Religion:El (deity)

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Short description: Northwest Semitic word for "god"
King of the Gods
El, the Canaanite creator deity, Megiddo, Stratum VII, Late Bronze II, 1400-1200 BC, bronze with gold leaf - Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago - DSC07734.JPG
Gilded statuette of El from Tel Megiddo
RegionCanaan, Levant, and Anatolia
Greek equivalentCronus, Zeus
Mesopotamian equivalentAnu or Enlil
Gebel al-Arak knife Possibly depiction of El with two lions, B.C. 3450[1]

始膾l (also 'Il, Template:Lang-uga 示墨lu; Phoenician: 饜饜 示墨l;[2] Hebrew: 讗值诇示膿l; Syriac: 軔芎軡軤示墨yl; Arabic: 廿賷賱 示墨l or 廿賱賴 示il膩h; cognate to Akkadian: , romanized: ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major ancient Near Eastern deities. A rarer form, 'ila, represents the predicate form in Old Akkadian and in Amorite.[3] The word is derived from the Proto-Semitic *蕯il-, meaning "god".[4]

Specific deities known as 'El or 'Il include the supreme god of the ancient Canaanite religion[5] and the supreme god of East Semitic speakers in Mesopotamia's Early Dynastic Period.[6] Among the Hittites, El was known as Elkunirsa.

Linguistic forms and meanings

Cognate forms of 始膾l are found throughout the Semitic languages. They include Ugaritic 示ilu, pl. 示lm; Phoenician 示l pl. 示lm; Hebrew 示膿l, pl. 示膿l卯m; Aramaic 示l; Akkadian ilu, pl. il膩nu.

In northwest Semitic use, 始膾l was a generic word for any god as well as the special name or title of a particular god who was distinguished from other gods as being "the god".[7] 始膾l is listed at the head of many pantheons. In some Canaanite and Ugaritic sources, 始膾l played a role as father of the gods, of creation, or both.[8]

However, because the word 始膾l sometimes refers to a god other than the great god 始膾l, it is frequently ambiguous as to whether 始膾l followed by another name means the great god 始膾l with a particular epithet applied or refers to another god entirely. For example, in the Ugaritic texts, 示il mlk is understood[9] to mean "始膾l the King" but 示il hd as "the god Hadad".

The Semitic root 示lh (Arabic 示il膩h, Aramaic 示Al膩h, 示El膩h, Hebrew 示el艒ah) may be 示l with a parasitic h, and 示l may be an abbreviated form of 示lh. In Ugaritic the plural form meaning "gods" is 示ilhm, equivalent to Hebrew el艒h卯m "powers". In the Hebrew texts this word is interpreted as being semantically singular for "god" by biblical commentators.[10] However the documentary hypothesis developed originally in the 1870s,[11] identifies these that different authors 鈥 the Jahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomist, and the Priestly source 鈥 were responsible for editing stories from a polytheistic religion into those of a monotheistic religion. Inconsistencies that arise between monotheism and polytheism in the texts are reflective of this hypothesis.

The stem 示l is found prominently in the earliest strata of east Semitic, northwest Semitic, and south Semitic groups. Personal names including the stem 示l are found with similar patterns in both Amorite and Sabaic[12] 鈥 which indicates that probably already in Proto-Semitic 示l was both a generic term for "god" and the common name or title of a single particular god.

Proto-Sinaitic, Phoenician, Aramaic, and Hittite texts

The Egyptian god Ptah is given the title 岣徟 gitti 'Lord of Gath' in a prism from Tel Lachish which has on its opposite face the name of Amenhotep II (c. 1435鈥1420 BCE). The title 岣徟 gitti is also found in Ser膩bit峁 text 353. Cross (1973, p. 19) points out that Ptah is often called the Lord (or one) of eternity and thinks it may be this identification of 始膾l with Ptah that lead to the epithet 'olam 'eternal' being applied to 始膾l so early and so consistently.[13] (However, in the Ugaritic texts, Ptah is seemingly identified rather with the craftsman god Kothar-wa-Khasis.[14]) Yet another connection is seen with the Mandaean angel Ptahil, whose name combines both the terms Ptah and Il.[15]

In an inscription in the Proto-Sinaitic script, William F. Albright transcribed the phrase 示L 岣 士LM, which he translated as the appellation "El, (god) of eternity".[16]

