Astronomy:Large Magellanic Cloud

From HandWiki
Short description: Magellanic spiral galaxy that is a satellite of the Milky Way in the constellation Dorado
Large Magellanic Cloud
Eso1021d.jpg
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationDorado/Mensa
Right ascension 05h 23m 34.5s[1]
Declination−69° 45′ 22″[1]
Distance163.0 kly (49.97 kpc)[2]
Apparent magnitude (V)0.9[1]
Characteristics
TypeSB(s)m[1]
Mass1010[3] M
Size14,000 ly in diameter
(~4.3 kpc)[3]
Apparent size (V)10.75° × 9.17°[1]
Other designations
LMC, ESO 56- G 115, PGC 17223,[1] Nubecula Major[4]
Constellation of Dorado: the LMC is the green circle at the south (bottom) of picture

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), or Nubecula Major is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way.[5] At a distance of around 50 kiloparsecs (≈160,000 light-years),[2][6][7][8] the LMC is the second- or third-closest galaxy to the Milky Way, after the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal (~16 kpc) and the possible dwarf irregular galaxy known as the Canis Major Overdensity. Based on readily visible stars and a mass of approximately 10 billion solar masses, the diameter of the LMC is about 14,000 light-years (4.3 kpc). It is roughly a hundredth as massive as the Milky Way[3] and is the fourth-largest galaxy in the Local Group, after the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), the Milky Way and the Triangulum Galaxy (M33).

The LMC is classified as a Magellanic spiral.[9] It contains a stellar bar that is geometrically off center, suggesting that it was a barred dwarf spiral galaxy before its spiral arms were disrupted, likely by tidal interactions from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Milky Way's gravity.[10]

With a declination of about −70°, the LMC is visible as a faint "cloud" from the southern hemisphere of the Earth and from as far north as 20° N. It straddles the constellations Dorado and Mensa and has an apparent length of about 10° to the naked eye, 20 times the Moon's diameter, from dark sites away from light pollution.[11]

The Milky Way and the LMC are predicted to merge in approximately 2.4 billion years.[12]

History of observation

Small part of the Large Magellanic Cloud[13]

Both clouds have been easily visible for southern nighttime observers well back into prehistory. It has been claimed that the first-known written mention of the Large Magellanic Cloud was by the Persian astronomer 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi Shirazi (later known in Europe as "Azophi"), in his Book of Fixed Stars around 964 AD.[14][15] However, this seems to be a misunderstanding of a reference to some stars south of Canopus which he admits he has not seen.[16][17]

The first confirmed recorded observation was in 1503–1504 by Amerigo Vespucci in a letter about his third voyage. He mentioned "three Canopes [sic], two bright and one obscure"; "bright" refers to the two Magellanic Clouds, and "obscure" refers to the Coalsack.[18]

Ferdinand Magellan sighted the LMC on his voyage in 1519 and his writings brought it into common Western knowledge. The galaxy now bears his name.[15] The galaxy and southern end of Dorado are in the current epoch at opposition on about 5 December when thus visible from sunset to sunrise from equatorial points such as Ecuador, the Congos, Uganda, Kenya and Indonesia and for part of the night in nearby months. Below about 28° south the galaxy is always sufficiently above the horizon to be considered properly circumpolar, thus spring and autumn also are seasons of much-of-night visibility, and the height of winter in June nearly coincides with closest proximity to the Sun's apparent position.

Measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope, announced in 2006, suggest the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds may be moving too quickly to be orbiting the Milky Way.[19]

Astronomers discovered a new black hole inside the Large Magellanic Cloud in November 2021 using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile . Astronomers claim its gravity is influenced by a nearby star, which is about five times the mass of our Sun.[20]

Geometry

ESO's VISTA image of the LMC

The Large Magellanic Cloud has a prominent central bar and spiral arm.[21] The central bar seems to be warped so that the east and west ends are nearer the Milky Way than the middle.[22] In 2014, measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope made it possible to determine a rotation period of 250 million years.[23]

