938).[17] Karl had two younger brothers, Peter Barth (1888–1940) and Heinrich Barth (1890–1965), and two sisters, Katharina and Gertrude. Fritz Barth was a theology professor and pastor[18] and desired for Karl to follow his positive line of Christianity, which clashed with Karl's desire to receive a liberal Protestant education. Karl began his student career at the University of Bern, and then transferred to the University of Berlin to study under Adolf von Harnack, and then transferred briefly to the University of Tübingen before finally in Marburg to study under Wilhelm Herrmann (1846–1922).[17]

From 1911 to 1921, Barth served as a Reformed pastor in the village of Safenwil in the canton of Aargau. In 1913 he married Nelly Hoffmann, a talented violinist. They had a daughter and four sons, two of whom were Biblical scholars and theologians Markus and Christoph Barth ( Markus Barth--6 October 1915 – 1 July 1994) (Christoph Barth--1917-1986). Later he was professor of theology in Göttingen (1921–1925), Münster (1925–1930) and Bonn (1930–1935), in Germany. While serving at Göttingen he met Charlotte von Kirschbaum, who became his long-time secretary and assistant; she played a large role in the writing of his epic, the Church Dogmatics.[19] He was deported from Germany in 1935 after he refused to sign (without modification) the Oath of Loyalty to Adolf Hitler and went back to Switzerland and became a professor in Basel (1935–1962).

Break from liberalism

In August 1914, Karl Barth was dismayed to learn that his venerated teachers including Adolf von Harnack had signed the "Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals to the Civilized World";[20] as a result, Barth concluded he could not follow their understanding of the Bible and history any longer.[21]

The Epistle to the Romans

Barth first began his commentary The Epistle to the Romans (German: Der Römerbrief) in the summer of 1916 while he was still a pastor in Safenwil, with the first edition appearing in December 1918 (but with a publication date of 1919).[9] On the strength of the first edition of the commentary, Barth was invited to teach at the University of Göttingen. Barth decided around October 1920 that he was dissatisfied with the first edition and heavily revised it the following eleven months, finishing the second edition around September 1921.[9][22] Particularly in the thoroughly re-written second edition of 1922, Barth argued that the God who is revealed in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus challenges and overthrows any attempt to ally God with human cultures, achievements, or possessions. The book's popularity led to its republication and reprinting in several languages.

Barmen Declaration

1984 West German postage stamp commemorating the Barmen Declaration's 50th. anniversary

In 1934, as the Protestant Church attempted to come to terms with Nazi Germany, Barth was largely responsible for the writing of the Barmen Declaration (Barmer Erklärung).[23] This declaration rejected the influence of Nazism on German Christianity by arguing that the Church's allegiance to the God of Jesus Christ should give it the impetus and resources to resist the influence of other lords, such as the German Führer, Adolf Hitler.[24] Barth mailed this declaration to Hitler personally. This was one of the founding documents of the Confessing Church and Barth was elected a member of its leadership council, the Bruderrat.

He was forced to resign from his professorship at the University of Bonn in 1935 for refusing to swear an oath to Hitler. Barth then returned to his native Switzerland, where he assumed a chair in systematic theology at the University of Basel. In the course of his appointment, he was required to answer a routine question asked of all Swiss civil servants: whether he supported the national defence. His answer was, "Yes, especially on the northern border!" The newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung carried his 1936 criticism of the philosopher Martin Heidegger for his support of the Nazis.[25] In 1938 he wrote a letter to a Czech colleague Josef Hromádka in which he declared that soldiers who fought against Nazi Germany were serving a Christian cause.

