Software:Bash (Unix shell)

From HandWiki
Short description: GNU replacement for the Bourne shell
Bash screenshot.png
Screenshot of a Bash session
Original author(s)Brian Fox
Developer(s)Chet Ramey[1][2]
Initial releaseJune 8, 1989; 34 years ago (1989-06-08)
Stable release5.1 (December 7, 2020; 3 years ago (2020-12-07)) [±][3][4]
Written inC
Operating system
Available inMultilingual (gettext)
TypeUnix shell, command language

Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.[11][12] The shell's name is an acronym for Bourne-Again SHell, a pun on the name of the Bourne shell that it replaces[13] and the notion of being "born again".[14][15] First released in 1989,[16] it has been used as the default login shell for most Linux distributions and it was one of the first programs Linus Torvalds ported to Linux, alongside GCC.[17] It is available on nearly all modern operating systems.

Bash is a command processor that typically runs in a text window where the user types commands that cause actions. Bash can also read and execute commands from a file, called a shell script. Like most Unix shells, it supports filename globbing (wildcard matching), piping, here documents, command substitution, variables, and control structures for condition-testing and iteration. The keywords, syntax, dynamically scoped variables and other basic features of the language are all copied from sh. Other features, e.g., history, are copied from csh and ksh. Bash is a POSIX-compliant shell, but with a number of extensions.

A version is also available for Windows 10 and Windows 11 via the Windows Subsystem for Linux.[18][19] It is also the default user shell in Solaris 11.[20] Bash was also the default shell in BeOS,[8] and in versions of Apple macOS from 10.3 (originally, the default shell was tcsh) to 10.15 (macOS Catalina), which changed the default shell to zsh[21], although Bash remains available as an alternative shell.[22]

A security hole in Bash dating from version 1.03 (August 1989),[23] dubbed Shellshock, was discovered in early September 2014 and quickly led to a range of attacks across the Internet.[24][25][26] Patches to fix the bugs were made available soon after the bugs were identified.


Brian Fox began coding Bash on January 10, 1988,[27] after Richard Stallman became dissatisfied with the lack of progress being made by a prior developer.[11] Stallman and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) considered a free shell that could run existing shell scripts so strategic to a completely free system built from BSD and GNU code that this was one of the few projects they funded themselves, with Fox undertaking the work as an employee of FSF.[11][28] Fox released Bash as a beta, version .99, on June 8, 1989,[16] and remained the primary maintainer until sometime between mid-1992[29] and mid-1994,[30] when he was laid off from FSF[31] and his responsibility was transitioned to another early contributor, Chet Ramey.[32][33][34]

Since then, Bash has become by far the most popular shell among users of Linux, becoming the default interactive shell on that operating system's various distributions[35][36] (although Almquist shell may be the default scripting shell) and on Apple's macOS releases before Catalina in October 2019.[37][38][21] Bash has also been ported to Microsoft Windows and distributed with Cygwin and MinGW, to DOS by the DJGPP project, to Novell NetWare, to OpenVMS by the GNV project,[39] to ArcaOS,[40] and to Android via various terminal emulation applications.

In September 2014, Stéphane Chazelas, a Unix/Linux specialist,[41] discovered a security bug in the program. The bug, first disclosed on September 24, was named Shellshock and assigned the numbers CVE-2014-6271, CVE-2014-6277 and CVE-2014-7169. The bug was regarded as severe, since CGI scripts using Bash could be vulnerable, enabling arbitrary code execution. The bug was related to how Bash passes function definitions to subshells through environment variables.[42]


The Bash command syntax is a superset of the Bourne shell command syntax. Bash supports brace expansion,[43] command line completion (Programmable Completion),[44] basic debugging[45][46] and signal handling (using trap) since bash 2.05a[47][48] among other features. Bash can execute the vast majority of Bourne shell scripts without modification, with the exception of Bourne shell scripts stumbling into fringe syntax behavior interpreted differently in Bash or attempting to run a system command matching a newer Bash builtin, etc. Bash command syntax includes ideas drawn from the Korn Shell (ksh) and the C shell (csh) such as command line editing, command history (history command),[49] the directory stack, the $RANDOM and $PPID variables, and POSIX command substitution syntax $(…).

