Elixir (programming language)

From HandWiki
Short description: Programming language running on the Erlang virtual machine
elixir programming language
Paradigmsmulti-paradigm: functional, concurrent, distributed, process-oriented
Designed byJosé Valim
First appeared2012; 12 years ago (2012)
Typing disciplinedynamic, strong, duck
LicenseApache License 2.0[1]
Filename extensions.ex, .exs
Influenced by
Clojure, Erlang, Ruby

Elixir is a functional, concurrent, high-level general-purpose programming language that runs on the BEAM virtual machine, which is also used to implement the Erlang programming language.[2] Elixir builds on top of Erlang and shares the same abstractions for building distributed, fault-tolerant applications. Elixir also provides tooling and an extensible design. The latter is supported by compile-time metaprogramming with macros and polymorphism via protocols.[3]

The community organizes yearly events in the United States,[4] Europe,[5] and Japan,[6] as well as minor local events and conferences.[7][8]


José Valim created the Elixir programming language as a research and development project at Plataformatec. His goals were to enable higher extensibility and productivity in the Erlang VM while maintaining compatibility with Erlang's ecosystem.[9][10]

Elixir is aimed at large-scale sites and apps. It uses features of Ruby, Erlang, and Clojure to develop a high-concurrency and low-latency language. It was designed to handle large data volumes. Elixir is also used in telecommunications, e-commerce, and finance.[11]

On July 12, 2018, Honeypot released a mini-documentary on Elixir.[12]


Each of the minor versions supports a specific range of Erlang/OTP versions.[13] The current stable release version is .



The following examples can be run in an iex shell or saved in a file and run from the command line by typing elixir <filename>.

Classic Hello world example:

iex> IO.puts("Hello World!")
Hello World!

Pipe operator:

iex> "Elixir" |> String.graphemes() |> Enum.frequencies()
%{"E" => 1, "i" => 2, "l" => 1, "r" => 1, "x" => 1}

iex> %{values: 1..5} |> Map.get(:values) |> Enum.map(& &1 * 2)
[2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

iex> |> Enum.sum()

Pattern matching (a.k.a. destructuring):

iex> %{left: x} = %{left: 5, right: 8}
iex> x

iex> {:ok, [_ | rest]} = {:ok, [1, 2, 3]}
iex> rest
[2, 3]

Pattern matching with multiple clauses:

iex> case File.read("path/to/file") do
iex>   {:ok, contents} -> IO.puts("found file: #{contents}")
iex>   {:error, reason} -> IO.puts("missing file: #{reason}")
iex> end

List comprehension:

iex> for n <- 1..5, rem(n, 2) == 1, do: n*n
[1, 9, 25]

Asynchronously reading files with streams:

|> Task.async_stream(&File.read!("#{&1}.txt"))
|> Stream.filter(fn {:ok, contents} -> String.trim(contents) != "" end)
|> Enum.join("\n")

Multiple function bodies with guards:

def fib(n) when n in [0, 1], do: n
def fib(n), do: fib(n-2) + fib(n-1)

Relational databases with the Ecto library:

schema "weather" do
  field :city     # Defaults to type :string
  field :temp_lo, :integer
  field :temp_hi, :integer
  field :prcp,    :float, default: 0.0

Weather |> where(city: "Kraków") |> order_by(:temp_lo) |> limit(10) |> Repo.all

Sequentially spawning a thousand processes:

for num <- 1..1000, do: spawn fn -> IO.puts("#{num * 2}") end

Asynchronously performing a task:

task = Task.async fn -> perform_complex_action() end
Task.await task

[citation needed]

See also


  1. "elixir/LICENSE at master · elixir-lang/elixir · GitHub". GitHub. https://github.com/elixir-lang/elixir/blob/master/LICENSE. 
  2. "Most Popular Programming Languages of 2018 - Elite Infoworld Blog". 2018-03-30. https://www.eliteinfoworld.com/blog/popular-programming-languages-2018/. 
  3. "Elixir". José Valim. https://elixir-lang.org. 
  4. "ElixirConf". http://elixirconf.com/. 
  5. "ElixirConf". http://elixirconf.eu/. 
  6. "Erlang & Elixir Fest". https://elixir-fest.jp/. 
  7. "Elixir LDN". http://www.elixir.london/. 
  8. "EMPEX - Empire State Elixir Conference". http://empex.co/. 
  9. Elixir - A modern approach to programming for the Erlang VM. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
  10. José Valim - ElixirConf EU 2017 Keynote. Archived from the original on 2021-11-17. Retrieved 2017-07-14.
  11. "Behinde the code: The One Who Created Elixir". https://www.welcometothejungle.com/en/articles/btc-elixir-jose-valim/. 
  12. "Elixir: A Mini-Documentary". https://cult.honeypot.io/originals/elixir-the-documentary. 
  13. Elixir is a dynamic, functional language designed for building scalable and maintainable applications: elixir-lang/elixir, Elixir, 2019-04-21, https://github.com/elixir-lang/elixir, retrieved 2019-04-21 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 "Elixir". https://elixir-lang.org/. 
  15. "Writing assertive code with Elixir". 24 September 2014. http://blog.plataformatec.com.br/2014/09/writing-assertive-code-with-elixir/. 
  16. Loder, Wolfgang (12 May 2015). Erlang and Elixir for Imperative Programmers. "Chapter 16: Code Structuring Concepts", section title "Actor Model": Leanpub. https://leanpub.com/erlangandelixirforimperativeprogrammers. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  17. Wlaschin, Scott (May 2013). "Railway Oriented Programming". https://fsharpforfunandprofit.com/rop/. 

External links