Church Dogmatics

Karl Barth's Kirchliche Dogmatik: The original 'white whale' edition of the Church Dogmatics from Barth's study that features a custom binding from the publisher.[26]
Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics in English translation

Barth's theology found its most sustained and compelling expression in his five-volume magnum opus, the Church Dogmatics (Kirchliche Dogmatik). Widely regarded as an important theological work, the Church Dogmatics represents the pinnacle of Barth's achievement as a theologian. Church Dogmatics runs to over six million words and 9,000 pages – one of the longest works of systematic theology ever written.[27][28][29] The Church Dogmatics is in five volumes: the Doctrine of the Word of God, the Doctrine of God, the Doctrine of Creation, the Doctrine of Reconciliation and the Doctrine of Redemption. Barth's planned fifth volume was never written and the fourth volume's final part-volume was unfinished.[30][31][32]

Later life and death

Photo of Barth on the jacket cover of Karl Barth Letters

After the end of the Second World War, Barth became an important voice in support both of German penitence and of reconciliation with churches abroad. Together with Hans Iwand, he authored the Darmstadt Statement in 1947 – a more concrete statement of German guilt and responsibility for Nazi Germany and the Second World War than the 1945 Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt. In it, he made the point that the Church's willingness to side with anti-socialist and conservative forces had led to its susceptibility for National Socialist ideology. In the context of the developing Cold War, that controversial statement was rejected by anti-Communists in the West who supported the CDU course of re-militarization, as well as by East German dissidents who believed that it did not sufficiently depict the dangers of Communism. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1950.[33] In the 1950s, Barth sympathized with the peace movement and opposed German rearmament.

Barth wrote a 1960 article for The Christian Century regarding the "East–West question" in which he denied any inclination toward Eastern communism and stated he did not wish to live under Communism or wish anyone to be forced to do so; he acknowledged a fundamental disagreement with most of those around him, writing: "I do not comprehend how either politics or Christianity require [sic] or even permit such a disinclination to lead to the conclusions which the West has drawn with increasing sharpness in the past 15 years. I regard anticommunism as a matter of principle an evil even greater than communism itself."[34]

In 1962, Barth visited the United States and lectured at Princeton Theological Seminary, the University of Chicago, the Union Theological Seminary and the San Francisco Theological Seminary. He was invited to be a guest at the Second Vatican Council. At the time Barth's health did not permit him to attend. However, he was able to visit the Vatican and be a guest of the pope in 1967, after which he wrote the small volume Ad Limina Apostolorum (At the Threshold of the Apostles).[35]

Barth was featured on the cover of the 20 April 1962 issue of Time magazine, an indication that his influence had reached out of academic and ecclesiastical circles and into mainstream American religious culture.[36] Pope Pius XII is often claimed to have said Barth was "the greatest theologian since Thomas Aquinas,"[37][38] though Fergus Kerr observes that "there is never chapter and verse for the quotation" and it is sometimes attributed to Pope Paul VI instead.[39]

Barth died on 10 December 1968, at his home in Basel, Switzerland. The evening before his death, he had encouraged his lifelong friend Eduard Thurneysen that he should not be downhearted, "For things are ruled, not just in Moscow or in Washington or in Peking, but things are ruled – even here on earth—entirely from above, from heaven above.”[40]


Karl Barth's most significant theological work is his summa theology titled the Church Dogmatics, which contains Barth's doctrine of the word of God, doctrine of God, doctrine of reconciliation and doctrine of redemption. Barth is most well known for reorienting all theological discussion around Jesus.

Trinitarian focus

One major objective of Barth is to recover the doctrine of the Trinity in theology from its putative loss in liberalism.[41] His argument follows from the idea that God is the object of God's own self-knowledge, and revelation in the Bible means the self-unveiling to humanity of the God who cannot be discovered by humanity simply through its own intuition.[42] God's revelation comes to man 'vertically from above' (Senkrecht von Oben).


One of the most influential and controversial features of Barth's Dogmatics was his doctrine of election (Church Dogmatics II/2). Barth's theology entails a rejection of the idea that God chose each person to either be saved or damned based on purposes of the Divine will, and it was impossible to know why God chose some and not others.[43]

Barth's doctrine of election involves a firm rejection of the notion of an eternal, hidden decree.[44] In keeping with his Christo-centric methodology, Barth argues that to ascribe the salvation or damnation of humanity to an abstract absolute decree is to make some part of God more final and definitive than God's saving act in Jesus Christ. God's absolute decree, if one may speak of such a thing, is God's gracious decision to be for humanity in the person of Jesus Christ. Drawing from the earlier Reformed tradition, Barth retains the notion of double predestination but makes Jesus himself the object of both divine election and reprobation simultaneously; Jesus embodies both God's election of humanity and God's rejection of human sin.[45] While some regard this revision of the doctrine of election as an improvement[46] on the Augustinian-Calvinist doctrine of the predestination of individuals, critics, namely Emil Brunner,[47] have charged that Barth's view amounts to a soft universalism, thereby departing from Augustinian-Calvinism.