The LMC was long considered to be a planar galaxy that could be assumed to lie at a single distance from the Solar System. However, in 1986, Caldwell and Coulson[24] found that field Cepheid variables in the northeast lie closer to the Milky Way than those in the southwest. From 2001 to 2002 this inclined geometry was confirmed by the same means,[25] by core helium-burning red clump stars,[26] and by the tip of the red giant branch.[27] All three papers find an inclination of ~35°, where a face-on galaxy has an inclination of 0°. Further work on the structure of the LMC using the kinematics of carbon stars showed that the LMC's disk is both thick[27] and flared.[28] Regarding the distribution of star clusters in the LMC, Schommer et al.[29] measured velocities for ~80 clusters and found that the LMC's cluster system has kinematics consistent with the clusters moving in a disk-like distribution. These results were confirmed by Grocholski et al.,[30] who calculated distances to a sample of clusters and showed that the cluster system is distributed in the same plane as the field stars.

Distance

Location of the Large Magellanic Cloud with respect to the Milky Way and other satellite galaxies

Distance to the LMC has been calculated using standard candles; Cepheid variables are one of the most popular. These have been shown to have a relationship between their absolute luminosity and the period over which their brightness varies. However the variable of metallicity may also need to be taken as a component of this as consensus is this likely affects their period-luminosity relations. Unfortunately, those in the Milky Way typically used to calibrate the relation are more metal-rich than those found in the LMC.[31]

Modern 8-meter-class optical telescopes have discovered eclipsing binaries throughout the Local Group. Parameters of these systems can be measured without mass or compositional assumptions. The light echoes of supernova 1987A are also geometric measurements, without any stellar models or assumptions.

In 2006, the Cepheid absolute luminosity was re-calibrated using Cepheid variables in the galaxy Messier 106 that cover a range of metallicities.[6] Using this improved calibration, they find an absolute distance modulus of [math]\displaystyle{ (m - M)_0 = 18.41 }[/math], or 48 kpc (160,000 light-years). This distance has been confirmed by other authors.[7][8]

By cross-correlating different measurement methods, one can bound the distance; the residual errors are now less than the estimated size parameters of the LMC.

The results of a study using late-type eclipsing binaries to determine the distance more accurately was published in the scientific journal Nature in March 2013. A distance of 49.97 kpc (163,000 light-years) with an accuracy of 2.2% was obtained.[2]

Features

Two very different glowing gas clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud, NGC 2014 (red) and NGC 2020 (blue)[32]

Like many irregular galaxies, the LMC is rich in gas and dust, and is currently undergoing vigorous star formation activity.[33] It holds the Tarantula Nebula, the most active star-forming region in the Local Group.

NGC 1783 is one of the biggest globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud[34]

The LMC has a wide range of galactic objects and phenomena that make it known as an "astronomical treasure-house, a great celestial laboratory for the study of the growth and evolution of the stars", per Robert Burnham Jr.[35] Surveys of the galaxy have found roughly 60 globular clusters, 400 planetary nebulae and 700 open clusters, along with hundreds of thousands of giant and supergiant stars.[36] Supernova 1987A—the nearest supernova in recent years—was in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Lionel-Murphy SNR (N86) nitrogen-abundant supernova remnant was named by astronomers at the Australian National University's Mount Stromlo Observatory, acknowledging Australian High Court Justice Lionel Murphy's interest in science and its perceived resemblance to his large nose.[37]

A bridge of gas connects the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with the LMC, which evinces tidal interaction between the galaxies.[38] The Magellanic Clouds have a common envelope of neutral hydrogen, indicating that they have been gravitationally bound for a long time. This bridge of gas is a star-forming site.[39]

X-ray sources

Small and Large Magellanic Clouds over Paranal Observatory

No X-rays above background were detected from either cloud during the September 20, 1966, Nike-Tomahawk rocket flight nor that of two days later.[40] The second took off from Johnston Atoll at 17:13 UTC and reached an apogee of 160 km (99 mi), with spin-stabilization at 5.6 rps.[41] The LMC was not detected in the X-ray range 8–80 keV.[41]

Another was launched from same atoll at 11:32 UTC on October 29, 1968, to scan the LMC for X-rays.[42] The first discrete X-ray source in Dorado was at RA  05h 20m Dec −69°,[42][43] and it was the Large Magellanic Cloud.[44] This X-ray source extended over about 12° and is consistent with the Cloud. Its emission rate between 1.5–10.5 keV for a distance of 50 kpc is 4 x 1038 ergs/s.[42] An X-ray astronomy instrument was carried aboard a Thor missile launched from the same atoll on September 24, 1970, at 12:54 UTC and altitudes above 300 km (190 mi), to search for the Small Magellanic Cloud and to extend observation of the LMC.[45] The source in the LMC appeared extended and contained star ε Dor. The X-ray luminosity (Lx) over the range 1.5–12 keV was 6 × 1031 W (6 × 1038 erg/s).[45]