The name Raphael or Rapha-El, meaning 'God has healed' in Ugarit, is attested to in approximately 1350 BCE in one of the Amarna Letters EA333, found in Tell-el-Hesi from the ruler of Lachish to 'The Great One' [17]

A Phoenician inscribed amulet of the seventh century BCE from Arslan Tash may refer to 始膾l. The text was translated by Rosenthal (1969, p. 658) as follows:

An eternal bond has been established for us.
Ashshur has established (it) for us,
and all the divine beings
and the majority of the group of all the holy ones,
through the bond of heaven and earth for ever, ...[18]

However, Cross (1973, p. 17) translated the text as follows:

The Eternal One ('Olam) has made a covenant oath with us,
Asherah has made (a pact) with us.
And all the sons of El,
And the great council of all the Holy Ones.
With oaths of Heaven and Ancient Earth.[19]

In some inscriptions, the name '膾l q艒ne 'ar峁 (Punic: 饜饜 饜饜 饜饜饜 示l qn 示r峁) meaning "始膾l creator of Earth" appears, even including a late inscription at Leptis Magna in Tripolitania dating to the second century.[20] In Hittite texts, the expression becomes the single name Ilkunirsa, this Ilkunirsa appearing as the husband of Asherdu (Asherah) and father of 77 or 88 sons.[21]

In a Hurrian hymn to 始膾l (published in Ugaritica V, text RS 24.278), he is called 'il brt and 'il dn, which Cross (p. 39) takes as '始膾l of the covenant' and '始膾l the judge' respectively.[22]

Ugarit and the Levant

For the Canaanites and the ancient Levantine region as a whole, 始膾l or 始Il was the supreme god, the father of mankind and all creatures.[23] He also fathered many gods, most importantly Hadad, Yam, and Mot, each sharing similar attributes to the Greco-Roman gods: Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades respectively.

As recorded on the clay tablets of Ugarit, El is the husband of the goddess Asherah.

Three pantheon lists found at Ugarit (modern Ras Shamr膩Arabic: 乇兀爻 卮賲乇丕, Syria) begin with the four gods 'il-'ib (which according to Cross;[24] is the name of a generic kind of deity, perhaps the divine ancestor of the people), 始膾l, Dagnu (that is Dagon), and Ba'l 峁p膩n (that is the god Haddu or Hadad).[24] Though Ugarit had a large temple dedicated to Dagon and another to Hadad, there was no temple dedicated to 始膾l.

始膾l is called again and again T么ru 始膾l ("Bull 始膾l" or "the bull god"). He is b膩tnyu binw膩ti ("Creator of creatures"), 'ab奴 ban墨 'ili ("father of the gods"), and 'ab奴 'adami ("father of man"). He is q膩niyunu '么lam ("creator eternal"), the epithet '么lam appearing in Hebrew form in the Hebrew name of God '膿l '么lam "God Eternal" in Genesis 21.33. He is 岣ツ乼ikuka ("your patriarch"). 始膾l is the grey-bearded ancient one, full of wisdom, malku ("King"), 'ab奴 拧am墨ma ("Father of years"), 'El gibb艒r ("始膾l the warrior"). He is also named l峁璸n of unknown meaning, variously rendered as Latpan, Latipan, or Lutpani ("shroud-face" by Strong's Hebrew Concordance).

"El" (Father of Heaven / Saturn) and his major son: "Hadad" (Father of Earth / Jupiter), are symbolized both by the bull, and both wear bull horns on their headdresses.[25][26][27][28]

In Canaanite mythology, El builds a desert sanctuary with his children and his two wives, leading to speculation that at one point El was a desert god.

The mysterious Ugaritic text Shachar and Shalim tells how (perhaps near the beginning of all things) 始膾l came to shores of the sea and saw two women who bobbed up and down. 始膾l was sexually aroused and took the two with him, killed a bird by throwing a staff at it, and roasted it over a fire. He asked the women to tell him when the bird was fully cooked, and to then address him either as husband or as father, for he would thenceforward behave to them as they called him. They saluted him as husband. He then lay with them, and they gave birth to Shachar ("Dawn") and Shalim ("Dusk"). Again 始膾l lay with his wives and the wives gave birth to "the gracious gods", "cleavers of the sea", "children of the sea". The names of these wives are not explicitly provided, but some confusing rubrics at the beginning of the account mention the goddess Athirat, who is otherwise 始膾l's chief wife, and the goddess Ra岣ayyu ("the one of the womb"), otherwise unknown.