Barth's doctrine of objective atonement develops as he distances himself from Anselm of Canterbury's doctrine of the atonement.[48] In The Epistle to the Romans, Barth endorses Anselm's idea that God who is robbed of his honor must punish those who robbed him. In Church Dogmatics I/2, Barth advocates divine freedom in the incarnation with the support of Anselm's Cur Deus Homo. Barth holds that Anselm's doctrine of the atonement preserves both God's freedom and the necessity of Christ's incarnation. The positive endorsement of Anselmian motives in Cur Deus Homo continues in Church Dogmatics II/1. Barth maintains with Anselm that the sin of humanity cannot be removed by the merciful act of divine forgiveness alone. In Church Dogmatics IV/1, however, Barth's doctrine of the atonement diverges from that of Anselm.[49] By over-christologizing the doctrine, Barth completes his formulation of objective atonement. He finalizes the necessity of God's mercy at the place where Anselm firmly establishes the dignity and freedom of the will of God.[50] In Barth's view, God's mercy is identified with God's righteousness in a distinctive way where God's mercy always takes the initiative. The change in Barth's reception of Anselm's doctrine of the atonement is, therefore, alleged to show that Barth's doctrine entails support for universalism.[47][51]


Barth argued that previous perspectives on sin and salvation, influenced by strict Calvinist thinking, sometimes misled Christians into thinking that predestination set up humanity such that the vast majority of human beings were foreseen to disobey and reject God, with damnation coming to them as a matter of fate.

Barth's view of salvation is centrally Christological, with his writings stating that in Jesus Christ the reconciliation of all of mankind to God has essentially already taken place and that through Christ man is already elect and justified.

Karl Barth denied that he was a Universalist: "I do not believe in universalism, but I do believe in Jesus Christ, reconciler of all.".[52] However, Barth asserted that eternal salvation for everyone, even those that reject God, is a possibility that is not just an open question but should be hoped for by Christians as a matter of grace; specifically, he wrote, "Even though theological consistency might seem to lead our thoughts and utterances most clearly in this direction, we must not arrogate to ourselves that which can be given and received only as a free gift", just hoping for total reconciliation.[53]

Barth, in the words of a later scholar, went a "significant step beyond traditional theology" in that he argued against more conservative strains of Protestant Christianity in which damnation is seen as an absolute certainty for many or most people. To Barth, Christ's grace is central.[53]

Understanding of Mary

Main page: Religion:Karl Barth's views on Mary

Unlike many Protestant theologians, Barth wrote on the topic of Mariology (the theological study of Mary). Barth's views on the subject agreed with much Catholic dogma but he disagreed with the Catholic veneration of Mary. Aware of the common dogmatic tradition of the early Church, Barth fully accepted the dogma of Mary as the Mother of God, seeing a rejection of that title equivalent to rejecting the doctrine that Christ's human and divine natures are inseparable (contra the Nestorian heresy). Through Mary, Jesus belongs to the human race. Through Jesus, Mary is Mother of God.[54]

Examples of Karl Barth's contributions to theology

Some theologians have suggested that Karl Barth's greatest contributions to theology may be summarized on one sheet of paper, but others have argued that is impossible to reduce his published works in such a way. Some of Karl Barth's best ideas include the following loci:[55]

  • Threefold Word of God (cf. CD I/1, CD I/2 19–21)
  • Doctrine of Election: The Electing and Elected Jesus Christ (c.f CD II/2, 33)
  • No to Natural Revelation (cf. Doctrine of God, CD II/1, CD IV/3.1, and the Barmen Declaration).
  • Creation as the exterior basis of the covenant and Covenant as the interior basis of creation (cf. CD III/1)
  • Christian Anthropology: Soul of my Body (cf. CD III/2)
  • The Judge Judged in our Place. (cf. CD IV/1)