When a user presses the tab key within an interactive command-shell, Bash automatically uses command line completion, since beta version 2.04,[50] to match partly typed program names, filenames and variable names. The Bash command-line completion system is very flexible and customizable, and is often packaged with functions that complete arguments and filenames for specific programs and tasks.

Bash's syntax has many extensions lacking in the Bourne shell. Bash can perform integer calculations ("arithmetic evaluation") without spawning external processes. It uses the ((…)) command and the $((…)) variable syntax for this purpose. Its syntax simplifies I/O redirection. For example, it can redirect standard output (stdout) and standard error (stderr) at the same time using the &> operator. This is simpler to type than the Bourne shell equivalent 'command > file 2>&1'. Bash supports process substitution using the <(command) and >(command)syntax, which substitutes the output of (or input to) a command where a filename is normally used. (This is implemented through /proc/fd/ unnamed pipes on systems that support that, or via temporary named pipes where necessary).

When using the 'function' keyword, Bash function declarations are not compatible with Bourne/Korn/POSIX scripts (the KornShell has the same problem when using 'function'), but Bash accepts the same function declaration syntax as the Bourne and Korn shells, and is POSIX-conformant. Because of these and other differences, Bash shell scripts are rarely runnable under the Bourne or Korn shell interpreters unless deliberately written with that compatibility in mind, which is becoming less common as Linux becomes more widespread. But in POSIX mode, Bash conforms with POSIX more closely.[51]

Bash supports here documents. Since version 2.05b Bash can redirect standard input (stdin) from a "here string" using the <<< operator.

Bash 3.0 supports in-process regular expression matching using a syntax reminiscent of Perl.[52]

In February 2009,[53] Bash 4.0 introduced support for associative arrays.[54] Associative array indices are strings, in a manner similar to AWK or Tcl.[55] They can be used to emulate multidimensional arrays. Bash 4 also switches its license to GPL-3.0-or-later; some users suspect this licensing change is why MacOS continues to use older versions.[56] Apple finally stopped using Bash in its operating systems as default shell with the release of MacOS Catalina in 2019.[22]

Brace expansion

Brace expansion, also called alternation, is a feature copied from the C shell. It generates a set of alternative combinations. Generated results need not exist as files. The results of each expanded string are not sorted and left to right order is preserved:

$ echo a{p,c,d,b}e
ape ace ade abe
$ echo {a,b,c}{d,e,f}
ad ae af bd be bf cd ce cf

Users should not use brace expansions in portable shell scripts, because the Bourne shell does not produce the same output.

$ # bash shell
$/bin/bash -c 'echo a{p,c,d,b}e'
ape ace ade abe
$ # A traditional shell does not produce the same output
$ /bin/sh -c 'echo a{p,c,d,b}e'

When brace expansion is combined with wildcards, the braces are expanded first, and then the resulting wildcards are substituted normally. Hence, a listing of JPEG and PNG images in the current directory could be obtained using:

ls *.{jpg,jpeg,png}    # expands to *.jpg *.jpeg *.png - after which,
                       # the wildcards are processed
echo *.{png,jp{e,}g}   # echo just shows the expansions -
                       # and braces in braces are possible.

In addition to alternation, brace expansion can be used for sequential ranges between two integers or characters separated by double dots. Newer versions of Bash allow a third integer to specify the increment.

$ echo {1..10}
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$ echo {01..10}
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
$ echo file{1..4}.txt
file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt file4.txt
$ echo {a..e}
a b c d e
$ echo {1..10..3}
1 4 7 10
$ echo {a..j..3}
a d g j

When brace expansion is combined with variable expansion (A.K.A. parameter expansion and parameter substitution) the variable expansion is performed after the brace expansion, which in some cases may necessitate the use of the eval built-in, thus:

$ start=1; end=10
$ echo {$start..$end} # fails to expand due to the evaluation order
$ eval echo {$start..$end} # variable expansion occurs then resulting string is evaluated
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Startup scripts

When Bash starts, it executes the commands in a variety of dot files. Unlike Bash shell scripts, dot files do typically have neither the execute permission enabled nor an interpreter directive like #!/bin/bash.

Legacy-compatible Bash startup example

The example ~/.bash_profile below is compatible with the Bourne shell and gives semantics similar to csh for the ~/.bashrc and ~/.bash_login. The [ -r filename ] && cmd is a short-circuit evaluation that tests if filename exists and is readable, skipping the part after the && if it is not.