In the Ugaritic Ba'al cycle, 始膾l is introduced dwelling on (or in) Mount Lel (Lel possibly meaning "Night") at the fountains of the two rivers at the spring of the two deeps. He dwells in a tent according to some interpretations of the text which may explain why he had no temple in Ugarit. As to the rivers and the spring of the two deeps, these might refer to real streams, or to the mythological sources of the salt water ocean and the fresh water sources under the earth, or to the waters above the heavens and the waters beneath the earth.

In the episode of the "Palace of Ba'al", the god Ba'al Hadad invites the "seventy sons of Athirat" to a feast in his new palace. Presumably these sons have been fathered on Athirat by 始膾l; in following passages they seem to be the gods ('ilm) in general or at least a large portion of them. The only sons of 始膾l named individually in the Ugaritic texts are Yamm ("Sea"), Mot ("Death"), and Ashtar, who may be the chief and leader of most of the sons of 始膾l. Ba'al Hadad is a few times called 始膾l's son rather than the son of Dagan as he is normally called, possibly because 始膾l is in the position of a clan-father to all the gods.

The fragmentary text R.S. 24.258 describes a banquet to which 始膾l invites the other gods and then disgraces himself by becoming outrageously drunk and passing out after confronting an otherwise unknown Hubbay, "he with the horns and tail". The text ends with an incantation for the cure of some disease, possibly hangover.[29][30]

Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew form (讗诇) appears in Latin letters in Standard Hebrew transcription as El and in Tiberian Hebrew transcription as 示膾l. 始膾l is a generic word for god that could be used for any god, including Hadad, Moloch, or Yahweh.

In the Tanakh, 'el艒h卯m is the normal word for a god or the great God (or gods, given that the 'im' suffix makes a word plural in Hebrew). But the form 'El also appears, mostly in poetic passages and in the patriarchal narratives attributed to the Priestly source of the documentary hypothesis. It occurs 217 times in the Masoretic Text: seventy-three times in the Psalms and fifty-five times in the Book of Job, and otherwise mostly in poetic passages or passages written in elevated prose. It occasionally appears with the definite article as h膩'膾l 'the god' (for example in 2 Samuel 22:31,33鈥48).

The theological position of the Tanakh is that the names 始膾l and '臄l艒h卯m, when used in the singular to mean the supreme god, refer to Yahweh, beside whom other gods are supposed to be either nonexistent or insignificant. Whether this was a long-standing belief or a relatively new one has long been the subject of inconclusive scholarly debate about the prehistory of the sources of the Tanakh and about the prehistory of Israelite religion. In the P strand, Exodus 6:3 may be translated:

I revealed myself to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as 膾l Shadd膩i, but was not known to them by my name, YHVH.

However, it is said in Genesis 14:18鈥20 that Abraham accepted the blessing of El, when Melchizedek, the king of Salem and high priest of its deity El Elyon blessed him.[31] One scholarly position is that the identification of Yahweh with 始膾l is late, that Yahweh was earlier thought of as only one of many gods, and not normally identified with 始膾l. Another is that in much of the Hebrew Bible the name El is an alternative name for Yahweh, but in the Elohist and Priestly traditions it is considered an earlier name than Yahweh.[32] Mark Smith has argued that Yahweh and El were originally separate, but were considered synonymous from very early on.[33] The name Yahweh is used in the Bible Tanakh in the first book of Genesis 2:4; and Genesis 4:26 says that at that time, people began to "call upon the name of the LORD".[34][35]

The Destruction of Leviathan by Gustave Dor茅 (1865)

In some places, especially in Psalm 29, Yahweh is clearly envisioned as a storm god,[36] something not true of 始膾l so far as we know[37] (although true of his son, Ba'al Haddad).[38] It is Yahweh who is prophesied to one day battle Leviathan the serpent, and slay the dragon in the sea in Isaiah 27:1.[39] The slaying of the serpent in myth is a deed attributed to both Ba'al Hadad and 'Anat in the Ugaritic texts, but not to 始膾l.[40]