Charlotte von Kirschbaum

Charlotte von Kirschbaum was Barth's theological academic colleague for more than three decades.[56][57][58] George Hunsinger summarizes the influence of von Kirschbaum on Barth's work: "As his unique student, critic, researcher, adviser, collaborator, companion, assistant, spokesperson, and confidante, Charlotte von Kirschbaum was indispensable to him. He could not have been what he was, or have done what he did, without her."[59]

A desk in Karl Barth's old office with a painting of Matthias Grünewald's crucifixion scene

In 2017 Christiane Tietz examined intimate letters written by Barth, Charlotte von Kirschbaum, and Nelly Barth, which discuss the complicated relationship between all three individuals that occurred over the span of 40 years.[60] The letters between von Kirschbaum and Barth from 1925 to 1935[61] made public "the deep, intense, and overwhelming love between these two human beings," through the lengthy period in which von Kirschbaum lived in the same house as Barth and his wife Nelly.[62] In them, Barth describes a permanent conflict between his marriage and his affections for von Kirschbaum: "The way I am, I never could and still cannot deny either the reality of my marriage or the reality of my love. It is true that I am married, that I am a father and a grandfather. It is also true that I love. And it is true that these two facts don’t match. This is why we, after some hesitation at the beginning, decided not to solve the problem with a separation on one or the other side."[63] When Charlotte von Kirschbaum died in 1975, Barth's wife Nelly buried Charlotte in the family tomb. Nelly died the following year.

In literature

In John Updike's Roger's Version, Roger Lambert is a professor of religion. Lambert is influenced by the works of Karl Barth. That is the primary reason that he rejects his student's attempt to use computational methods to understand God.

Harry Mulisch's The Discovery of Heaven makes mentions of Barth's Church Dogmatics, as does David Markson's The Last Novel. In the case of Mulisch and Markson, it is the ambitious nature of the Church Dogmatics that seems to be of significance. In the case of Updike, it is the emphasis on the idea of God as "Wholly Other" that is emphasized.

In Marilynne Robinson's Gilead, the preacher John Ames reveres Barth's "Epistle to the Romans" and refers to it as his favorite book other than the Bible.

Whittaker Chambers cites Barth in nearly all his books: Witness (p. 507), Cold Friday (p. 194), and Odyssey of a Friend (pp. 201, 231).

In Flannery O'Connor's letter to Brainard Cheney, she said, "I distrust folks who have ugly things to say about Karl Barth. I like old Barth. He throws the furniture around."

Center for Barth Studies

Princeton Theological Seminary, where Barth lectured in 1962, houses the Center for Barth Studies, which is dedicated to supporting scholarship related to the life and theology of Karl Barth. The Barth Center was established in 1997 and sponsors seminars, conferences, and other events. It also holds the Karl Barth Research Collection, the largest in the world, which contains nearly all of Barth's works in English and German, several first editions of his works, and an original handwritten manuscript by Barth.[64][65]