[ -r ~/.profile ] && . ~/.profile             # set up environment, once, Bourne-sh syntax only
if [ -n "$PS1" ] ; then                       # are we interactive?
   [ -r ~/.bashrc     ] && . ~/.bashrc        # tty/prompt/function setup for interactive shells
   [ -r ~/.bash_login ] && . ~/.bash_login    # any at-login tasks for login shell only
fi                                            # End of "if" block

Operating system issues in Bash startup

Some versions of Unix and Linux contain Bash system startup scripts, generally under the /etc directory. Bash executes these files as part of its standard initialization, but other startup files can read them in a different order than the documented Bash startup sequence. The default content of the root user's files may also have issues, as well as the skeleton files the system provides to new user accounts upon setup. The startup scripts that launch the X window system may also do surprising things with the user's Bash startup scripts in an attempt to set up user-environment variables before launching the window manager. These issues can often be addressed using a ~/.xsession or ~/.xprofile file to read the ~/.profile — which provides the environment variables that Bash shell windows spawned from the window manager need, such as xterm or Gnome Terminal.


See also: Major Differences From The Bourne Shell

Invoking Bash with the --posix option or stating set -o posix in a script causes Bash to conform very closely to the POSIX 1003.2 standard.[57] Bash shell scripts intended for portability should take into account at least the POSIX shell standard. Some bash features not found in POSIX are:[57][58]

  • Certain extended invocation options
  • Brace expansion
  • Arrays and associative arrays
  • The double bracket ... extended test construct and its regex matching
  • The double-parentheses arithmetic-evaluation construct (only (( ... )); $(( ... )) is POSIX)
  • Certain string-manipulation operations in parameter expansion
  • local for scoped variables
  • Process substitution
  • Bash-specific builtins
  • Coprocesses
  • $EPOCHSECONDS and $EPOCHREALTIME variables [59]

If a piece of code uses such a feature, it is called a "bashism" – a problem for portable use. Debian's checkbashisms and Vidar Holen's shellcheck can be used to make sure that a script does not contain these parts.[60][61] The list varies depending on the actual target shell: Debian's policy allows some extensions in their scripts (as they are in the dash shell),[58] while a script intending to support pre-POSIX Bourne shells, like autoconf's configure, are even more limited in the features they can use.[62]

Keyboard shortcuts

Bash uses GNU Readline to provide keyboard shortcuts for command line editing using the default (Emacs) key bindings. Vi-bindings can be enabled by running set -o vi.[63]

Process management (Job control)

The Bash shell has two modes of execution for commands: batch (asynchronous), and concurrent (synchronous).

To execute commands in batch mode (i.e., in sequence) they must be separated by the character ";", or on separate lines:

command1; command2

In this example, when command1 is finished, command2 is executed, and when command2 has completed, command3 will execute.

A background execution of command1 can occur using (symbol &) at the end of an execution command, and process will be executed in background while returning immediately control to the shell and allowing continued execution of commands.

command1 &

Or to have a concurrent execution of two command1 and command2, they must be executed in the Bash shell in the following way:

command1 & command2

In this case command1 is executed in the background & symbol, returning immediately control to the shell that executes command2 in the foreground.

A process can be stopped and control returned to bash by typing while the process is running in the foreground.[64]

A list of all processes, both in the background and stopped, can be achieved by running jobs:

$ jobs
[1]-  Running                  command1 &
[2]+  Stopped                  command2

In the output, the number in brackets refers to the job id. The plus sign signifies the default process for bg and fg. The text "Running" and "Stopped" refer to the process state. The last string is the command that started the process.

The state of a process can be changed using various commands. The fg command brings a process to the foreground, while bg sets a stopped process running in the background. bg and fg can take a job id as their first argument, to specify the process to act on. Without one, they use the default process, identified by a plus sign in the output of jobs. The kill command can be used to end a process prematurely, by sending it a signal. The job id must be specified after a percent sign:

kill %1

Conditional execution

Bash supplies "conditional execution" command separators that make execution of a command contingent on the exit code set by a precedent command. For example:

cd "$SOMEWHERE" && ./do_something || echo "An error occurred" >&2

Where ./do_something is only executed if the cd (change directory) command was "successful" (returned an exit status of zero) and the echo command would only be executed if either the cd or the ./do_something command return an "error" (non-zero exit status).