Such mythological motifs are variously seen as late survivals from a period when Yahweh held a place in theology comparable to that of Hadad at Ugarit; or as late henotheistic/monotheistic applications to Yahweh of deeds more commonly attributed to Hadad; or simply as examples of eclectic application of the same motifs and imagery to various different gods. Similarly, it is argued inconclusively whether 膾l Shadd膩i, 膾l '脭l膩m, 膾l 'Ely么n, and so forth, were originally understood as separate divinities. Albrecht Alt presented his theories on the original differences of such gods in Der Gott der V盲ter in 1929.[41] But others have argued that from patriarchal times, these different names were in fact generally understood to refer to the same single great god, 始膾l. This is the position of Frank Moore Cross (1973).[42] What is certain is that the form 'El does appear in Israelite names from every period including the name Yi艣r膩'膿l ("Israel"), meaning "El strives".

According to The Oxford Companion to World Mythology,

It seems almost certain that the God of the Jews evolved gradually from the Canaanite El, who was in all likelihood the "God of Abraham" ... If El was the high God of Abraham鈥擡lohim, the prototype of Yahveh鈥擜sherah was his wife, and there are archaeological indications that she was perceived as such before she was in effect "divorced" in the context of emerging Judaism of the 7th century BCE. (See 2 Kings 23:15.)[43]

The apparent plural form '膾l卯m or '膾lim "gods" occurs only four times in the Tanakh. Psalm 29, understood as an enthronement psalm, begins:

A Psalm of David.

Ascribe to Yahweh, sons of Gods (bn锚 '膾l卯m),
Ascribe to Yahweh, glory and strength

Psalm 89:6 (verse 7 in Hebrew) has:

For who in the skies compares to Yahweh,
who can be likened to Yahweh among the sons of Gods (bn锚 '膾l卯m).

Traditionally bn锚 '膿l卯m has been interpreted as 'sons of the mighty', 'mighty ones', for 'El can mean 'mighty', though such use may be metaphorical (compare the English expression [by] God awful). It is possible also that the expression '膿l卯m in both places descends from an archaic stock phrase in which 'lm was a singular form with the m-enclitic and therefore to be translated as 'sons of 始膾l'. The m-enclitic appears elsewhere in the Tanakh and in other Semitic languages. Its meaning is unknown, possibly simply emphasis. It appears in similar contexts in Ugaritic texts where the expression bn 'il alternates with bn 'ilm, but both must mean 'sons of 始膾l'. That phrase with m-enclitic also appears in Phoenician inscriptions as late as the fifth century BCE.

One of the other two occurrences in the Tanakh is in the "Song of Moses", Exodus 15:11a:

Who is like you among the Gods ('膿lim), Yahweh?

The final occurrence is in Daniel 11:36:

And the king will do according to his pleasure; and he will exalt himself and magnify himself over every god ('膿l), and against the God of Gods ('El 'El卯m) he will speak outrageous things, and will prosper until the indignation is accomplished: for that which is decided will be done.

There are a few cases in the Tanakh where some think 'El referring to the great god 始膾l is not equated with Yahweh. One is in Ezekiel 28:2, in the taunt against a man who claims to be divine, in this instance, the leader of Tyre:

Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre: "Thus says the Lord Yahweh: 'Because your heart is proud and you have said: "I am '膿l (god), in the seat of 'el艒h卯m (gods), I am enthroned in the middle of the seas." Yet you are man and not 'El even though you have made your heart like the heart of 'el艒h卯m ('gods').'"

Here '膿l might refer to a generic god, or to a highest god, 始膾l. When viewed as applying to the King of Tyre specifically, the king was probably not thinking of Yahweh. When viewed as a general taunt against anyone making divine claims, it may or may not refer to Yahweh depending on the context.

In Judges 9:46 we find '膾l Br卯t 'God of the Covenant', seemingly the same as the Ba'al Br卯t 'Lord of the Covenant' whose worship has been condemned a few verses earlier. See Baal for a discussion of this passage.

Psalm 82:1 says:

'el艒h卯m ("god") stands in the council of '膿l
he judges among the gods (Elohim).