  • The Epistle to the Romans (Der Römerbrief I, 1st ed., 1919)
  • The Epistle to the Romans (Der Römerbrief. Zweite Fassung, 1922). E. C. Hoskyns, trans. London: Oxford University Press, 1933, 1968 ISBN:0-19-500294-6
  • The Word of God and The Word of Man (Das Wort Gottes und die Theologie, 1928). New York: Harper & Bros, 1957. ISBN:978-0-8446-1599-8; The Word of God and Theology. Amy Marga, trans. New York: T & T Clark, 2011.
  • Preaching Through the Christian Year. H. Wells and J. McTavish, eds. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1978. ISBN:0-8028-1725-4
  • God Here and Now. London: Routledge, 1964.
  • Fides Quaerens Intellectum: Anselm's Proof of the Existence of God in the Context of His Theological Scheme (written in 1931). I. W. Robertson, trans. London: SCM, 1960; reprinted by Pickwick Publications (1985) ISBN:0-915138-75-1
  • Church and State. G.R. Howe, trans. London: SCM, 1939.
  • The Church and the War. A. H. Froendt, trans. New York: Macmillan, 1944.
  • Prayer according to the Catechisms of the Reformation. S.F. Terrien, trans. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1952 (Also published as: Prayer and Preaching. London: SCM, 1964).
  • The Humanity of God, J.N. Thomas and T. Wieser, trans. Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1960. ISBN:0-8042-0612-0
  • Evangelical Theology: An Introduction. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1963.
  • The Christian Life. Church Dogmatics IV/4: Lecture Fragments. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1981. ISBN:0-567-09320-4, ISBN:0-8028-3523-6
  • The Word in this World: Two Sermons by Karl Barth. Edited by Kurt I. Johanson. Regent Publishing (Vancouver, BC, Canada): 2007
  • "No Angels of Darkness and Light," The Christian Century, 20 January 1960, p. 72 (reprinted in Contemporary Moral Issues. H. K. Girvetz, ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1963. pp. 6–8).
  • The Göttingen Dogmatics: Instruction in the Christian Religion, vol. 1. G.W. Bromiley, trans. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991. ISBN:0-8028-2421-8
  • Dogmatics in Outline (1947 lectures), Harper Perennial, 1959, ISBN:0-06-130056-X
  • A Unique Time of God: Karl Barth's WWI Sermons, William Klempa, editor. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
  • On Religion. Edited and translated by Garrett Green. London: T & T Clark, 2006.

The Church Dogmatics in English translation

  • Volume I Part 1: Doctrine of the Word of God: Prolegomena to Church Dogmatics, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09013-2, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05059-9 (German: 1932)
  • Volume I Part 2: Doctrine of the Word of God, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09012-4, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05069-6 (German: 1938)
  • Volume II Part 1: The Doctrine of God: The Knowledge of God; The Reality of God, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09021-3, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05169-2 (German: 1940)
  • Volume II Part 2: The Doctrine of God: The Election of God; The Command of God, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09022-1, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05179-X (German: 1942)
  • Volume III Part 1: The Doctrine of Creation: The Work of Creation, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09031-0, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05079-3 (German: 1945)
  • Volume III Part 2: The Doctrine of Creation: The Creature, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09032-9, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05089-0 (German: 1948)
  • Volume III Part 3: The Doctrine of Creation: The Creator and His Creature, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09033-7, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05099-8 (German: 1950)
  • Volume III Part 4: The Doctrine of Creation: The Command of God the Creator, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09034-5, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05109-9 (German: 1951)
  • Volume IV Part 1: The Doctrine of Reconciliation, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09041-8, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05129-3 (German: 1953)
  • Volume IV Part 2: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the Servant As Lord, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09042-6, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05139-0 (German: 1955)
  • Volume IV Part 3, first half: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the True Witness, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09043-4, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05189-7 (German: 1959)
  • Volume IV Part 3, second half: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the True Witness, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09044-2, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05149-8 (German: 1959)
  • Volume IV Part 4 (unfinished): Doctrine of Reconciliation: The Foundation of the Christian Life (Baptism), hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09045-0, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05159-5 (German: 1967)
  • Volume V: Church Dogmatics: Contents and Indexes, hardcover: ISBN:0-567-09046-9, softcover: ISBN:0-567-05119-6
  • Church Dogmatics, 14 volume set, softcover, ISBN:0-567-05809-3
  • Church Dogmatics: A Selection, with intro. by H. Gollwitzer, 1961, Westminster John Knox Press 1994, ISBN:0-664-25550-7
  • Church Dogmatics, dual language German and English, books with CD-ROM, ISBN:0-567-08374-8
  • Church Dogmatics, dual language German and English, CD-ROM only, ISBN:0-567-08364-0


  • Evangelical Theology, American lectures 1962 – given by Barth in Chicago, Illinois and Princeton, New Jersey, ISBN:978-0-9785738-0-5 and ISBN:0-9785738-0-3