For all commands the exit status is stored in the special variable $?. Bash also supports if ...;then ...;else ...;fi and case $VARIABLE in $pattern)...;;$other_pattern)...;; esac forms of conditional command evaluation.

Bug reporting

An external command called bashbug reports Bash shell bugs. When the command is invoked, it brings up the user's default editor with a form to fill in. The form is mailed to the Bash maintainers (or optionally to other email addresses).[65][66]

Programmable completion

Bash supports programmable completion via built-in complete, compopt, and compgen commands.[67] The feature has been available since the beta version of 2.04 released in 2000.[68][69] These commands enable complex and intelligent completion specification for commands (i.e. installed programs), functions, variables, and filenames.[70]

The complete and compopt two commands specify how arguments of some available commands or options are going to be listed in the readline input. As of version 5.1 completion of the command or the option is usually activated by the keystroke after typing its name.[70]

Program name

The program's name is a figure of speech or witticism which begins with an homage to Stephen Bourne, the creator of one of the shell programs which have sometimes been considered superseded by the bash shell. His name is used as a pun on the image of childbirth, and with that pun is added an allusion to the Christian idiom of being "born again," or possibly the Buddhist idea of reincarnation. Sometimes considered a reference to John 3 of the Christian New Testament, Merriam-Webster has "born-again" defined as "person who has made a renewed ... commitment of faith.[71]" This idiom is then used to name the program: the Bourne Again SHell.[72][73]

The acronym of that name then is "bash," a word meaning "to strike violently.[74]" In the context of computer programming, to "violently hit something," such as a computer keyboard, could be considered a hyperbolic image of some frustration. Such imagery of negative emotionality could be seen as standing in direct juxtaposition to the idea of becoming "born again."

The naming could be considered an instance of verbal irony or accidental innuendo. Bash grammar was initially based on the grammars of the most popular Unix shell programs then currently in use, some of which were considered particularly difficult to use or frustrating at that time. As the years progressed, bash development has made its grammar more user-friendly,[75][76][77][78][79][80] so much so that it seems likely that the bash project has been committed to improving its usablilty. Since then, bash has become the de facto default shell program in most Linux and Unix operating systems.


The Linux man page is intended to be the controlling, authoritative source document for understanding how bash operates, while the GNU manual is more user-friendly for reading. "You may also find information about Bash by running info bash ... or by looking at /usr/share/doc/bash/, /usr/local/share/doc/bash/, or similar directories on your system. A brief summary is available by running bash --help.[81]" "The maintainer also has a Bash page which includes Frequently Asked Questions.[82]" As the standard upon which bash is based, POSIX.1-2017 is also highly informative. Information on shell builtin commands can be found by executing help or help [builtin name] at a terminal prompt where bash is installed.

Release history

Version Release date Release notes
bash-5.2.15 2022-12-13 NEWS
bash-5.2 2022-09-26
bash-5.1 2020-12-07 github version history NEWS [54]
bash-5.0 2019-01-07 [83][84][85]
bash-5.0-rc1 2018-12-20
bash-5.0-beta2 2018-11-28
bash-5.0-beta 2018-09-17
bash-5.0-alpha 2018-05-22
bash-4.4 2016-09-15 github version history NEWS v4.4
bash-4.4-rc2 2016-08-22
bash-4.4-rc1 2016-02-24
bash-4.4-beta2 2016-07-11
bash-4.4-beta 2015-10-12
bash-4.3 2014-02-26
bash-4.2 2011-02-13
bash-4.1 2009-12-31
bash-4.0 2009-02-20
bash-4.0-rc1 2009-01-12
bash-3.2 2006-10-11
bash-3.1 2005-12-08
bash-3.0 2004-08-03
bash-2.05b 2002-07-17
bash-2.05a 2001-11-16
bash-2.05 2001-04-09
bash-2.04 2000-03-21
bash-2.03 1999-02-19
bash-2.02 1998-04-18
bash-2.01 1997-06-05
bash-2.0 1996-12-31