This could mean that Yahweh judges along with many other gods as one of the council of the high god 始膾l. However it can also mean that Yahweh stands in the Divine Council (generally known as the Council of 始膾l), as 始膾l judging among the other members of the council. The following verses in which the god condemns those whom he says were previously named gods (Elohim) and sons of the Most High suggest the god here is in fact 始膾l judging the lesser gods.

An archaic phrase appears in Isaiah 14:13, k么kkb锚 '膿l 'stars of God', referring to the circumpolar stars that never set, possibly especially to the seven stars of Ursa Major. The phrase also occurs in the Pyrgi Inscription as hkkbm 'l (preceded by the definite article h and followed by the m-enclitic). Two other apparent fossilized expressions are arz锚-'膿l 'cedars of God' (generally translated something like 'mighty cedars', 'goodly cedars') in Psalm 80:10 (in Hebrew verse 11) and kharr锚-'膿l 'mountains of God' (generally translated something like 'great mountains', 'mighty mountains') in Psalm 36:7 (in Hebrew verse 6).

For the reference in some texts of Deuteronomy 32:8 to seventy sons of God corresponding to the seventy sons of 始膾l in the Ugaritic texts, see `Ely么n.


Philo of Byblos (c. 64鈥141 AD) was a Greek writer whose account Sanchuniathon survives in quotation by Eusebius and may contain the major surviving traces of Phoenician mythology. 始膾l (rendered Elus or called by his standard Greek counterpart Cronus) is not the creator god or first god. 始膾l is rather the son of Sky (Uranus) and Earth (Ge).[44] Sky and Earth are themselves children of 'Ely么n 'Most High'.[45][46] 始膾l is brother to the God Bethel, to Dagon and to an unknown god, equated with the Greek Atlas and to the goddesses Aphrodite/'Ashtart, Rhea (presumably Asherah), and Dione (equated with Ba'alat Gebal). 始膾l is the father of Persephone and of Athena (presumably the goddess 'Anat).[44]

Sky and Earth have separated from one another in hostility, but Sky insists on continuing to force himself on Earth and attempts to destroy the children born of such unions. At last, with the advice of his daughter Athena and the god Hermes Trismegistus (perhaps Thoth), 始膾l successfully attacks his father Sky with a sickle and spear of iron. He and his military allies the Eloim gain Sky's kingdom.[44]

In a later passage it is explained that 始膾l castrated Sky. One of Sky's concubines (who was given to 始膾l's brother Dagon) was already pregnant by Sky. The son who is born of the union, called Demar没s or Zeus, but once called Adodus, is obviously Hadad, the Ba'al of the Ugaritic texts who now becomes an ally of his grandfather Sky and begins to make war on 始膾l.

始膾l has three wives, his sisters or half-sisters Aphrodite/Astarte ('Ashtart), Rhea (presumably Asherah), and Dione (identified by Sanchuniathon with Ba'alat Gebal the tutelary goddess of Byblos, a city which Sanchuniathon says that 始膾l founded).

El is depicted primarily as a warrior; in Ugaritic sources Baal has the warrior role and El is peaceful, and it may be that the Sanchuniathon depicts an earlier tradition that was more preserved in the southern regions of Canaan.[44][47]:255

Eusebius, through whom the Sanchuniathon is preserved, is not interested in setting the work forth completely or in order. But we are told that 始膾l slew his own son Sadidus (a name that some commentators think might be a corruption of Shaddai, one of the epithets of the Biblical 始膾l) and that 始膾l also beheaded one of his daughters. Later, perhaps referring to this same death of Sadidus we are told:

But on the occurrence of a pestilence and mortality Cronus offers his only begotten son as a whole burnt-offering to his father Sky and circumcises himself, compelling his allies also to do the same.

A fuller account of the sacrifice appears later:

It was a custom of the ancients in great crises of danger for the rulers of a city or nation, in order to avert the common ruin, to give up the most beloved of their children for sacrifice as a ransom to the avenging daemons; and those who were thus given up were sacrificed with mystic rites. Cronus then, whom the Phoenicians call Elus, who was king of the country and subsequently, after his decease, was deified as the star Saturn, had by a nymph of the country named Anobret an only begotten son, whom they on this account called Iedud, the only begotten being still so called among the Phoenicians; and when very great dangers from war had beset the country, he arrayed his son in royal apparel, and prepared an altar, and sacrificed him.

