Generational list of programming languages

From HandWiki

This is a "genealogy" of programming languages. Languages are categorized under the ancestor language with the strongest influence. Those ancestor languages are listed in alphabetical order. Any such categorization has a large arbitrary element, since programming languages often incorporate major ideas from multiple sources.

ALGOL based

APL based

  • APL
    • A+
    • J (also under FL)
    • K (also under LISP)
    • NESL
    • PDL (also under Perl)

BASIC based

Batch languages

C based

COBOL based

COMIT based

DCL based

  • DCL
    • Windows PowerShell (also under C#, ksh, and Perl)

ed based

  • ed (programming language)

Eiffel based

Forth based

Fortran based

FP based

HyperTalk based

Java based

JavaScript based

JOSS based

JOSS also inspired features for several versions of BASIC, including Tymshare's SUPER BASIC and DEC's BASIC-PLUS.

Lisp based

ML based

PL/I based

  • PL/I
    • PL/M
    • PL/C
    • REXX
    • SP/k
    • XPL

Prolog based

SASL based

SETL based

sh based

Simula based

Tcl based



  1. Valim, José. "Elixir: The Documentary" (in English) (Video). Honeypot. "Erickson, they created Erlang. This technology that they created, right, in the eighties, to solve all these problems. It's going to be perfect to solve those issues that we're having right now with concurrency, those issues that we're having with the web in general, right? I think that was the moment when I had the idea of creating a programming language. Like, look I have this absolutely beautiful piece of software which is the Erlang virtual machine. I want to use it more but it's missing some stuff and I want to try adding this missing stuff." 

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