See also


  1. "Barth". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Houtz, Wyatt (4 April 2018). "Karl Barth and the Barmen Declaration (1934)". The PostBarthian. 
  3. "Karl Barth – Christian History". 
  4. "The Life of Karl Barth: Church Dogmatics Vol IV: The Doctrine of Reconciliation 1953–1967 (Part 7)" (in en-US). 5 April 2019. 
  5. Name (Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology). Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  6. Houtz, Wyatt (21 April 2016). "Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics Original Publication Dates". The PostBarthian. 
  7. "Theologian Karl Barth", Time, 20 April 1962,,16641,19620420,00.html, retrieved 23 February 2019 
  8. Houtz, Wyatt (18 April 2018). "The Life of Karl Barth: Early Life from Basel to Geneva 1886–1913 (Part 1)". The PostBarthian. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Houtz, Wyatt (3 October 2017). "The Romans commentary by the Red Pastor of Safenwil: Karl Barth's Epistle to the Romans". The PostBarthian. 
  10. Houtz, Wyatt (18 April 2018). "The Life of Karl Barth: Early Life from Basel to Geneva 1886–1913 (Part 2)". The PostBarthian. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Parsons, Michael (1987). "Man Encountered by the Command of God: the Ethics of Karl Barth". Vox Evangelica 17: 48–65. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  12. Daniel L. Migliore (15 August 2010). Commanding Grace: Studies in Karl Barth's Ethics. W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-6570-0. 
  13. Matthew J. Aragon-Bruce. Ethics in Crisis: Interpreting Barth's Ethics (book review) Princeton Seminary Library. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  14. Oxford University Press: The Hastening that Waits: Nigel Biggar . Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  15. Journal – The Influence of Karl Barth on Christian Ethics. (7 April 2011). Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  16. Choi Lim Ming, Andrew (2003). A Study on Jacques Ellul's Dialectical Approach to the Modern and Spiritual World.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Houtz, Wyatt (18 April 2018). "The Life of Karl Barth: Early Life from Basel to Geneva 1886–1913 (Part 1)". The PostBarthian. 
  18. Gary J. Dorrien, The Barthian Revolt in Modern Theology: Theology Without Weapons, 2000: "Barthian "crisis theology" movement came into being. Karl Barth was the son of a conservative Reformed pastor and theological professor at the University of Berne, Fritz Barth..."
  19. Church Dogmatics, ed. T. F. Torrance and G. W. Bromiley (1932–67; ET Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1956–75).
  20. Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals, 1914.
  21. Houtz, Wyatt (21 April 2018). "The Life of Karl Barth: The Red Pastor of Safenwil 1909–1921 (Part 2)". The PostBarthian. 
  22. Kenneth Oakes, Reading Karl Barth: A Companion to Karl Barth's Epistle to the Romans, Eugene: Cascade, 2011, p. 27.
  23. Houtz, Wyatt (4 April 2018). "Karl Barth and the Barmen Declaration (1934)". The PostBarthian. 
  24. Michael Allen (18 December 2012). Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics: An Introduction and Reader. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-567-48994-4. 
  25. Ian Ward (1992) Law, philosophy, and National Socialism. Bern: Peter Lang. p 117. ISBN:3-261-04536-1.
  26. Original photo by Joshua Cook
  27. The T & T Clark Blog: Church Dogmatics. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  28. Myers, Ben. (27 November 2005) Faith and Theology: Church Dogmatics in a week. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  29. Grau, H. G. (1973). "The Barth–Bultmann Correspondence". Theology Today 30 (2): 138. doi:10.1177/004057367303000205. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  30. "The Life of Karl Barth: Church Dogmatics Vol IV: The Doctrine of Reconciliation 1953–1967 (Part 7)" (in en-US). 5 April 2019. 
  31. Houtz, Wyatt (23 June 2017). "Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics Ended At A Single Stroke". The PostBarthian. 
  32. Green, Garrett. "Introduction" to On Religion by Karl Barth, Trans. Garrett Green. (London: T&T Clark, 2006) p. 3
  33. "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