DEM L316A is located some 160,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud[46]

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) appears in the constellations Mensa and Dorado. LMC X-1 (the first X-ray source in the LMC) is at RA  05h 40m 05s Dec −69° 45′ 51″, and is a high-mass X-ray binary (star system) source (HMXB).[47] Of the first five luminous LMC X-ray binaries: LMC X-1, X-2, X-3, X-4 and A 0538–66 (detected by Ariel 5 at A 0538–66), LMC X-2 is the one that is a bright low-mass X-ray binary system (LMXB) in the LMC.[48]

DEM L316 in the Cloud consists of two supernova remnants.[49] Chandra X-ray spectra show that the hot gas shell on the upper left has an abundance of iron. This implies that the upper-left SNR is the product of a Type Ia supernova; much lower such abundance in the lower remnant belies a Type II supernova.[49]

A 16 ms X-ray pulsar is associated with SNR 0538-69.1.[50] SNR 0540-697 was resolved using ROSAT.[51]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for Large Magellanic Cloud. http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Pietrzyński, G et al. (7 March 2013). "An eclipsing-binary distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud accurate to two per cent". Nature 495 (7439): 76–79. doi:10.1038/nature11878. PMID 23467166. Bibcode2013Natur.495...76P. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Magellanic Cloud". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 Aug. 2009.
  4. Buscombe, William (1954). "Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets, The Magellanic Clouds". Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets 7 (302): 9. Bibcode1954ASPL....7....9B. 
  5. Shattow, Genevieve; Loeb, Abraham (2009). "Implications of recent measurements of the Milky Way rotation for the orbit of the Large Magellanic Cloud". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters 392 (1): L21–L25. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00573.x. Bibcode2009MNRAS.392L..21S. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Macri, L. M. (2006). "A New Cepheid Distance to the Maser-Host Galaxy NGC 4258 and Its Implications for the Hubble Constant". The Astrophysical Journal 652 (2): 1133–1149. doi:10.1086/508530. Bibcode2006ApJ...652.1133M. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F. (2010). "The Hubble Constant". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 48: 673–710. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-082708-101829. Bibcode2010ARA&A..48..673F. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Majaess, Daniel J.; Turner, David G.; Lane, David J.; Henden, Arne; Krajci, Tom (2010). "Anchoring the Universal Distance Scale via a Wesenheit Template". Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers 39 (1): 122. Bibcode2011JAVSO..39..122M. 
  9. Ryden, Barbara; Peterson, Bradley M. (2009). Foundations of astrophysics. New York: Pearson Addison-Wesley. p. 471. ISBN 9780321595584. 
  10. Besla, Gurtina; Martínez-Delgado, David; Marel, Roeland P. van der; Beletsky, Yuri; Seibert, Mark; Schlafly, Edward F.; Grebel, Eva K.; Neyer, Fabian (2016). "Low Surface Brightness Imaging of the Magellanic System: Imprints of Tidal Interactions between the Clouds in the Stellar Periphery" (in en). The Astrophysical Journal 825 (1): 20. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/825/1/20. ISSN 0004-637X. Bibcode2016ApJ...825...20B. 
  11. "Large Magellanic Cloud: spectacular from Earth's southern hemisphere | Clusters Nebulae Galaxies". EarthSky. http://earthsky.org/clusters-nebulae-galaxies/the-large-magellanic-cloud. 
  12. McAlpine, Stuart; Frenk, Carlos S.; Deason, Alis J.; Cautun, Marius (2019-02-21). "The aftermath of the Great Collision between our Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud" (in en). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 483 (2): 2185–2196. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3084. ISSN 0035-8711. Bibcode2019MNRAS.483.2185C. 