The account also relates that Thoth:

also devised for Cronus as insignia of royalty four eyes in front and behind ... but two of them quietly closed, and upon his shoulders four wings, two as spread for flying, and two as folded. And the symbol meant that Cronus could see when asleep, and sleep while waking: and similarly in the case of the wings, that he flew while at rest, and was at rest when flying. But to each of the other gods he gave two wings upon the shoulders, as meaning that they accompanied Cronus in his flight. And to Cronus himself again he gave two wings upon his head, one representing the all-ruling mind, and one sensation.

This is the form under which 始膾l/Cronus appears on coins from Byblos from the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175鈥164 BCE) four spread wings and two folded wings, leaning on a staff. Such images continued to appear on coins until after the time of Augustus.


Main page: Religion:Poseidon

A bilingual inscription from Palmyra[48] dated to the 1st century equates 始膾l-Creator-of-the-Earth with the Greek god Poseidon. Going back to the 8th century BCE, the bilingual inscription[49] at Karatepe in the Taurus Mountains equates 始膾l-Creator-of-the-Earth to Luwian hieroglyphs read as da-a-艣,[50] this being the Luwian form of the name of the Babylonian water god Ea, lord of the abyss of water under the earth. (This inscription lists 始膾l in second place in the local pantheon, following Ba'al Sham卯m and preceding the Eternal Sun.)

Poseidon is known to have been worshipped in Beirut, his image appearing on coins from that city. Poseidon of Beirut was also worshipped at Delos where there was an association of merchants, shipmasters, and warehousemen called the Poseidoniastae of Berytus founded in 110 or 109 BCE. Three of the four chapels at its headquarters on the hill northwest of the Sacred Lake were dedicated to Poseidon, the Tyche of the city equated with Astarte (that is 'Ashtart), and to Eshmun.

Also at Delos, that association of Tyrians, though mostly devoted to Heracles-Melqart, elected a member to bear a crown every year when sacrifices to Poseidon took place. A banker named Philostratus donated two altars, one to Palaistine Aphrodite Urania ('Ashtart) and one to Poseidon "of Ascalon".

Though Sanchuniathon distinguishes Poseidon from his Elus/Cronus, this might be a splitting off of a particular aspect of 始膾l in a euhemeristic account. Identification of an aspect of 始膾l with Poseidon rather than with Cronus might have been felt to better fit with Hellenistic religious practice, if indeed this Phoenician Poseidon really is the 始膾l who dwells at the source of the two deeps in Ugaritic texts. More information is needed to be certain.