  34. Barth, Karl. "No Angels of Darkness and Light", The Christian Century, 20 January 1960, pp. 72 ff.
  35. Eberhard Jüngel (1986). Karl Barth, a Theological Legacy. Westminster Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-664-24031-8. 
  36. TIME Magazine Cover: Karl Barth – 20 April 1962 – Religion – Christianity. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  37. Houtz, Wyatt (18 April 2018). "The Life of Karl Barth: Early Life from Basel to Geneva 1886–1913 (Part 1)". The PostBarthian. 
  38. Timothy Gorringe (1999), Karl Barth: Against Hegemony, Oxford University Press, pp. 316–, ISBN 978-0-19-875247-9, 
  39. Kerr, Fergus (December 1998). "Book Notes: Barthiana". New Blackfriars 79 (934): 550–554. doi:10.1111/j.1741-2005.1998.tb01638.x. Retrieved 24 September 2020. 
  40. "Biography | Center for Barth Studies". 
  41. Braatan, 80–81
  42. Gorringe, 135-36.
  43. Mangina, 76.
  44. Chung, 385-86.
  45. Webster (2000), 93–95.
  46. Douglas Atchison Campbell (2005). The Quest For Paul's Gospel: A Suggested Strategy. T & T Clark International. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-567-08332-6. 
  47. 47.0 47.1 Brunner, Emil, The Christian Doctrine of God: Dogmatics: Volume 1, (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1950)
  48. Mikkelsen, Hans Vium (2010). Reconciled Humanity: Karl Barth in Dialogue. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. p. 5. ISBN 978-0802863638. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  49. Bloesch, Donald G. (2001). Jesus is Victor!: Karl Barth's Doctrine of Salvation. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. pp. 43–50. ISBN 0687202256. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  50. Hasel, Frank M. (Autumn 1991). "Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics on the Atonement: Some Translational Problems". Andrews University Seminary Studies 29 (3): 205–211. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  51. Woo, B. Hoon (2014). "Karl Barth's Doctrine of the Atonement and Universalism". Korea Reformed Journal 32: 243–291. 
  52. Busch, Eberhard. Karl Barth: His Life from Letters and Autobiographical Texts. Trans. John Bowden. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2015. 394. Print. "Karl Barth's Rejection of Universalism" (in en-US). 18 August 2016. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 Richard Bauckham, "Universalism: a historical survey", Themelios 4.2 (September 1978): 47–54.
  54. Louth, Andrew (1977). Mary and the Mystery of the Incarnation: An Essay on the Mother of God in the Theology of Karl Barth. Oxford: Fairacres. pp. 1–24. ISBN 0728300737. 
  55. "Karl Barth's Best Ideas [video"] (in en-US). 8 August 2016. 
  56. Suzanne Selinger (1998). Charlotte Von Kirschbaum and Karl Barth: A Study in Biography and the History of Theology. Penn State Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-271-01864-5. 
  57. Stephen J. Plant, "When Karl met Lollo: the origins and consequences of Karl Barth's relationship with Charlotte von Kirschbaum." Scottish Journal of Theology 72.2 (2019): 127-145 online.
  58. Susanne Hennecke, "Biography and theology. On the connectedness of theological statements with life on the basis of the correspondence between Karl Barth and Charlotte von Kirschbaum (1925–1935)." International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 77.4-5 (2016): 324-336.
  59. George Hunsinger's review of S. Seliger, Charlotte von Kirschbaum and Karl Barth: A Study in Biography and the History of Theology.
  60. Houtz, Wyatt (9 October 2017). "A Bright and Bleak Constellation: Karl Barth, Nelly Barth and Charlotte von Kirschbaum". The PostBarthian. 
  61. "A Bright and Bleak Constellation: Karl Barth, Nelly Barth and Charlotte von Kirschbaum" (in en-US). 9 October 2017. 
  62. Tietz, Christiane (1 July 2017). "Karl Barth and Charlotte von Kirschbaum" (in en). Theology Today 74 (2): 86–111. doi:10.1177/0040573617702547. ISSN 0040-5736. 
  63. Karl Barth, ‘‘Vorwort,’’ xxii n. 3, letter of 1947 cited by Christiane Tietz, “Karl Barth and Charlotte von Kirschbaum,” Theology Today 2017 Vol. 74(2), 109.
  64. "Princeton Theological Seminary Library". . Princeton Seminary Library. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  65. Center for Barth Studies website –


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