  13. "Cloaked in red". ESA / HUBBLE. http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1408a/. 
  14. "Observatoire de Paris (Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi)". http://messier.obspm.fr/xtra/Bios/alsufi.html. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Observatoire de Paris (LMC)". http://messier.obspm.fr/xtra/ngc/lmc.html. 
  16. Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, Richard; Orchiston, Wayne, (January 1, 2011),Abdul-Rahman al-Sufi and his Book of the Fixed Stars, pp. 121–138, ISBN:9781441981615, retrieved November 13, 2019
  17. Ridpath, Ian. Star Tales – al-Sufi's nebulae. Online edition. http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/alsufi.html#nebulae. Retrieved 2021-09-15. 
  18. "Observatoire de Paris (Amerigo Vespucci)". http://messier.obspm.fr/xtra/Bios/vespucci.html. 
  19. "Press release: Magellanic Clouds May Be Just Passing Through". Harvard University. January 9, 2007. https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/2007-02. 
  20. Ashley Strickland. "Hidden black hole discovered in our neighboring galaxy". https://www.cnn.com/2021/11/11/world/black-hole-star-cluster-scn/index.html. 
  21. Nicolson, Iain (1999). Unfolding our Universe. United States: Cambridge University Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 0-521-59270-4. https://archive.org/details/unfoldingouruniv00iain. 
  22. Subramaniam, Annapurni (2003-11-03). "Large Magellanic Cloud Bar: Evidence of a Warped Bar". The Astrophysical Journal (United States) 598 (1): L19–L22. doi:10.1086/380556. Bibcode2003ApJ...598L..19S. 
  23. "Precisely determined rotation rate of this galaxy will blow your mind". Science Recorder. http://www.sciencerecorder.com/news/precisely-determined-rotation-rate-of-this-galaxy-will-blow-your-mind/. 
  24. Caldwell, J. A. R.; Coulson, I. M. (1986). "The geometry and distance of the Magellanic Clouds from Cepheid variables". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 218 (2): 223–246. doi:10.1093/mnras/218.2.223. Bibcode1986MNRAS.218..223C. 
  25. Nikolaev, S. (2004). "Geometry of the Large Magellanic Cloud Disk: Results from MACHO and the Two Micron All Sky Survey". The Astrophysical Journal 601 (1): 260–276. doi:10.1086/380439. Bibcode2004ApJ...601..260N. 
  26. Olsen, K. A. G.; Salyk, C. (2002). "A Warp in the Large Magellanic Cloud Disk?". The Astronomical Journal 124 (4): 2045–2053. doi:10.1086/342739. Bibcode2002AJ....124.2045O. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 van der Marel, R. P.; Cioni, M.-R. L. (2001). "Magellanic Cloud Structure from Near-Infrared Surveys. I. The Viewing Angles of the Large Magellanic Cloud". The Astronomical Journal 122 (4): 1807–1826. doi:10.1086/323099. Bibcode2001AJ....122.1807V. 
  28. Alves, D. R.; Nelson, C. A. (2000). "The Rotation Curve of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Implications for Microlensing". The Astrophysical Journal 542 (2): 789–803. doi:10.1086/317023. Bibcode2000ApJ...542..789A. 
  29. Schommer, R. A. (1992). "Spectroscopy of giants in LMC clusters. II – Kinematics of the cluster sample". The Astronomical Journal 103: 447–459. doi:10.1086/116074. Bibcode1992AJ....103..447S. 
  30. Grocholski, A. J. (2007). "Distances to Populous Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud via the K-band Luminosity of the Red Clump". The Astronomical Journal 134 (2): 680–693. doi:10.1086/519735. Bibcode2007AJ....134..680G. 
  31. Mottini, M.; Romaniello, M.; Primas, F.; Bono, G.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; François, P. (2006). "The chemical composition of Cepheids in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds". MmSAI 77: 156–159. Bibcode2006MmSAI..77..156M. 
  32. "The Odd Couple". ESO Press Release. http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1335/. 
  33. Arny, Thomas T. (2000). Explorations: An Introduction to Astronomy (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. p. 479. ISBN 0-07-228249-5. 