See also


  1. du Mesnil du Buisson, Robert (1969). "Le d茅cor asiatique du couteau de Gebel el-Arak" (PDF, 4.6 MB). BIFAO (Institut Fran莽ais d'Arch茅ologie Orientale) 68: 63鈥83. ISSN 0255-0962. Archived from the original on 21 Feb 2014. Retrieved 30 Oct 2014. 
  2. "Online Phoenician Dictionary". 
  3. Cross 1997, p. 14.
  4. Kogan, Leonid (2015), Genealogical Classification of Semitic: The Lexical Isoglosses. Berlin: De Gruyter. p. 147
  5. Matthews 2004, p. 79.
  6. Gelb 1961, p. 6.
  7. Smith 2001, p. 135.
  8. Leeming, David (2011). "Oxford Companion to World Mythology". Oxford University Press. 
  9. Rahmouni 2007, p. 41.
  10. For example: Keller, Catherine (2009). "The Pluri-Singularity of Creation". in McFarland, Ian A.. Creation and Humanity: The Sources of Christian Theology. Sources of Christian theology. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780664231354. Retrieved 2015-07-08. "[...] Elohim 鈥 a flux of syllables, labial, multiple. Its ending marks it stubbornly as a plural form of "eloh"; here (but not always) it takes the singular verb form [...]" 
  11. Wellhausen, Julius (1885). Prolegomena to the History of Israel. Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black. 
  12. Beeston, A.F.L. (1982). Sabaic dictionary: English, French, Arabic. Louvain-la-Neuve: Editions Peeters. pp. 5. "藔L I n. 藔l, 藔l-m R 3945/1 &c (岣忊攚s虏ymm), 藔lh, d. 藔ly, p. 藔l藔lt; f. 藔lt Gl 1658/5, YM 386/4, 藔lht YM 386/2, ?p.? 藔lht J2867/8 god/goddess, divinity | dieu/d茅esse, divinit茅" 
  13. Cross 1973, p. 19.
  14. Wyatt 2002, p. 43.
  15. Smith, H. (April 1956). "The Relationship of the Semitic and Egyptian Verbal Systems. By T. W. Thacker. pp. xxvi 341. Geoffrey Cumberlege. Oxford, 1954. 42s". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 88 (1鈥2): 102鈥103. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00114728. 
  16. Albright, Wm. F. (1966) The Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions and their Decipherment, p. 24
  17. Robert William Rogers, ed., Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament (New York: Eaton & Mains, & Cincinnati: Jennings & Graham, 1912), pp. 268-278.
  18. Rosenthal 1969, p. 658.
  19. Cross 1973, p. 17.
  20. Donner & R枚llig 1962鈥1964, No. 129.
  21. Binger 1997, p. 92.
  22. Cross 1973, p. 39.
  23. Kugel 2007, p. 423.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Cross 1973, p. 14.
  25. Caquot, Andr茅; Sznycer, Maurice (1980). Ugaritic Religion. Iconography of religions. 15: Mesopotamia and the Near East. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 12. ISBN 978-90-04-06224-5. OCLC 185416183. 
  26. van der Toorn, Becking & van der Horst 1999, p. 181.
  27. Schwabe, Calvin W. (1978). Cattle, Priests, and Progress in mMdicine. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8166-0825-6. OCLC 3835386. 
  28. Falk, Avner (1996). A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-8386-3660-2. OCLC 32346244. 
  29. Palmer, Sean B. "El's Divine Feast". Sean B. Palmer. 
  30. McLaughlin, John L. (June 2001). The Marzeah in the Prophetic Literature. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. pp. 24鈥26. ISBN 978-90-04-12006-8. OCLC 497549822. 
  31. Coogan, Michael David (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 74. ISBN 978-0-19-533272-8. OCLC 243545942. 
  32. Hendel, R. S. (1992). Genesis, Book of. In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (Vol. 2, p. 938). New York: Doubleday
  33. Smith 2002, pp. 32鈥34.
  34. "Genesis 3 (Blue Letter Bible/ KJV - King James Version)". 
  35. "Genesis 4 (Blue Letter Bible/ KJV - King James Version)". 
  36. Smith 2002, p. 80.
  37. McBee Roberts, Jimmy Jack (2002). The Bible and the Ancient Near East: Collected essays. Eisenbrauns. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-57506-066-8. 
  38. Brand, Chad et al. (November 2015). Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. B&H Publishing Group. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8054-9935-3. 
  39. Scoggins Ballentine, Debra (May 2015). The Conflict Myth and the Biblical Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-19-937026-9. 
  40. Smith, Mark; Pitard, Wayne (24 December 2008). "El's Relationship to Baal's Enemies". The Ugaritic Baal Cycle: Introduction with Text, Translation and Commentary of KTU/CAT 1.3-1.4. II. BRILL. pp. 52鈥53. ISBN 978-90-474-4232-5. 
  41. Der Gott der V盲ter; ein Beitrag zur Vorgeschichte der israelitischen Religion. Stuttgart, Germany: Kohlhammer Verlag. 1929. OCLC 45355375. 
  42. Cross 1973.
  43. Leeming 2005, p. 118.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Miller, Patrick D. (1967). "El the Warrior". The Harvard Theological Review 60 (4): 411鈥431. doi:10.1017/S0017816000003886. 
  45. van der Toorn, Becking & van der Horst 1999, p. 294.
  46. G. Johannes Botterweck; Helmer Ringgren; Heinz-Josef Fabry (1974). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-8028-2335-9. 
  47. Green, Alberto Ravinell Whitney (2003) (in en). The Storm-god in the Ancient Near East. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060699. 
  48. Donner & R枚llig 1962鈥1964, No. 11, p. 43. and No. 129.
  49. Donner & R枚llig 1962鈥1964, No. 26.
  50. Jones, Scott C. (2009). "Rumors of Wisdom: Job 28 as Poetry". BZAW (Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter) 398: 84. ISBN 978-3-11-021477-2. ISSN 0934-2575. 


Further reading

External links