Engineering:Buran (spacecraft)

From HandWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Buran (Russian: Бура́н, IPA: [bʊˈran], meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme. It is, depending on the source, also known as "OK-1K1", "Orbiter K1", "OK 1.01" or "Shuttle 1.01". Besides describing the first operational Soviet/Russian shuttle orbiter, "Buran" was also the designation for the entire Soviet/Russian spaceplane project and its orbiters, which were known as "Buran-class spaceplanes".

OK-1K1 completed one uncrewed spaceflight in 1988, and was destroyed in 2002 when the hangar it was stored in collapsed.[1] The Buran-class orbiters used the expendable Energia rocket, a class of super heavy-lift launch vehicle.

Construction

Main page: Engineering:Buran programme

The construction of the Buran spaceplanes began in 1980, and by 1984 the first full-scale orbiter was rolled-out. The Buran spaceplane was made to be launched on the Soviet Union’s super-heavy lift vehicle, Energia. Construction of a second orbiter (OK-1K2, informally known as Ptichka (meaning little bird)) started in 1988. The Buran programme ended in 1993.[2]

Operational history

Orbiter OK-1K1 Buran during launch on 15 November 1988

Orbital flight

The only orbital launch of a Buran-class orbiter occurred at 03:00:02 UTC on 15 November 1988 from Baikonur Cosmodrome launch pad 110/37.[1][3] Buran was lifted into space, on an uncrewed mission, by the specially designed Energia rocket. The automated launch sequence performed as specified, and the Energia rocket lifted the vehicle into a temporary orbit before the orbiter separated as programmed. After boosting itself to a higher orbit and completing two orbits around the Earth, the ODU (Russian: объединённая двигательная установка, сombined propulsion system) engines fired automatically to begin the descent into the atmosphere, return to the launch site, and horizontal landing on a runway.[4]

After making an automated approach to Site 251 (known as Yubileyniy Airfield),[1] Buran touched down under its own control at 06:24:42 UTC and came to a stop at 06:25:24,[5] 206 minutes after launch.[6] Despite a lateral wind speed of 61.2 kilometres per hour (38.0 mph), Buran landed only 3 metres (9.8 ft) laterally and 10 metres (33 ft) longitudinally from the target mark.[6][7] It was the first spaceplane to perform an uncrewed flight, including landing in fully automatic mode.[8] It was later found that Buran had lost only eight of its 38,000 thermal tiles over the course of its flight.[7]

Projected flights

In 1989, it was projected that OK-1K1 would have an uncrewed second flight by 1993, with a duration of 15–20 days.[9] Although the Buran programme was never officially cancelled, the dissolution of the Soviet Union led to funding drying up and this never took place.[2]

Specifications

Size comparison[10] of the Soyuz launch vehicle (left), the US Space Shuttle (center), and the Buran-Energia (right) vehicles

The mass of Buran is quoted as 62 tons,[10] with a maximum payload of 30 tons, for a total lift-off weight of 105 tons.[2]

Mass breakdown[1]
  • Total mass of structure and landing systems: 42,000 kg (93,000 lb)
  • Mass of functional systems and propulsion: 33,000 kg (73,000 lb)
  • Maximum payload: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb)
  • Maximum liftoff weight: 105,000 kg (231,000 lb)
Dimensions[1][2]
  • Length: 36.37 m (119.3 ft)
  • Wingspan: 23.92 m (78.5 ft)
  • Height on gear: 16.35 m (53.6 ft)
  • Payload bay length: 18.55 m (60.9 ft)
  • Payload bay diameter: 4.65 m (15.3 ft)
  • Wing glove sweep: 78 degrees
  • Wing sweep: 45 degrees
Propulsion[2]
  • Total orbital maneuvering engine thrust: 17,600 kgf (173,000 N; 39,000 lbf)
  • Orbital maneuvering engine specific impulse: 362 seconds (3.55 km/s)
  • Total maneuvering impulse: 5 kgf-sec (11 lbf-sec)
  • Total RCS thrust: 14,866 kgf (145,790 N; 32,770 lbf)
  • Average RCS specific impulse: 275–295 seconds (2.70–2.89 km/s)
  • Normal maximum propellant load: 14,500 kg (32,000 lb)

Unlike the US Space Shuttle, which was propelled by a combination of solid boosters and the orbiter's own liquid-propellant engines fueled from a large tank, the Soviet/Russian shuttle system used thrust from each booster's four RD-170 liquid oxygen/kerosene engines, developed by Valentin Glushko, and another four RD-0120 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines attached to the central block.[10]

Fate

In June 1989, Buran, carried on the back of the Antonov An-225, took part in the 1989 Paris Air Show.

Together with the Energia carrier rocket, Buran was put in a hangar at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan.

On 12 May 2002,[1] during a severe storm at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the MIK 112 hangar housing OK-1K1 collapsed as a result of poor maintenance. The collapse killed several workers and destroyed the craft as well as the Energia carrier.[11]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Zak, Anatoly (25 December 2018). "Buran reusable orbiter". Russian Space Web. http://www.russianspaceweb.com/buran.html. Retrieved 28 June 2019. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Wade, Mark. "Buran". Encyclopedia Astronautics. http://www.astronautix.com/b/buran.html. Retrieved 28 June 2019. 
  3. "S.P.Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia held a ceremony...". Energia.ru. 14 November 2008. http://www.energia.ru/eng/news/news-2008/photo_11-14.html. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  4. Handwerk, Brian (12 April 2016). "The Forgotten Soviet Space Shuttle Could Fly Itself". National Geographic Society. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/04/160412-soviet-union-space-shuttle-buran-cosmonaut-day-gagarin/. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
  5. "Buran-Energia: 1st Flight". Буран. http://www.buran-energia.com/bourane-buran/bourane-versvol-1erVol.php. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Chertok, Boris (2005). Siddiqi, Asif A.. ed. Raketi i lyudi. History Series. NASA. p. 179. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20050010181_2005010059.pdf. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Russia starts ambitious super-heavy space rocket project". Space Daily. 19 November 2013. http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Russia_starts_ambitious_super_heavy_space_rocket_project_999.html. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  8. "Largest spacecraft to orbit and land unmanned". Guinness World Records. http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-spacecraft-to-orbit-and-land-unmanned. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  9. "Экипажи "Бурана" Несбывшиеся планы" (in ru). http://www.buran.ru/htm/pilots.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2006. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "The orbiters and the launch vehicle". http://www.buran.su/buranvssts-comparison.php. Retrieved 28 June 2019. 
  11. Whitehouse, David (13 May 2002). "Russia's space dreams abandoned". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1985631.stm. Retrieved 14 November 2007. 

Further reading

  • Hendrickx, Bart; Vis, Bert (2007). Energiya-Buran: The Soviet Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis. p. 526. ISBN 978-0-387-69848-9. Bibcode2007ebss.book.....H. 
  • Elser, Heinz; Elser-Haft, Margrit; Lukashevich, Vladim (2008). History and Transportation of the Russian Space Shuttle OK-GLI to the Technik Museum Speyer. Technik Museum Speyer. ISBN 978-3-9809437-7-2. 

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buran (spacecraft) was the original source. Read more.