  34. "A youthful cluster". ESA/Hubble Picture of the Week. http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1534a/. 
  35. Burnham, Robert Jr. (1978). Burnham's Celestial Handbook: Volume Two. New York: Dover. p. 837. ISBN 0-486-23567-X. 
  36. Burnham (1978), 840–848.
  37. Dopita, M. A.; Mathewson, D. S.; Ford, V. L. (1977). "Optical emission from shock waves. III. Abundances in supernova remnants". The Astrophysical Journal 214: 179. doi:10.1086/155242. ISSN 0004-637X. Bibcode1977ApJ...214..179D. 
  38. Mathewson D. S., Ford V. L. (1984). S. van den Bergh. ed. "Structure and Evolution of the Magellanic Clouds". IAU Symposium (Reidel, Dordrecht) 108: 125. 
  39. Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Meynadier, F.; Charmandaris, V.; Deharveng, L.; Le Bertre, Th.; Rosa, M. R.; Schaerer, D. (2003). "The stellar environment of SMC N81". Astronomy and Astrophysics 411 (3): 427–435. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031360. Bibcode2003A&A...411..427H. 
  40. Chodil, G; Mark, Hans; Rodrigues, R; Seward, F. D; Swift, C. D (Oct 1967). "X-Ray Intensities and Spectra from Several Cosmic Sources". The Astrophysical Journal 150 (10): 57–65. doi:10.1086/149312. Bibcode1967ApJ...150...57C. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Seward, F. D; Toor, A (Nov 1967). "Search for 8–80 KEV X-Rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Crab Nebula". The Astrophysical Journal 150 (11): 405–12. doi:10.1086/149343. Bibcode1967ApJ...150..405S. 
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Mark, Hans; Price, R; Rodrigues, R; Seward, F. D; Swift, C. D (Mar 1969). "Detection of X-rays from the large magellanic cloud". Astrophysical Journal Letters 155 (3): L143–4. doi:10.1086/180322. Bibcode1969ApJ...155L.143M. 
  43. Lewin, W. H. G; Clark, G. W; Smith, W. B (1968). "Search for X-rays from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds". Nature 220 (5164): 249–250. doi:10.1038/220249b0. Bibcode1968Natur.220..249L. 
  44. Dolan JF (Apr 1970). "A Catalogue of Discrete Celestial X-Ray Sources". The Astronomical Journal 75 (4): 223–30. doi:10.1086/110966. Bibcode1970AJ.....75..223D. 
  45. 45.0 45.1 Price, R. E; Groves, D. J; Rodrigues, R. M; Seward, F. D; Swift, C. D; Toor, A (Aug 1971). "X-Rays from the Magellanic Clouds". The Astrophysical Journal 168 (8): L7–9. doi:10.1086/180773. Bibcode1971ApJ...168L...7P. 
  46. "A long-dead star". http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1630a/. 
  47. Rapley, Tuohy (1974). "X-Ray Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud by the Copernicus Satellite". Astrophysical Journal 191: L113. doi:10.1086/181564. Bibcode1974ApJ...191L.113R. 
  48. Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Motch, C.; Beuermann, K.; Pakull, M.; Parmar, A. N.; Van Der Klis, M. (Apr 1989). "LMC X-2: an extragalactic bulge-type source". Astronomy and Astrophysics 213 (1–2): 97–106. Bibcode1989A&A...213...97B. 
  49. 49.0 49.1 Williams, R. M; Chu, Y.‐H (Dec 2005). "Supernova Remnants in the Magellanic Clouds. VI. The DEM L316 Supernova Remnants". The Astrophysical Journal 635 (2): 1077–86. doi:10.1086/497681. Bibcode2005ApJ...635.1077W. 
  50. Marshall, F. E.; Gotthelf, E. V; Zhang, W.; Middleditch, J.; Wang, Q. D. (1998). "Discovery of an Ultrafast X-Ray Pulsar in the Supernova Remnant N157B". The Astrophysical Journal 499 (2): L179–L182. doi:10.1086/311381. ISSN 0004-637X. Bibcode1998ApJ...499L.179M. 
  51. Chu, Y.-H.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Snowden, S. L.; Smith, R. C.; Williams, R. M.; Bomans, D. J. (1997). "Uncovering a Supernova Remnant Hidden Near LMCX-1". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 109: 554. doi:10.1086/133913. ISSN 0004-6280. Bibcode1997PASP..109..554C. 
  52. "Dark Energy Camera Snaps Deepest Photo yet of Galactic Siblings". https://noirlab.edu/public/news/noirlab2030/. 

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 05h 23m 34.5s, −69° 45′ 22″