See also


  1. Hamilton, Naomi (2008-05-30). "The A-Z of Programming Languages: BASH/Bourne-Again Shell". 
  2. Ramey, Chet (2021-04-20). "The GNU Bourne-Again Shell". Case Western Reserve University. 
  3. "Index of /gnu/bash". 
  4. Ramey, Chet (December 7, 2020). "Bash-5.1 release available". 
  5. "Bash FAQ, version 4.14". 
  6. "Missing source code - GPL compliance? · Issue #107 · Microsoft/WSL". 
  7. "GNU Bash". SoftNews. January 23, 2010. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "A desktop alternative". 
  9. "Appendix A: Using the BeOS Command Line Shell". 
  10. "Terminal". 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Richard Stallman (forwarded with comments by Chet Ramey) (February 10, 1988). "GNU + BSD = ?". Newsgroupcomp.unix.questions. Usenet: 2362@mandrill.CWRU.Edu. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved December 28, 2021. For a year and a half, the GNU shell was "just about done". The author made repeated promises to deliver what he had done, and never kept them. Finally I could no longer believe he would ever deliver anything. So Foundation staff member Brian Fox is now implementing an imitation of the Bourne shell.
  12. Hamilton, Naomi (May 30, 2008), "The A-Z of Programming Languages: BASH/Bourne-Again Shell", Computerworld: 2,, retrieved March 21, 2011, "When Richard Stallman decided to create a full replacement for the then-encumbered Unix systems, he knew that he would eventually have to have replacements for all of the common utilities, especially the standard shell, and those replacements would have to have acceptable licensing."  Original link is dead: see also copies of original material at, and the University of South Carolina.
  13. "I Almost Get a Linux Editor and Compiler". 
  14. Richard Stallman (November 12, 2010). "About the GNU Project". Free Software Foundation. ""Bourne Again Shell" is a play on the name Bourne Shell, which was the usual shell on Unix." 
  15. Gattol, Markus (March 13, 2011), Bourne-again Shell,, retrieved March 13, 2011, "The name is a pun on the name of the Bourne shell (sh), an early and important Unix shell written by Stephen Bourne and distributed with Version 7 Unix circa 1978, and the concept of being "born again"." 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Brian Fox (forwarded by Leonard H. Tower Jr.) (June 8, 1989). "Bash is in beta release!". Newsgroupgnu.announce. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
  17. Torvalds, Linus Benedict (August 1991). "comp.os.minix". "I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work." 
  18. "How to install Bash shell command-line tool on Windows 10". September 28, 2016. 
  19. Hoffman, Chris (July 30, 2021). "How to Install the Windows Subsystem for Linux on Windows 11" (in en-US). 
  20. "User Environment Feature Changes". Oracle. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Warren, Tom (June 4, 2019). "Apple replaces bash with zsh as the default shell in macOS Catalina". 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Hughes, Matthew (2019-06-04). "Why does macOS Catalina use Zsh instead of Bash? Licensing" (in en-us). 
  23. Chazelas, Stephane (4 October 2014). "oss-sec mailing list archives". 
  24. Leyden, John (September 24, 2014). "Patch Bash NOW: 'Shell Shock' bug blasts OS X, Linux systems wide open". The Register. 
  25. Perlroth, Nicole (September 25, 2014). "Security Experts Expect 'Shellshock' Software Bug in Bash to Be Significant". The New York Times. 
  26. Seltzer, Larry (29 September 2014). "Shellshock makes Heartbleed look insignificant". ZDNet. 
  27. Brian Fox (August 29, 1996), shell.c, Free Software Foundation,, retrieved November 1, 2010, "Birthdate: Sunday, January 10th, 1988. Initial author: Brian Fox" 
  28. Richard Stallman (October 3, 2010). "About the GNU Project". Free Software Foundation. "Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of GNU software packages. Two notable ones are the C library and the shell. … We funded development of these programs because the GNU Project was not just about tools or a development environment. Our goal was a complete operating system, and these programs were needed for that goal." 
