# Chemistry:Mixing ratio

__: Abundance of one component of a mixture relative to others__

**Short description**In chemistry and physics, the dimensionless **mixing ratio** is the abundance of one component of a mixture relative to that of all other components. The term can refer either to mole ratio (see concentration) or mass ratio (see stoichiometry).^{[1]}

## In atmospheric chemistry and meteorology

### Mole ratio

In atmospheric chemistry, mixing ratio usually refers to the **mole ratio** *r _{i}*, which is defined as the amount of a constituent

*n*divided by the total amount of all

_{i}*other*constituents in a mixture:

- [math]\displaystyle{ r_i = \frac{n_i}{n_\mathrm{tot}-n_i} }[/math]

The mole ratio is also called **amount ratio**.^{[2]}
If *n _{i}* is much smaller than

*n*

_{tot}(which is the case for atmospheric trace constituents), the mole ratio is almost identical to the mole fraction.

### Mass ratio

In meteorology, mixing ratio usually refers to the **mass ratio** of water [math]\displaystyle{ \zeta }[/math], which is defined as the mass of water [math]\displaystyle{ m_\mathrm{H2O} }[/math] divided by the mass of dry air ([math]\displaystyle{ m_\mathrm{air}-m_\mathrm{H2O} }[/math]) in a given air parcel:^{[3]}

- [math]\displaystyle{ \zeta = \frac{m_\mathrm{H2O}}{m_\mathrm{air}-m_\mathrm{H2O}} }[/math]

The unit is typically given in [math]\displaystyle{ \mathrm{g}\,\mathrm{kg}^{-1} }[/math]. The definition is similar to that of specific humidity.

## Mixing ratio of mixtures or solutions

Two binary solutions of different compositions or even two pure components can be mixed with various mixing ratios by masses, moles, or volumes.

The mass fraction of the resulting solution from mixing solutions with masses *m*_{1} and *m*_{2} and mass fractions *w*_{1} and *w*_{2} is given by:

- [math]\displaystyle{ w = \frac{w_1 m_1 + w_2 m_1 r_m}{m_1 + m_1 r_m} }[/math]

where *m*_{1} can be simplified from numerator and denominator

- [math]\displaystyle{ w = \frac{w_1 + w_2 r_m}{1 + r_m} }[/math]

and

- [math]\displaystyle{ r_m = \frac{m_2}{m_1} }[/math]

is the mass mixing ratio of the two solutions.

By substituting the densities *ρ _{i}*(

*w*) and considering equal volumes of different concentrations one gets:

_{i}- [math]\displaystyle{ w = \frac{w_1\rho_1(w_1) + w_2\rho_2(w_2)}{\rho_1(w_1) + \rho_2(w_2)} }[/math]

Considering a volume mixing ratio *r*_{V(21)}

- [math]\displaystyle{ w = \frac{w_1\rho_1(w_1) + w_2\rho_2(w_2) r_V}{\rho_1(w_1) + \rho_2(w_2) r_V} }[/math]

The formula can be extended to more than two solutions with mass mixing ratios

- [math]\displaystyle{ r_{m1} = \frac{m_2}{m_1} \quad r_{m2} = \frac{m_3}{m_1} }[/math]

to be mixed giving:

- [math]\displaystyle{ w = \frac{w_1 m_1 + w_2 m_1 r_{m1} + w_3 m_1 r_{m2}}{m_1 + m_1 r_{m1} + m_1 r_{m2}} = \frac{w_1 + w_2 r_{m1} + w_3 r_{m2}}{1 + r_{m1} + r_{m2}} }[/math]

### Volume additivity

The condition to get a partially ideal solution on mixing is that the volume of the resulting mixture *V* to equal double the volume *V*_{s} of each solution mixed in equal volumes due to the additivity of volumes. The resulting volume can be found from the mass balance equation involving densities of the mixed and resulting solutions and equalising it to 2:

- [math]\displaystyle{ V = \frac{(\rho_1 + \rho_2) V_\mathrm{s}}{\rho}, V =2V_\mathrm{s} }[/math]

implies

- [math]\displaystyle{ \frac{\rho_1 + \rho_2}{\rho} = 2 }[/math]

Of course for real solutions inequalities appear instead of the last equality.

### Solvent mixtures mixing ratios

Mixtures of different solvents can have interesting features like anomalous conductivity (electrolytic) of particular lyonium ions and lyate ions generated by molecular autoionization of protic and aprotic solvents due to Grotthuss mechanism of ion hopping depending on the mixing ratios. Examples may include hydronium and hydroxide ions in water and water alcohol mixtures, alkoxonium and alkoxide ions in the same mixtures, ammonium and amide ions in liquid and supercritical ammonia, alkylammonium and alkylamide ions in ammines mixtures, etc....

## References

- ↑ IUPAC,
*Compendium of Chemical Terminology*, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "mixing ratio". doi:10.1351/goldbook.M03948 - ↑ "Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2008, Volume 80, No. 2, pp. 233-276". 2016-06-14. http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/80/2/0233/.
- ↑ Whiteman, D.N. (2015).
*Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences*(Second Edition, Volume 3 ed.). Elsevier Ltd.. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-12-382225-3.

Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixing ratio.
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