Software:SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
Enterprise Server 11 installation discs
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||August 31, 2000|
||Final release|Latest release}}||15 / July 21, 2020|
|Marketing target||Commercial market (include mainframes, servers, workstations, supercomputers)|
|Update method||Zypper / YaST2|
|Package manager||RPM Package Manager|
|Platforms||IA-32 (except SLES 12 and 15), x86-64, s390x, PowerPC, aarch32, aarch64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Default user interface||GNOME|
|License||GNU General Public License and various|
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based operating system developed by SUSE. It is designed for servers, mainframes, and workstations but can be installed on desktop computers for testing as well. Major versions are released at an interval of 3–4 years, while minor versions (called "Service Packs") are released about every 12 months. SUSE Linux Enterprise products, including SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, receive more intense testing than the upstream openSUSE community product, with the intention that only mature, stable versions of the included components will make it through to the released enterprise product.
It is developed from a common code base with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop and other SUSE Linux Enterprise products.
SLES was developed based on SUSE Linux by a small team led by Marcus Kraft and Bernhard Kaindl as principal developer who were supported by Joachim "Jos" Schröder. It was first released on October 31, 2000 as a version for IBM S/390 mainframe machines. In December 2000, the first enterprise client (Telia) was made public. In April 2001, the first SLES for x86 was released.
From a business perspective, SLES is not only a technical offering, but also has entangled a commercial offering (services and support). The initial business model was inspired by recurrent charges established in the mainframe world at this time, and innovated by Jürgen Geck and Malcom Yates. Based on customer needs and feedback as well as other evolving Linux based offerings the business model has been reworked by different people in the subsequent years until today.
SLES version 9 (SLES 9) was released in August 2004. Service Pack 4 was released in December 2007. It was supported by hardware vendors including IBM, HP, Sun Microsystems, Dell, SGI, Lenovo, and Fujitsu Siemens Computers.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 (SLES 10) was released in July 2006, and is also supported by the major hardware vendors. Service pack 4 was released in April 2011. SLES 10 shared a common codebase with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10—Novell's desktop distribution for business use—and other SUSE Linux Enterprise products.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 (SLES 11) was released on March 24, 2009 and included Linux kernel 2.6.27, Oracle Cluster File System Release 2, support for the OpenAIS cluster communication protocol for server and storage clustering, and Mono 2.0. SLES 11 SP1 (released May 2010) rebased the kernel version to 2.6.32. In February 2012, SLES 11 SP2 was released, based on kernel version 3.0.10. SLES 11 SP2 included a Consistent Network Device Naming feature for Dell servers.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 (SLES 12) beta was made available on February 25, 2014, and the final version was released on October 27, 2014. SLES 12 SP1 was released on December 18, 2015. SP1 added Docker, Shibboleth, Network Teaming, and JeOS images. SP2 was released November 11, 2016. SP3 was released September 7, 2017.
The SLES 13 and SLES 14 version numbers were skipped due to superstitions associated with those numbers in certain cultures.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 (SLES 15) beta 1 was released on October 18, 2017, and the final version was released on July 16, 2018. SLES 15 SP2, which updates the kernel, PostgreSQL, Samba, Salt and many other parts of the operating system, was released on July 21, 2020.
Legacy versions of SUSE Linux Enterprise (SLES 9 and 10) had a ten year product lifecycle. Newer versions have a thirteen year product lifecycle (SLES 11, 12, and 15). The current support model consists of 10 years of general support from time of First Customer Shipment (FCS), followed by 3 years of Long Term Service Pack Support (LTSS).
Release dates of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server versions:
- SuSE Linux Enterprise Server
- for S/390, October 31, 2000
- for Sparc and IA-32, April 2001
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 (For first time, common codebase for all architectures (IA-32, Itanium, iSeries and pSeries, S/390 and zSeries 31-bit, zSeries 64-bit))
- Initial release, October 13, 2001
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 8
- Initial release, October 2002
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9
- Initial release, 2004-08-03
- SP1, 2005-01-19
- SP2, 2005-07-07
- SP3, 2005-12-22
- SP4, 2007-12-12
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10
- Initial release, 2006-06-17
- SP1, 2007-06-18
- SP2, 2008-05-19
- SP3, 2009-10-12
- SP4, 2011-04-12
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11
- Initial release, 2009-03-24
- SP1, 2010-06-02
- SP2, 2012-02-15
- SP3, 2013-07-01
- SP4, 2015-07-16
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 13/14
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15
- SUSE Linux
- Linux on PowerPC
- Linux on IBM Z
- List of Linux distributions
- Comparison of Linux distributions
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- SUSE Introduces Multimodal OS to Bridge Traditional and Software-Defined Infrastructure - SUSE Communities
- Vugt, Sander van (February 2007). The Definitive Guide to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server - Sander van Vugt - Google Books. ISBN 9781430203261. https://books.google.com/books?id=-jzcJkXTLuUC&q=suse%20linux%20server%20default%20desktop&pg=PA31. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- "DistroWatch.com: SUSE Linux Enterprise". https://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=sle.
- Release Notes SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, Novell, Inc., 2011-02-15, https://www.suse.com/promo/ibm-watson.html, retrieved 2011-02-15
- A small server for big companies – New Raspberry Pi support in SLES for ARM - SUSE Communities
- "SuSE Linux for S/390 available today" (Press release). SuSE. October 31, 2000. Archived from the original on June 5, 2001. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- Gardiner, Joey (December 7, 2000). "Linux mainframe ousts Sun servers at Telia". silicon.com. http://hardware.silicon.com/desktops/0,39024645,11021413,00.htm.