  29. len ( (April 20, 1993). "January 1993 GNU's Bulletin". Newsgroupgnu.announce. Usenet: Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
  30. Ramey, Chet (August 1, 1994). "Bash - the GNU shell (Reflections and Lessons Learned)". Linux Journal. 
  31. Chet Ramey (October 31, 2010), Dates in your Computerworld interview,, retrieved October 31, 2010 
  32. Chet Ramey (June 12, 1989). "Bash 0.99 fixes & improvements". Newsgroupgnu.bash.bug. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
  33. Chet Ramey (July 24, 1989). "Some bash-1.02 fixes". Newsgroupgnu.bash.bug. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
  34. Brian Fox (March 2, 1990). "Availability of bash 1.05". Newsgroupgnu.bash.bug. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
  35. Bresnahan, Christine; Blum, Richard (April 2015). CompTIA Linux+ Powered by Linux Professional Institute Study Guide: Exam LX0-103 and Exam LX0-104 (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-119-02122-3. Retrieved June 6, 2016. "In Linux, most users run bash because it is the most popular shell." 
  36. Danesh, Arman; Jang, Michael (February 2006). Mastering Linux. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-7821-5277-7. Retrieved June 6, 2016. "The Bourne Again Shell (bash) is the most common shell installed with Linux distributions." 
  37. Foster-Johnson, Eric; Welch, John C.; Anderson, Micah (April 2005). Beginning Shell Scripting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7645-9791-6. Retrieved June 6, 2016. "Bash is by far the most popular shell and forms the default shell on Linux and Mac OSX systems." 
  38. "Use zsh as the default shell on your Mac - Apple Support". 
  39. "Installing the new GNV packages". 
  40. "Compatibility Subsystems". 
  41. Juliana, Cino (10 June 2017). "Linux bash exit status and how to set exit status in bash - Techolac". 
  42. Huzaifa Sidhpurwala (2014-09-24). "Bash specially-crafted environment variables code injection attack". Red Hat. 
  43. "Brace Expansion (Bash Reference Manual)". 
  44. "Bash Reference Manual". 
  45. "Debugging Bash scripts". 
  46. "The Set Builtin (Bash Reference Manual)". 
  47. "Bash changes [Bash Hackers Wiki (DEV 20200708T2203)"]. 
  48. "Bourne Shell Builtins (Bash Reference Manual)". 
  49. "Bash Reference Manual". 
  50. "Working more productively with bash 2.x/3.x". 
  51. "6.11 Bash POSIX Mode", The GNU Bash Reference Manual, for Bash, Version 4.1, December 23, 2009,, retrieved October 26, 2010 
  52. "Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide". Section 37.2 (Bash, version 3). 
  53. "Bash, version 4". 
  54. 54.0 54.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bashfaq061
  55. "Arrays (Bash Reference Manual)". 
  56. "macos - Update bash to version 4.0 on OSX". 
  57. 57.0 57.1 Mendel Cooper. "Portability Issues". The Linux Documentation Project. 
  58. 58.0 58.1 "10. Files". 
  59. "How To Format Date And Time In Linux, MacOS, And Bash?". 
  60. checkbashisms(1) – Linux General Commands Manual
  61. shellcheck(1) – Linux General Commands Manual
  62. "Portable Shell". 
  63. "BASH Help - A Bash Tutorial". October 5, 2012. 
  64. "Bash Reference Manual". 
  65. bashbug(1) ,
  66. "Linux / Unix Command: bashbug" ,
  67. "Bash Reference Manual". 
  68. "Working more productively with bash 2.x/3.x". 
  69. "Index of /gnu/bash". 
  70. 70.0 70.1 "An Introduction to Programmable Completion". 
  71. "Definition of BORN-AGAIN" (in en). 
  72. "Bash - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation". 
  73. "What is Bash? (Bash Reference Manual)". 
  74. "Definition of BASH" (in en). 2024-01-05. 
  75. "BashGuide/Arrays - Greg's Wiki". 
  76. "CommandSubstitution - Greg's Wiki". 
  77. "BashGuide/TestsAndConditionals - Greg's Wiki". 
  78. "CHANGES - bash.git - bash". 
  79. "Bash changes [Bash Hackers Wiki"]. 2021-02-14. 
  80. "Obsolete and deprecated syntax [Bash Hackers Wiki"]. 2021-02-11. 
  81. "Bash - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation". 
  82. "Bash - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation". 
  83. "github version history NEWS v5.0" (in en). 
  84. "Bash changes [Bash Hackers Wiki]". 
  85. "Bash-5.0 release available". 

External links