- A First Look at Novell Linux Desktop 9 [LWN.net]
- Novell Linux Desktop | Network World
- Novell Linux Desktop 9: Grabbing a Part of the Enterprise, OSNews
- Linux in Government: Linux Desktop Reviews, Part 2 - Novell Linux Desktop | Linux Journal
- Novell serves up an operating system winner with SLES 9 | Network World
- "Novell Delivers Next-Generation Platform for the Open Enterprise"
- Novell Offers Industry's Longest Enterprise Linux Support Program
- First Look: Novell's SLED 10, OSNews
- First Look: Novell's SLED 10, pt. II, OSNews
- Novell Ships SUSE Linux Enterprise 11
- Morgan, Timothy Prickett (2008-03-25). "Novell Previews Features in SUSE Linux Enterprise 11". The Linux Beacon. http://www.itjungle.com/tlb/tlb032508-story01.html.
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11: Lots of Tech but Short on Polish | ZDNet
- SLED 11: a distro for businesses, not idealists • The Register
- "Novell Announces SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 Service Pack 1". https://www.novell.com/news/press/2010/5/novell-announces-suse-linux-enterprise-11-service-pack-1.html.
- "Release Notes for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Service Pack 2". Novell. 2012-02-15. https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/11-SP2/.
- Narendra K (July 2012). "Consistent Network Device Naming in Linux". Dell Linux Engineering division. https://linux.dell.com/files/whitepapers/consistent_network_device_naming_in_linux.pdf.
- Suse Linux Enterprise 12 Beta available, https://www.suse.com/company/press/2014/2/suse-linux-enterprise-12-beta-available.html, retrieved 2014-05-27
- SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 Now Available, https://www.suse.com/company/press/2014/10/suse-linux-enterprise-12-now-available.html, retrieved 2014-11-30
- Die Neuerungen von Suse Linux Enterprise 12 | c't Magazin
- "SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 Service Pack 1 Now Available". SUSE. December 22, 2015. https://www.suse.com/newsroom/post/2015/suse-linux-enterprise-12-service-pack-1-now-available/.
- "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1 Release Notes". SUSE. August 3, 2017. https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/12-SP1/.
- "First Service Pack for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Brings Docker and Shibboleth". https://news.softpedia.com/news/first-service-pack-for-suse-linux-enterprise-server-12-brings-docker-and-shibboleth-497811.shtml.
- Raj Meel (November 8, 2016). "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Service Pack 2 – The Best Enterprise OS". SUSE. https://www.suse.com/communities/blog/suse-linux-enterprise-12-service-pack-2-product-launch/.
- "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP2 Release Notes". SUSE. April 3, 2017. https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/12-SP2/.
- Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (November 11, 2016). "SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 Service Pack 2 arrives". ZDNet. https://www.zdnet.com/article/suse-linux-enterprise-12-service-pack-2-arrives/.
- Raj Meel (September 7, 2017). "Announcing Service Pack 3 for SUSE Linux Enterprise 12". SUSE. https://www.suse.com/communities/blog/announcing-service-pack-3-suse-linux-enterprise-12/.
- "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3 Release Notes". SUSE. September 7, 2017. https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/12-SP3/.
- Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (September 8, 2017). "SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 SP3 released". ZDNet. https://www.zdnet.com/article/suse-linux-enterprise-12-sp3-released/.
- SUSE Linux Enterprise turns 15: Look, Ma! A common code base
- SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 Beta 1 is available! - SUSE Communities
- SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 Reaches Beta: Using GNOME & Wayland, Linux 4.12 - Phoronix
- Suse Linux Enterprise 15 Bridges Traditional, Software-Defined Systems | Enterprise | LinuxInsider
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server takes a big step forward | ZDNet
- Release Notes | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 GA
- "Novell Support Lifecycle". http://support.novell.com/lifecycle/.
- "SuSE Linux Enterprise Server Now Available" (Press release). SuSE. 2001-03-24. Archived from the original on June 27, 2001. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
- kernel in SLES
- "SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 Now Available". https://www.suse.com/company/press/2014/10/suse-linux-enterprise-12-now-available.html.
- "Release Notes | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP4". https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/12-SP4/.
- "Release Notes | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP5". https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/12-SP5/.
- "Release Notes | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP1". https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/15-SP1/.
- "Release Notes | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP2". https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/15-SP2/.
- Eckert, Jason (2007). SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration (Course 3037). pp. 760. ISBN 978-1-4188-3731-0.
- Eckert, Jason (March 2006). Advanced SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration (Course 3038). pp. 432. ISBN 978-1-4188-3732-7.
- Eckert, Jason (2007). SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Security. Course Technology. ISBN 978-1-4283-2223-3.
- Kuo, Peter; Jacques Beland (2005). SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 Administrator's Handbook. Novell Press. ISBN 978-0-672-32735-3.
- van Vugt, Sander (2006). The Definitive Guide to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Apress. ISBN 978-1-59059-708-8.
- Harris, Jeffrey; Mike Latimer (2005). Novell Open Enterprise Server Administrator's Handbook, SUSE LINUX Edition. Novell Press. ISBN 978-0-672-32749-0.
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server product page
- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Cool Solutions – tips & tricks, guides, tools and other resources submitted by the SUSE Linux Enterprise community